PY 370 Exam 3 Study Guide
PY 370 Exam 3 Study Guide PY 370
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Sunday April 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Sheila Black in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 220 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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PY 370 Exam 3 Chapter 9 Darwin Galton Cattell Iames and Hall 1 Darwin s theory of evolution in uences psychology 2 Psychologists focused on issues such as the usefulness of psychological functions 3 Galton a Darwin s cousin b Interest in individual differences measured through psychological testing c Psychological testing their ability to respond to stimuli etc d Sexist Views i Wrongly assumed that men were more sensitive to perceptual stimuli including taste coffee e Individual differences in imagery i Experts often produced vivid mental images while performing memory chess boards ii Association tests iii Galton s own performance f Tested over 7000 people g Interest in Cognition i Galton studied ways to improve memory 1 Creating associations 2 Imagery to improve memory h Galton in uenced experimental psychologists wanted empirical objected data i Believed that abilities were inherited and normally distributed bell curve i Most people on memory intelligence etc would be middle of bell curve 68 of people ii Few people are at tail ends j Average Joe i Galton developed the concept of the average manquot and central tendencies ii Pointed out that with statistics behavioral scientists could make predictions about a population 1 Predictions about individuals awed k Famous for Eugenics i He wanted to use Eugenics to improve the human race ii He wanted individuals of the elite class to marry each other to improve nation s gene pool iii He founded Eugenics society iv Eugenics associated with autrocities V Eugenics used to justify discrimination and even genocide Hereditary Genius in families Galton s elite families showed disproportionate concentration of eminence Galton argued for definitive prof that individuals inherit superior abilities Twins i If identical twins were more similar than fraternal twins then their genes would matter more ii People became interested in the role of heredity in determining psychological characteristics iii Minnesota Twin Study iv Psychometric tests included tests of intelligence attention mental health and artistic ability etc v There were also tests measuring physical health vi Differences have to be heredity vii The study did find that identical twins were remarkably similar even when they had been separated at birth Galton and Human Faculties 1 Iames McKeen Cattell r39r39worhrn 9962 d Mentored by Wundt In uenced by Galton Studied memory had students rank stimuli He was a eugenicist encouraged the so called quotelitequot to have large families For faculty governance Showed distain for University Administration Opposed war and supported son whens on arrested Dismissed fired from University Received compensation but never reinstated He was the person established journal Psychological Reviewquot he found it because he was upset with another journal Bought the rights to quotSciencequot Experimented with drugs 2 William Iames a b America s Psychologist Suffered from depression and psychosomatic illnesses even contemplated suicide Taught himself psychology Taught physiology and psychology at Harvard Principles of Psychology i Very Readable instant success ii Taught Theodore Roosevelt f James and the MindBody Relation i Psychosomatic illnesses ii Pragmatism belief that you should find the course of life that works best for you without hurting anyone else iii Used typology to distinguish the personalities of rationalists from empiricists g James as Psychologist i Defined characteristics of consciousness ii Criticized Wundt and Titchener s introspection h Characteristics of Consciousness i It is personal ii It is everchanging iii It is continuous iv It is selective i IamesLange Theory of Emotion i First you experience the physiological reaction of an experience ii Second Experience emotion occurs iii Walter B Cannon disagreed with Iames theory iv Although Cannon initially said that the type of arousal associated with various emotions is the same there is now evidence that physiological reactions differ as a function of various emotions j Facial Feedback Hypothesis i If you configure your face in a way to express a mood it effects how you feel ii Evidence that mood changes as a function of facial expression iii Physiological cues in uence the way you feel iv Consistent with Iames notion that emotions based on physiological feedback with brain k Habits Iames i Plasticity and the nervous system ii Make nervous system an ally instead of enemy iii If you have a habit it will effect the nervous system and how it reacts neurons become activated 3 Granville Stanley Hall a First research lab earmarked for psychology b Founded American Journal of Psychology c Clark University i Hall became president of Clark University ii University accused of animal cruelty iii While at Clark established Journal of Genetic Psychology iv Instrumental in the founding of the American