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FIU / Chemistry / CHM 1046 / What is the equation for mole fraction?

What is the equation for mole fraction?

What is the equation for mole fraction?

Description

School: Florida International University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry II
Professor: Uma swamy
Term: Spring 2015
Tags:
Cost: Free
Name: CHM1046 WEEKS 1 AND 2 NOTES
Description: These notes cover everything learned from Chapter 13 in the textbook and in class split up in sections. It contains examples worked out with their respective answers and also all the homework problems with their worked solutions. Clicker questions and their answers with explanations and side notes (very helpful) are also included. Ps: everything on these notes will be on the exam!
Uploaded: 01/25/2017
8 Pages 363 Views 22 Unlocks
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Chapter 13 If you want to learn more check out wstu 4183 textbook notes

Learnsmart Homework Don't forget about the age old question of What are the tools used by geographers?

Intermolecular ForcesIf you want to learn more check out What body cavity surrounds the lungs?

Eg.                         ionic                  polar        Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between algebraicly and geometricly?

        ↗                       ↗

→ ion-dipole:  in We also discuss several other topics like How do map scales represent actual places?

→ Dipole-induced dipole:  in an aqueous solution

→ Dispersion Forces:  in (Hexane) because hexane contains nonpolar bonds, so they are both nonpolar.Don't forget about the age old question of Name the techniques of integration.

→ Dipole-Dipole: in dimethyl sulfide (a polar solvent)

                       ↳ polar

  • Worked problem: if a solution of glycerol (92.09 g/mol) in ethanol (46.07 g/mol) has a molarity of 2.45 mol/kg. Calculate the mole fraction of glycerol in this solution

If the molarity is 2.45 mol/kg, there are 2.45 mol in 1kg of ethanol

1.00 kg ethanol = =21.7 mol ethanol

Total moles = 2.45 mol glycerol + 21.7 mol ethanol = 24.2 mol

Xglycerol

Molarity (M)

Molarity (m)

Percent by mass

Mole fraction

Carbons and hydrogens = always nonpolar

Chem Clickers

  1. Strongest intermolecular force in dispersion, dipole - dipole(polar), hydrogen bonding.  nonpolar

 Hydrogen bonding (strongest)

  1. Low enthalpy of vaporization ()

                 amount of energy required to evaporate

                 lower = easier to evaporate / less energy

                        (weakest type of intermolecular forces)

HCl (g) polar

   

Hydrochloric acid (aq) pure substance, so in this case it’s hydrogen chloride weak intermolecular force because it's a gas

   

   O connected to the carbon and H to the Oxygen two hydrogen bonds (polar)

Polar, not a perfect geometry

Non polar

Nonpolar. Required the least amount of energy because of the nonpolarity.

  1. When two substances mix, three types of interactions are present. The exothermic process is

Solute-solute (breaking intermolecular forces)endothermic processes

                Solute-solvent

                Solvent-solvent (breaking intermolecular forces) endothermic processes

Polarity of

Tetrahedral Bent        

13.4 Factors That Affect Solubility

Temperature

  • The solubility of most solids in an aqueous solution increases as temperature rises.

Learnsmart

Calculate the freezing point of a solution containing 0.204 mol of ibuprofen in 250g of ethanol.

for ethanol = 1.99℃/kg and Tf = -117.3℃

Tf = -117.3℃ - 1.62℃ = -118.9℃

Osmotic pressure -  pressure required to stop osmosis(selective passage of solvent molecules through a porous membrane from a mole dilute solution to a more concentrated one)

Equation

M = molarity of solution

R = (gas constant R = 0.08206L atm/ k mol)

T = absolute temperature

Osmotic pressure is directly constant to concentration of the solution.

  • A solution is made from dissolving 67.7g of (60.06 g/mol) in 833g of (119.36 g/mol). Calculate the boiling point of the solution if for oC and the normal boiling point for the solvent is 61.2oC.

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