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slhs 1150

slhs 1150

Description

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Biology
Course: Introduction to Communication Disorders
Professor: Jacqueline difrancesco
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Cost: Free
Name: SLHS 1150 Week 1 Notes
Description: Week 1notes of SLHS 1150 Spring Semester.
Uploaded: 01/25/2017
5 Pages 89 Views 7 Unlocks
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SLHS 1150 Week 1 Notes 1/18/17 Unit One: Intro Topics in Communication  Lecture 1: Communication • Communication: The sharing of information between two people. There are  two main players in communication: The sender and receiver  Model of communication: Sender -Formulation      -Transmission Shared Modality              -Speech -Sign -Writing Receiver -Comprehension*Both the receiver and sender give feedback* • Modality is the manner or method by which information is transmitted or  received Examples: speech, sign language, reading and writing, gestures,  pictures/drawings, electronic communication  • Linguistic feedback: “I agree” “I don’t understand”  • Paralinguistic Feedback: eye contact, facial expression, posture,  manipulating linguistic feedback with changes in pitch/loudness/pausing • Feedback is used to prevent a communication breakdown  Process of Typical Communication: Formulation:  Coordinating a  message  (language)  Transmission:  Conveying a  message  (speech)  Reception:  Recieving a  message  (hearing)  Comprehension:  Making sense of  a message  (language)  Tools we use to communicate:  • Speech: The neuromuscular process by which we turn language into a sound  signal that is transmitted through the air (Physical process) • Language: The cognitive process by which we formulate ideas and thoughts  • Hearing: The perception of sound (Happens in the brain) *Class Example of Modality: sign language with cats: a way to communicate  Sender (woman) -> Modality (sign) -> Receiver (cats) -> Feedback (they communicate back by doing what the woman asks) 1/20/17 Unit One: Intro Topics in Communication  Lecture 2: Speech & Language Language: • Language: A socially shared code that uses a conventional system of  symbols, including words and sounds, to represent ideas about the world to  others.  Language Definition Breakdown:  • Socially shared: The system is shared by a community  • Code: Ideas are translated into symbols. The symbols used in a language are  words  • Conventional System: It is governed by rules. Rules tell us how we can  combine sounds to form a word or combine words to form a proper  sentence  • Language is a tool for communication, however it also allows the brain to do  more such as plan, reason, and hypothesize  How Language Works:  • Three Domains of Language: • Content: meaning of words • Form: How sounds, words, and sentences are arranged to convey context  • Use: How language is used functionally to meet personal and social needs5 Components of Language: Content -> Semantics Form -> Syntax, Morphology, and Phonology Use -> Pragmatics Rules of Language: • Semantics: literal meaning of phrases and sentences • Syntax: organization of phrases and sentences • Morphology: organization of words • Phonology: organization of phonemes within words  • Pragmatics: social use of language What is Speech? • Speech: The physical transmission of language through sounds. The  neuromuscular process that allows humans to express language as a vocal  product. • Involves 3 muscular systems: • Respiration • Phonation • Articulation Building blocks of effective speech • Breathstrem: consistent and even exhalation • Voice: appropriate loudness and pitch • Articulation: precise phoneme production • Fluency: effortless and smooth speech The Difference Between speech and language: • Speech is an act of communicating language with verbal means: words  formed by coordination of lips, vocal cords, tongue, and more  • Language is a system of communication defined by rules shared between  two people • Language is either Receptive, what you receive/understand, or Expressive,  how we make out our wants and needs (express the wants/needs). Includes  the Rules of Language • Speech (Sounds) Include: Breath, Voice, Articulation, Fluency Process of Typical Communication (updated): Formulation:  Coordinating a  message  (language)  (Expressive)  What Is Hearing? Transmission:  Conveying a  message  (speech)  Reception:  Recieving a  message  (hearing)  Comprehension:  Making sense of  a message  (language)   (Recptive) • Hearing is the perception of sound. In the communication process, this  includes the perception of speech Steps involved in sounds processing • Creation of sound by a source • Vibration of air particles • Reception by ear • Comprehension by brain  What Is Sound? • Sound is the vibration of particles, usually air, and the perception of changes  in air pressure Physical Property Perception Measurement Frequency Pitch (Perception of  frequency) Hertz (cycles per second) Intensity Loudness   Decibels


What is a communication Difference?




What is a communication disorder?




What does the brain do with sound?



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What does the brain do with sound? The Brain has 4 auditory skills: • Detection (realizing there’s a sound) • Discrimination (discrimination between different sounds • Identification (Determining what you heard) • Comprehension (Assigning a meaning to what you are hearing/  understanding) • Speech Perception: The auditory process of human speech Cognition in Communication • Cognition: The activities of thinking, understanding, learning and  remembering  • Cognitive-communication skills: • Attention • Memory • Reasoning • Executive Functions • Problem-Solving What is a communication disorder? • A significant difficulty in the ability to formulate, transmit, receive, or  comprehend a message, when both the parties share the same language,  dialect, and culture What is a communication Difference? • A variation of speech that is shared by a group of individuals within a  particular region or culture Communication Disorders: • The fundamental elements of communication: Speech, language, hearing • Needed for functional communication: Cognition (learning, memory,  perception) • Related to communication: Swallowing
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