Psychological Association ASA oreHaw j Hall was most famous for Developmental Psychology i Hall explored the mental life of children ii He proposed the idea that adolescence was a stressful time iii He developed an interest in late adulthood toward the end of his life Hall was a Eugenicist Had racist views Despite his views he did award more PhD s to African Americans than any other psychologist at that time By 1898 3034 psychologists received their PhD s under Hall Famous for arranging for Freud and lung to speak to an American audience Hall had mixed emotions about psychology toward the end of his life 4 Francis Cecil Sumner wpgpgs 5 First African American to receive a PhD in psychology Entered college at 15 graduated magna cum laude 2nd Bachelor Degree in English Hall was supportive of Sumner receiving his PhD He received his PhD in 1920 Sumner established psychology as a separate discipline at Howard University African American psychologists speak out about the importance of considering culture when evaluating tests Canady the importance of building a rapport between the test administrator and testtaker Other psychologists spoke out about considering culture and language when evaluating test results 6 Kenneth and Mamie Clark a Kenneth and Mamie Clark work helped to overturn the doctrine of separate but equalquot b Thurgood Marshall had to show that segregation led to inequality 9 e He argued segregation had a negative impact on selfesteem The Doll Studies i Participants shown dolls varied in skin colors ii What doll do you want to play with White iii What doll is bad Black iv Draw what looks like you Would always dry with lighter skin tone Kenneth Clark testified in 34 cases leading to Supreme Court cases 7 Mary Whiton Calkins a 14th president of APA and 1St woman to hold the office b Earned a PhD under William James but was refused the degree by Harvard Cooperation 8 Margaret Floy Washburn PhD a 1St woman to earn a doctoral degree in American psychology 1894 b University trustees refused to grant her the degree c At the time married woman could not serve as teachers or professors Thus she never married d A prolific researcher Chapter 10 Functionalism at the University of Chicago and Columbia University 1 An American School of Thought a Functionalism the way in which the conscious mind adapts to the environment b John Dewey father of functionalism 2 John Dewey a Moved to the University of Chicago b The Re ex Arc i Problems with structuralism doesn t let you perceive what happens before and after ii Candle ame it is important that what happens before after happens when you touch candle ame You need to look at entire whole experience Not concerned with experiences but why the mind produces certain experiences c The School and Society d Dewey Annoys i Believed the task of education was not to pass on conventional knowledge ii Experimental learning emphasized iii Dewey s school eventually merged with the department of education e Dewey s later years i Dewey was one of the founding members of the first teachers union ii Established and organized American Association of University Professors iii Supported liberal causes ACLU and NAACP 3 Angell a Traveled to Germany and met Hermann von Helmholtz and Ebbinghaus b Dissertation accepted contingent upon being rewritten in better German c Never received PhD d Accepted a position at Univ of Chicago and became president of college 4 Angell and Maze Learning a b Conducted a number of studies that focused on animal memory He was the educational advisor of NBC 5 Woodworth Thorndike and Transfer 9962 Interested in transfer of skill from one task to the next Doctrine of formal discipline Study Latin Greek and classical literature Once the aforementioned disciplines were in shape the skills developed would transfer to other disciplines Found that the amount of transfer occurring was directly proportional to the number of elements shared by the tasks Woodward and Thorndike do not advocate the continuation of formal disciplinethere was no evidence that formal discipline would lead to better math or geography performance 6 Woodworth 9962 Known for his development of psychological tests Eclectic Involved with research investigating imageless thought Adopted some notions of behaviorism but that motivation was also important 7 Thorndike gangs Very shy Brilliant academically Found his psychology class dull but captivated by Iames book He entered Harvard and studied under Iames Thorndike Research i Iames argued that mind reading really the result of mind reader picking up cues from client ii Thorndike investigated this hypothesis with children rewarded them with candy if they could guess what he was thinking it didn t workand schools were suspicious of it Thorndike Animal Research i Started with chickens ii Landlady complained about chickens in the apartment iii Chickens placed in Iames home instead iv Chickens learned to escape their pen v Thorndike attributed their learning to the pleasure accompanying the desired result Thorndike leaves Harvard to go to Columbia i Accepted Cattell s offer of a graduate fellowship at Columbia ii He came to Columbia with 2 trained chickens iii Animals kept in apartment