Exam Study Guide
Exam Study Guide WFS 462
Popular in Herpetology
Popular in Wildlife Studies
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dani on Monday April 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to WFS 462 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Avery in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see Herpetology in Wildlife Studies at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 04/13/15
12915 Guest Lecture 0 Wildlife monitoring reptiles and amphibians 0 Why do we care about the status of herpetofauna population 0 What makes herp population assessment so tricky o How do we monitor reptiles and amphibians o Amphibian and reptile decline 0 41 of amphibians threatened or endangered IUCN Red List I Fungal infections threatening populations 0 Not enough data to assess reptiles but at least 10 I Snake fungal disease 0 How would you tackle this problem I Information needed 0 Current population size 0 Current mortality rates and reproduction strategy 0 Define native range and any changes I Decision making process 0 Barriers to estimating herp population status 0 Environmental variation 9 animal activity 9 detectability 9 accuracy of population estimation I Herps hard to find I Many factors can influence population variability 0 Need long term data to accurately assess populations 0 Strategies for collecting data 0 Presenceabsence monitoring I Area of suitable habitat not being occupied I Local extinction and colonization o Counts I An index of true population size 0 Capture MarkRecapture I Give each individual found a uniquely identifiable mark 0 Advantages and Disadvantages o CMR o Counts 0 Presence absence 0 Sample research 0 Use of Turtle Detecting Dogs TDD I Significantly more effective than visual encounter surveys I 67 and 33 detection rate with dogs I Abundance was 45 turtles 1672 0 Redbacked Salamander Pethodon cinereus I Most widely distributed terrestrial salamander I Usually most common salamander in US I Great indicator of forest floor dynamics 0 Salamander Population and Adaptation Research Collaborative Network SPARCNet I Impacts land use and climate change on salamander population dynamics I Develop a model to describe local and regional drivers of population dynamics 0 Sampling for salamanders I Cover boards create microhabitat o If salamanders are found underneath mark recapture I Estimating population parameters 0 Take home message I Reptiles and amphibians are difficult to study 0 Need to account for detectability I 3 types of information we can collect o Presenceabsence o Counts 0 Capture mark recapture o Ink elastomer injected under skin I Need to move away from shortterm snapshots to longterm monitoring 0 Variation is everywhere G U EST LECTU RE 0 The ecological effects of prescribed fire on the Black Racer 0 Prescribed fire 0 Planned controlled manmade fire with specific forestmanagement goals I Reduce fuel loads I Increase regeneration I Improve wildlife habitat 0 Determining if fire is good or bad for reptiles I Measure differences in abundance I PROBLEM inconsistencies in data 0 Suggested that snakes aren t responding to the fire itself but instead responding to the postfire habitatlandscape I Each burn is unique 0 Climate topography habitat type season of burn etc 0 Cannot make accurate assumptions about effect on snakes from abundance o Ecological effects on Black racer o Abundance I Capture animal I Markrecapture o Snakes clip scales that have been assigned a numerical value 0 Individual identification 0 Pittags implanted under skin 0 Scan with scanner once recaptured o LincolnPeterson model to estimate population sizes 0 N MnR I N total individuals in population I M marked individuals prior to sample I n number of individuals captured in one sample I R recaptured individuals I Lack of recapture only Perceived abundance 0 Movement rates highly affect abundance measurements 0 Effects on habitat and use of habitat I What characteristics of habitat are important for snakes o Canopy cover 0 Distance to overstory trees and understory trees 0 Leaf litter depth 0 Percent leaf litter grass forbs woody coarse wood debris rock and bare ground prey resource abundance I Measure same variables at location of the snake radio telemetry 0 Located every 24 days 0 Measured habitat use body temperature Tb and behavior I Prescribed burning created habitat preferred by black racer o Vegetative growth may be associated with increase in prey abundances o Canopy cover may be associated with increased thermoregulatory opportunities 0 Thermal habitat and thermoregulation I MOST IMPORTANT VARIABLE I Balancing heat gain and lost 0 Gain solar radiating off other structuresanimals conduction 0 Lost radiating out conduction evaporating I Importance of thermoregulation 0 TprefTset preferred or Topt optimal versus Te 0 Tset 275304 degrees Celsius o Operative temperatures Te 0 Controls physiology and behavior 0 Highly dependent on environment constrains animal 0 CTmaX and CTmin I CT critical thermal I Testing thermal performance 0 Body temperature did not vary much within burn site versus control I Sprintcrawling speed I Effectiveness of temperature regulation E o E 1 9 thermoregulatory o E 0 9 thermoconformer o Energetic Expenditures I Measured C02 and H20 turnover using Doubly Labeled Water 0 Labeled H and O isotopes I Increased water influx and energy expenditure in burn sites but no change in mass 0 Possibly taking in more food insects in burn sites 0 CONCLUSION ABOUT PRESCRIBED FIRES BLACK RACER o Appeared to increase abundance More favorable structured habitat Thermal quality poorer Increased activity and attention to thermoregulation Increased energy expenditure OOOOO Higher mortality 0 Body mass similar in both sites 0 BROADER APPLICATIONS 0 Must go beyond abundance counts and consider long term ecological effects 22615 Guest Lecture Courtney Davis Dr Miller 0 Community ecology 0 Community I An assemblage of populations of 2 species in same geographical area at a particular time o Ecology I Study of species interactions on multiple scales 0 Distribution abundance demography structure etc 0 Food webs species richness productivity function etc 0 Species interactions 0 Competition I Inter and intra species Predation Mutualism OOO Commensalism o Parasitism 0 PA amphibian community 0 What other factors might influence pondbreeding amphibian communities 0 Vegetation I Sunlight and effects on temperaturespecies presentetc o Hydroperiod or hydrology I Inputs and outputs to system I Structures which species are present 0 Hydroperiod 0 Length of time a wetland is inundated with water 0 Species occurrence is restricted along gradient I Life history tradeoffs maximize fitness I Ephemeral develop rapidly encysted eggs conspicuous feeding strategies etc I Permanent develop slowly cryptic behavioralstructural adaptations 0 Graduate research 0 Understand the abiotic and biotic factors that contribute to amphibian community assembly I Hydroperiod vegetation etc I Predation competition etc 0 Understand how these interactions will respond to changing environmental conditions I Changes to average climate I Changes in climate variability 0 Study system 0 St Marks national wildlife refuge I Ongoing monitoring since 2009 with ARMI I Wetlands of short intermediate and long hydroperiod I Experienced recent extreme climate events 0 Period of extreme drought 20092011 0 Tropical storm Debby 2012 o Flooding even during 2013 o Ornate chorus frog ephemeral I Common in xeric upland habitats I Breed in small bodies of temporary water I Breed in Novembermarch I Breeding takes 12 weeks metamorphosis very quickly 0 Mole salamander I Breed in fishless wetlands I Facultatively paedomorphic I 2013 noted 22 decline I Useful surrogate species for species of concern 0 Pig frog permanent I Breed in open permanent water I Metamorphosis at one year 0 Study design 0 Sampled 60 wetlands from spring 2009fall 2014 I Minnow traps crayfish traps audial recording devices I Record every time species caught in a trap 0 Species occupancy and habitat dynamics I Presenceabsence of a species I Turnover colonization extinction etc I Habitat suitability 0 Methods 0 Dynamic occupancy model I A site that is occupied may either remain occupied or may become unoccupied by a species I An unoccupied site may remain unoccupied or may become occupied 0 Five states I Unsuitable I Suitable but empty I Amphibians present only I Predatory fish present I Amphibians and fish present
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