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UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT LAFAYETTE / Engineering / GEOL 106 / What are the two ways to measure time?

What are the two ways to measure time?

What are the two ways to measure time?

Description

School: University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Department: Engineering
Course: Earth History
Professor: Carl richter
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Geology, EARTH, history, man, rocks, Dinosaurs, and time
Cost: 25
Name: Notes from Class on 1/24
Description: These are the notes from what we went over on Tuesday. If there are any questions concerning the legibility of my notes, please email me at lvl9835@louisiana.edu
Uploaded: 01/26/2017
3 Pages 88 Views 9 Unlocks
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2 ways to measure time: relative and absolute dating (radiometric dating) Don't forget about the age old question of What are some of the major geologic resources of alabama?

Principle of faunal succession  

  • Life has changed through time
  • Fossil assemblages are recognizably different from one another as
  • Relative ages can be determined based on fossil content

We also discuss several other topics like Where would you expect to find the largest crystals in lava flow?

Geological, or stratigraphic Ranges.

unconformities: non deposited or erosion

Ka - thousand years         Ma - Million years. If you want to learn more check out What is distress?

Ga - Billion years         Ta - Trillion years

Rock records are not always continuous due to erosion/weathering and then re-deposition.

Don't forget about the age old question of What is an element?

Unconformities 

  • Disconformity - Gap in the rock record between 2 parallel layers of sedimentary rock
  • known by missing fossils in order found around other rock layers nearby.
  • Angular Unconformity - erosional surface on tilted or folded strata over which younger strata are deposited
  • Nonconformity - erosional surface cut into igneous or metamorphic rocks, overlain by sediments 

If you want to learn more check out Who proposed scala naturae?

Unconformities represent: enormous amounts of time without sediment.

Correlation of rock units = how geologists put together the time scale.

  • Stratigraphic correlation
  • tracking rock units of the same age to different areas
  • use surface correlation, well logs (fools lowered into holes that are used in geologic cases), fossils, etc
  • key beds (coal, ash)
  • index fossils

  • Index fossils
  • easy to identify - short lived
  • Subsurface correlation when there is not much geology above ground.

Use of logging tool-sensors underground Don't forget about the age old question of If the earth were moved to half its current distance from the sun how would the force of gravity be the sun on the earth change?

What are absolute dating methods?

Henri Bacquerel - discovered radioactivity

Ernest Rutherford - discovered half-like and age dating rocks.

Radioactive Decay.

A. Alpha Particle Emission

  • loose a He nucleus town

B. Electron Capture

  • gain an e- 

C. Beta Particle Emission - lost an e- 

Radiometric dating

  • unstable radioactive elements or isotopes
  • (“parents") change over time into stable products (“daughters").

Parent → daughter

  • Half-life time: for ½  of parent to change to daughter
  • Half-life is unique and constant

Time:

  • <1 billionth of a second to 49 billion years
  • Decay rates are independent of any outside influence (pressure, temperature) and will happen no matter what and where.

Mass spectrometer - determination of the isotopic abundances required for radiometric dating .

Heary isotopes will be less deflected by magnetic fields than light isotopes.

What can be dated?

  • Igneous rocks
  • Magma cools
  • radioactive isotopes build into minerals

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