but neighbors and landlord complained iv Thorndike established an animal lab at Columbia h Cats and Training i He used cats in his famous experiments ii Hungry cat placed in box and can only escape if it makes a specific response iii Trial and error iv Responses that are satisfiers strengthen response V Responses that are annoyers weaken response i The Law of Effect i Responses that produce satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situationquot j Cats Didn t Always Learn to Escape i Used crude box for experiments ii The likelihood of cats learning to escape depended upon the required response iii Cats became box wisequot iv Cats developed a mental set k Thorndike Critiqued i Supported Cattell and James ii Thorndike criticized for neglecting the work of previous investigators iii Thorndike had implied facetiously that Comparative Psychologists were insane I Were His Animal Studies Generalizable i Thorndike criticized for examining animal learning in artificial environment ii The animals might have been stressed and therefore unable to learn iii Criticized for his productivity iv Studied Cebus monkeys he kept in NY apartment m Educational Psychology i Interested in individual differences ii He did not believe in general intelligence iii He thought that abilities could vary across various types of intelligence iv He did believe in Eugenics v He did believe in tracking in public school system n Thorndike developed tests for applicants at a Tobacco Corp 0 He conducted survey of cities p Interested in word usage and frequency 8 Woodward Textbook Noted for his famous textbook of psychology In his textbook he used words such as Experimental Methodquot He mentioned IV and DV The distinguished between the experimental method and correlational research 99 crsv Chapter 11 Historical Uses and Abuses of Intelligence Testing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The first IQ test developed in France More children going to school Broca developed first test based on brain size Binet Born in France Very introverted Described as selftaught library psychologist Fascinated by john Stuart Mills and Associationism 9962 Binet and jean Charcot a Binet accepted Charcot s offer to a staff position at La Salpetriere b Binet published 4 articles with Charcot c Charcot s methodology was awed IQ Tests Developed to Meet Needs of Educators a In the latter part of the 19th century it was mandatory for children to attend school How do you educate children with disabilities c Is there an objective way to determine if children truly have disabilities Intellectual Disabilities a Bine was invited to become a member of the Free Society for the Psychological Study of the Child b The society launched a campaign to persuade the French Ministry of Public Instruction to do something about disabled children in the schools c Binet was part of the commission to study the fate of children who have intellectual disabilities d Binet and the commission suggested that students with disabilities be educated in a special class annexed to a regular school Binet and Simon Establish a Credible IQ Test Binet established first psychology journal in France Binet published notions of mental level Didn t believe that test score was he last word on intellectual potential Binet s test transported around the world i Test translated into different languages 9962 ii Translators didn t make sure of the cultural appropriateness of translations 9 Goddard a Ellis Island b After earning PhD Goodard first position was at a teaching college c Later Goodard became director of psychological research at Vineland for feeble minded d Henry H Goodard translated Binet s test into English e In uenced by Mendel f Goodard left Vineland and accepted a position at Ohio State g He studied gifted children there 10 Mendel a Came from modest family and could afford college b Mendel joined order of monks to gain education c He studied at University of Vienna intending to become a school teacher d He failed to qualify as a teacher but failed tests e He ended up studying plants and discovered dominant and recessive genes 11 William Bateson published Mendel s Principle of Heredityquot 12 Ellis Island a Kallikak Family b Investigated family ancestry i One good side fathers side ii One bad side mothers side c Goddard s methodology and conclusions criticized d Goddard was invited to study immigration He ended up reporting that over 80 of immigrants were mentally deficient e Restrictive immigrant quotas were eventually enacted 13 Fear Leads to Drastic Actions a Indiana enacted first sterilization law b In ux of immigrants and fear i For those who were feeble minded undesirable etc 14 Terman a High achiever went from being kindergarten to 3rd grader in 6 months b Revised the SimonBinet test and made it into StanfordBinet Test c Terman studied children with IQ s above 140 d The children learned to read early had accomplished parents and lived in enrich environments i The average age for children in the study was 11 They were not just braniacs who focused on academics nor were they sickly or weird 1St FollowUps i First followup the children were 1718 year olds ii Children still in top 1 of