Welcome to Bio 111 Principles of Biology 1 How are we going to learn? ∙ Actively engaged in learning ∙ Working in collaborative groups, AND individually ∙ Using the same practices scientists use to create and communicate scientific knowledge Bloom’s Taxonomy: A Nested Hierarchy
Synthesis & Evaluation
Question: Why doesn’t the flashlight work?
Chapter 1: What is a living thing?
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How are we going to learn?
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Chapter 1: What is a living thing? Learning Objectives: ∙ Know the characteristics of life ∙ Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biological organization and be able to place objects in the proper levels Characteristics of Life: 1. Order a. Highly ordered structures 2. Evolutionary Adaptation a. Evolve over many generations by reproductive success of those best suited to environment 3. Respond to stimuli a. Modify behavior based on what is occurring in the environment 4. Reproduce a. Reproduce their own kind 5. Grow and develop a. Genes regulate pattern of 6. Energy processing a. Chemical energy from nutrients to power cellular work 7. Regulation a. Maintain internal and external body conditions Life can be studied at different levels, from the entire living planet down to molecules This enormous range can be divided into different levels of biological organizationFigure 1.3: 1. The Biosphere a. Consists of all life on earth and all regions where life can exist 2. Ecosystems a. All living and nonliving things in a particular area i. Forest ii. Coral Reef iii. Desert iv. Mountain Range 3. Communities a. The diverse organisms that inhabit an ecosystem i. ONLY living things 4. Populations a. All the individuals of a species in a defined area 5. Organisms a. Individual living things 6. Organs and Organ System a. Body parts that carry out a key function in the body; organs that cooperate are organized into systems 7. Tissues a. Groups of cells that work together to perform a specialized function 8. Cells a. Fundamental unit of structure and function 9. Organelles a. Fundamental components of cells 10. Molecules a. Chemical structure made up of 2 or more atoms Life is classified into one of 3 domains 1. Domain Bacteria a. Small single celled prokaryotes b. Most lack organelles c. A LOT smaller than eukaryas 2. Domain Archaea a. Small single celled prokaryotes b. Most lack organelles c. A LOT smaller than eukaryas 3. Domain Eukarya a. Kingdom Plantae b. Kingdom Fungi c. Kingdom Animalia d. Protists i. Hodge podge category, don’t fit elsewhere e. Have nucleus and organellesf. Most multicellular Check the genes now, just because two things LOOK similar doesn’t mean they are The 3 Domains
New discoveries and species named after famous people to try and drum up attention to discovery based science Figure 1.23: The process of science: a more realistic model
Scientific Method: Framework of ordered steps to conduct a scientific investigation 1. Make an observation 2. Form a hypothesis 3. Perform the experiment 4. Analyze the data 5. Report your findings 6. Investigate others to reproduce the results Viruses the fastest mutating thing Viruses: ∙ Order∙ Evolutionary Adaption ∙ Respond to stimuli ∙ Reproduction: one virus can make more viruses, but needs a host (gray box) Hypothesis: tentative answer to a wellframed scientific question ∙ Usually a rational accounting for a set of observations ∙ Testable statement ∙ Repeatable by others ∙ Consistent with known facts ∙ Falsifiable o Supernatural and religious explanations are outside the bounds of science Prediction ∙ Way of testing hypothesis o By making additional observations or by performing experiments o Done by a controlled experiment Experimental Variables and Controls ∙ In a controlled experiment, an experimental group is compared with a control ∙ Ideally experimental and control groups differ in only the one factor under investigation o Variable ∙ Without controls the researches would not be able to rule out other factors besides the variable being tested that might have affected the results ∙ Hypothesisdriven experiments are designed to test whether a particular independent variable causes a change in a particular dependent variable ∙ Independent variable o What the experimenter changes ∙ Dependent variable o What the experimenter observes or measures Controlled Experiment Groups ∙ CONTROL o Positive: conditions cause change in variable being tested Show that a positive result is possible Show what a positive result looks like o Negative: conditions known not to cause change in variable being tested Show what a negative result looks like ∙ EXPERIMENTAL o One in which you are changing the variable being measured Sampling Error: ∙ Occurs when you only look at a subset of a population ∙ Can lead to inaccurate conclusion∙ Must always consider size of a sample so you have a representative sample Theories in Science ∙ Broader in scope than a hypothesis o Integrating many wellsupported hypotheses together, i.e. LOTS OF DATA TO SUPPORT o Hypotheses contribute to theories, but do not “graduate” to theories ∙ General, and can lead to new testable hypotheses ∙ Able to change and grow with new information o Expanded and refined, NOT just a hunch ∙ Examples Observation: Flashlight doesn’t work Question: Why doesn’t the flashlight work? Hypothesis #1: Batteries are dead Prediction: Replacing batteries will fix problem Test of prediction: Replace batteries Result: Hypothesis #2: Bulb is burnt out Prediction: Replacing bulb will fix problem Test of prediction: Replace bulb Result: Flashlight doesn’t work. Hypothesis is contradicted Flashlight works. Hypothesis is supporto Gravity o Cell o Atomic o Plate tectonics