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BYU / Chemistry / CHEM 285 / What is stated by the octet rule?

What is stated by the octet rule?

What is stated by the octet rule?

Description

School: Brigham Young University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Intro Bio-Organic Chemistry
Professor: Jennifer nielson
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: E1, 285, Organic Chemistry, Nielson, and byu
Cost: 50
Name: STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 Chem285
Description: Notes and Practice problems for 1st exam. All notes and practice problems are based on lectures till Thursday January 26th, 2017
Uploaded: 01/27/2017
8 Pages 68 Views 1 Unlocks
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Chem 285We also discuss several other topics like What do we mean when we say "god is sovereign?"

1) long chains                                        Lewis Structures

2) stable                                         (molecular formula)        From Don't forget about the age old question of Illustrate the life of having mortgage.

3) reactions can be controlled                                8 valence        4 C        1 H x 4

        H

C 一 C                vs         Si 一 Si                                 |        If you want to learn more check out Where was the human with feline head found?

346 kg/mol                233 kg/mol                             H一 C一 H

smaller molecules                                                 |

make stronger bonds                                                HIf you want to learn more check out What were the first writing tablets used for?

because they are shorter                        If you want to learn more check out How do you describe qualitative data?

(the bonds they make)                        We also discuss several other topics like What is meant by descriptive statistics?

                

                                                Octet Rule  in 4 orbitals =  max

Review 101

Max Amount of  in p- orbital?                 HONC                

How many balance does c has?          # Bonds        1          2            3            4

How many single bonds are in 4                # of lone pairs        -          2             1             -

                                                

Overlap and Bonding

    Covalent bonds are form when 2

atom’s orbitals overlap

Sigma Bonds

                                Formal charge when an atom in a molecule

                                Deviates from the normal bonding pattern.

                                                        

Coulomb's law                                                                                                    

Force of bond (attraction) or (repulsion)

Between 2 charges is determine:

  1. Magnitude of charge
  2. Distance between the charges.        

                                                        

Octet Rule

Pi Bond (𝝅)

                                                        Not as strong as σ (sigma bonds)

                                                        Can have multiple

Exception to Rule (Octet)                                Intermolecular Forces are weaker than

covalent bonds.

                                                        Skill # 1 Predict if bond is polar and

                                                        draw bond dipole

Carbocation                                cabonion                

Non octet                                                        H 一 C        

Resonance Structures                                Electronegativity measure of how strongly

                                                        An atom attracts and

                                                                

                                                        N 一 H                C 一 F

(Just representation)

Resonance makes both bonds be the same

length and strength

The electrons part of the resonance bonds are call delocalized

VSEPR: Valence shell electron                        Skill # 2 Compare 2 polar bonds

                                                        Which bond is more polar?

                                                        

H 一 N                Vs         一

                <        

N 一 CL                N 一 F

                                                        Why?

                                                                C 一 F

                                                                                

                                                        Coulombs          ↘        ↙

law             →        shorter distance strong

attraction

1

1 Lone Pair        

2 Lone pairs        

3 Lone pairs

4 Lone pairs

2 Linear

3 Trigonal

   Planar

Bent

4 Tetrahedral

   

Trigonal

Pyramidal

Bent

   Trigonal

5 Bipyramidal

See-Saw

T-Shape

Linear

6 Octahedral

Square

Pyramidal

Square

Planar

T-Shape

Linear

Polarity of Molecules

  • If has non polar bonds is in general

Non Polar

  • If has polar bonds is in general

Polar

If symmetry, then non polar molecules        Lewis Acid and Base

6 even if polar bonds                                Acid: Electrophile(+)Base: Nucleophile(+)

   ↤    ↦                                                        Lone Pairs or Pi Bonds

        O =C= O                                H        H        H        H

        Non Polar                                 |         |         |         |

                                        H    一         一         一         一         一        H        Lewis

                                                 |         |         |         |

H        H        H        H

It is possible for a molecule to have polar

and nonpolar parts                                 1         2         3         4

                                                                                   Condensed

IM Forces                                                                         Line

  1) Dispersion, london forces (non polar)

  2) dipole 一 dipole                   |        

  3) Hydrogen bonding           ↓                                                molecular formula

  4) Ion 一 dipole                  Stronger

molecules that have them                        

Dispersion: Polar and nonpolar

Dipole 一 Dipole: Polar

Hydrogen Bond 一 O, N, F

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