Europe and Migration 20th Century
Week Two Notes
• 1890-1914: international labor force, a lot of immigration to the East and emigration from Western Europe
o massive urbanization
• New industries drove economic growth and urbanization
o Growing capitalism led to rising inequalities
o Industrialization changed how and where people worked
▪ Worked in factories
o Widespread rural to urban migration
o Cities had disease ridden slums
o Forced migration- Slave trade
o Economic classes were segregated by where they live.
▪ West end- wealthy
Don't forget about the age old question of What is meant by dermatology?
▪ East end- poor
• Few restrictions anywhere until 1914
o Examples of exceptions
▪ 1905, Britain restricted the entry of Jews
▪ Poles restricted from entering German Empire
▪ Russian Empire internal passport system
❖ This was done to control population growth, needed passport to travel through Russia, did not issue passports to peasants so during droughts and famine peasants died, it was also used to control political opponents. We also discuss several other topics like When must one use the regression approach?
o But most viewed immigrants as a positive force in economy
• WW1 signals increasing state regulation or sponsoring of migration o Migrations abroad nearly ceased in 1914
o Some foreign workers forced to stay to contribute to war labor force o Some foreign workers recruited from other areas of Europe, colonial workers conscripted Don't forget about the age old question of What accounts for he difference between density and volume?
• Armistice in 1919
o Refugees from Russian Civil War
▪ In 1917 there was a communist revolution
o Set off a refugee crisis
o France employed foreign labor more than any other European country in the 1920’s
• European Origins of Great Depression
o Austria/Germany borrow money from US to pay war debts to France and England ❖ Austria and Germany lost the war and are forced to pay for the war which led to hyperinflation
o EX- July 1922: 1 dollar = 620 marks We also discuss several other topics like Is correlation the same as causality?
o EX- November 1923: 4,210,500,000,000 marks
o Kids played with the money by building forts
o Some people burned the money to keep themselves warm. If you want to learn more check out What is agrarian america?
o France, England pay debts owed to US for WW1
o System dependent on flow of cash from US Don't forget about the age old question of Why are some countries democratic?
o Investors begin to pull out in 1928
▪ They pull out in 1928 because of the boom/bust. The economy was booming but the bust came after
▪ This allowed Hitler to come to power
• Worldwide economic depression in the 1930’s
o Immigration heavily restricted
o Victims of persecution tried to emigrate: Jews, political, ethnic minorities within some countries
▪ Faced heavy barriers
o People with disabilities, homosexuals and gypsies were all persecuted and sometimes killed.