population iii 23 of girls grades and 12 of boys grades were A s 2nd and 3rd followup i At the second followup the average age was 2930 ii 87 men and 83 women entered college and 70 60 respectively finished iii As undergraduate 40 of men and 35 women earned high academic honors Studied Terman Childrenquot in late adulthood i Not a representative group ii Children were successful but they didn t grow up to be Sir Isaac Newton or Einstein 15 Robert Yerkes 18761956 a b Munsterberg encouraged Yerkes to pursue a PhD Developed tests while working as a psychologist at Boston State Psychopathic Hospital Yerkes the president of APA met with the American and Canadian psychologists to determine how psychologists could contribute to the war effort Psychology could develop tests to aid with the selection of the best military troops Beta test and the war i Testing programs expanded rapidly ii 50 psychologists tested 200 men a month during the war iii NRC supported the National Intelligence Test for Children Mental Age i Mental age of white enlisted men was 13 ii Adult mental age was previously 16 iii What happened iv Was feeblemindedness becoming more common in society Goddard s Conclusions about Mental Age i Goddard concluded that the mental age of African Americans was much lower than 13 ii He indicated that there might be a revolution in which the unintelligent take matters into their own hands iii Goddard believed equality to be a myth iv The government and charitable organizations should stop trying to improve the life of the disadvantaged v He blamed the declining intelligencequot on the immigrants 4215 Review 1 Where was functionalism found University of Chicago 2 Dewey went to graduate school at Johns Hopkins and Cattell was a fellow student there 3 What unifying principle did Dewey propose for psychology Re ex Arc 4 Which of the following was not one of Dewey s 4 basic psychological needs of a child Cultivation 5 What was HullHouse Chicago Community Center 6 Dewey s immediate successor at Chicago was Angell 7 What problem prevented Angell from getting a pHd Did not have sufficient command of german language 8 Which school of psychology is most clearly in uenced by Darwin s theory of evolution Functionalism 9 Which Chicago functionalist conducted research in both visual perception and animal consciousness Carr 10 Who of the following is not considered a Chicago functionalist Woodworth 11 Woodworth conducted experiments on transfer of training in order to investigate the legitimacy of formal discipline 12 Who supervised the psychometric testing of nearly 1100 people at the St Louis Exposition of 1904 Woodworth 13 Woodworth stressed that any attempt to measure intelligence must include A consideration of the persons context 14 Psychometric analysis of Babe Ruth at Columbia found his skills to be what Far better than average 15Woodworth s monumental Experimental Psychology took nearly 20 years to write but then became a standard text for nearly 20 years too 16Woodworth s motivational psychology stressed Drives a term which he introduced 17 Thorndike s first independent research project inspired by James was on the topic of mind reading 18 Thorndike s general principle of learning which was developed through his research on animals in puzzle boxes is called the law of effect 19As his career developed Thorndike spent more time in the field of educational psychology 20 According to Morgan s Canon we should not attribute anything to a higher mental faculty hat could instead be attributed to a lower faculty 21 In addition to his psychological research Thorndike complied lusts of used word rated qualities of American cities and developed userfriendly dictionaries all of the above 22 The evolutionary mechanism described by Lamark was based on acquired characteristics the mechanism described by Mendel was based on genetics 23 Which of the following is not a publication from Darwin Inquires into Human Faculty and Development 24 Quetelet s law has to do with what topic The patterns of deviations about a mean 25 In terms of nature and nurture Galton supported nature and Candolle supported nurture 26We have Galton to thank for first proposing the twin study method for assessing the relative contributions of nature and nurture 27What is eugenics The attempt to improve the human condition through selective breeding 28 Galton investigated the effectiveness of prayer 29 How did Columbia react to Cattell s opposition to American involvement in WW1 Cattell was dismissed from Columbia 30Who is most appropriately described as psychology s first publisher promoter and businessman Cattell 31ames philosophy was that of the Pragmatist 32What did Iames describe as personal dynamic and continuous Consciousness 33For Mary Calkins the proper subject matter of psychology was the self 34While at John Hopkins Hall founded the first American psychology lab and the journal American Journals of Psychology 35Freud accepted invitation into US from whom Hall 36 Formal discipline was important because it would help in school So when Woodworth and Thorndike wanted to know if it was trueWhat did they find Transfer of training
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