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GSU / Biology / BIOL 1104 / What is the meaning of bulk flow in biology?

What is the meaning of bulk flow in biology?

What is the meaning of bulk flow in biology?


School: Georgia State University
Department: Biology
Course: Introductory Biology II
Professor: Rebecca chapman
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: BIOL1104K, Biology, GSU, and biologyii
Cost: 25
Name: BIOL1104K Week #2 Lecture Notes
Description: Here are the lecture notes for week #2. :0)
Uploaded: 01/26/2017
4 Pages 88 Views 1 Unlocks

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Molecular Movement: We also discuss several other topics like Why did the us intervene in the cold war?

(1) Bulk Flow blood flow; air into lungs 

  • Driving force is pressure gradient or change
  • (pressure gradient)

* inversely related to resistanceDon't forget about the age old question of What makes an issue an ethical issue?

where flow is directly proportional to pressure change and inversely proportional to

resistance. Good for mailing molecules long distances

(2) Diffusion = gas exchange at alveoli movement of molecules due to random molecular motion, Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between assigned and emergent leadership?
If you want to learn more check out How these molecules (protein) influence?

    (surface area to volume) (structure or function)

  • Driving force is concentration gradient
  • Good for moving molecules short distances
  •                 higher concentration to lower concentration

*rate of flux goes down as distance ↑* Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of deceptive practices?

(3) Mediated Transport - larger, polar molecules: glucose, amino acids, properties of ligand binding → specificity, affinity, saturation, competition Don't forget about the age old question of What was the first hominid to move out of africa?

*molecules that cannot pass the cell membrane regularly. They require assistance for

 travel in or out of the cell

(A) Facilitated Diffusion:

Ex. → Glucose transport (alongside concentration gradient)

same affinity of carrier sites on both sides of membrane, therefore, no directionality and

movement is due to concentration gradient. 

*cannot move against concentration gradient

(B) Active Transport: 

Ex. → Na+ / K+ pump

Drectional, only goes one way

*Requires expenditure of metabolic E (ATP)

*can move molecules, against concentration gradients.

ECF                         →                 ICF

Na+                144mM                ←                15mM (moved out of the cell)

K+                4mM        -(pumped into the cell )→        150mM

Amino acids        2-20 times higher in ICF


  • Small and relatively large mpm-polar, lipid molecules diffuse through lipid membranes
  • Small polar molecules and ions may diffuse through pores.
  • Small and relatively large polar molecules cross via carrier mediated transport.

→ some molecules cross by more than (1) method

Simple Diff.

Fcc. Diff

Act. Transport

Conc gradient


Saturation ligand receptor


Competition ligand receptor


Specificity ligand receptor


En expenditure



(4) Endo and Exocytosis (vesicles)

        Large molecules, polar molecules, bacteria (do not cross membrane)

        Endocytosis = pinocytosis and phagocytosis

        Exocytosis = release of molecules synthesized by cell (requires increase, Ca++)

Body Fluid Compartments:

  • Water = 60% body weight
  • ECF = body’s internal environment

(⅓ total H2O)

        (1) plasma

        (2) interstitial fluid (directly bathing the cell)

  • ICF = cell’s internal environment

(⅔ total H2O)

Homeostasis: every aspect of the ECF must be strictly regulated.

        → Physiological mechanisms function to maintain stable internal environment:

        Volume and composition of ECF

        (pH,[O2],[CO2],[K+],[glucose],volume, etc..)


→ most membranes permeable to water

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