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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dani on Monday April 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 408 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Sheriff in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Mammalogy in Wildlife and Fisheries Science at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 04/13/15
31615 Movementlocomotion o Terrestrial o Ambulatory walking I Primitive condition I Unmodified metacarpals and metatarsals I Pectoral and pelvic limbs equal in length I Feet are plantigrade entire foot on ground 0 Cursorial running I Length of limbs increases 0 Faster animals have longer limbs than slower closely related species 0 Distal portions lengthens and is slender o Proximal portions of limbs shortens and are heavily muscular I Loss or reduction of clavicle o Longer stride o Allows scapula to pivot with limb o Brings limbs directly under body I Increased flexibility of spine I Digitigrade only footpads on ground I Unguligrade only nails touch ground horses 0 Saltatorial leaping or hopping I Hindlimbs provide much of the power of movement I Spine greatly reduced I Two types 0 Spring motion 0 Quadrupeds rabbits 0 Ricochet motion 0 Bipedal o Greatly elongated and muscular Hindlimbs 0 Reduced forelimbs 0 Long tufted tails to provide counterbalance and support when resting 0 Usually on soft ground 0 Graviportal limb structure I Limb is essentially columnar I Each element situated directly below previous I Phalanges radiate in a series of arches I Bottom of pad is thick and fleshy I Supports massive body weight elephant o Fossorial o Locomotion underground by DIGGING I Adaptations 0 Reduction of external body projections 0 Development of valvular body openings 0 Reduction in vision o Specialized incisors o Semifossorial burrow into ground but spend considerable amount of time on surface I Dig own burrows for denning to escape predation and to escape environment I Very vigilant o Welldeveloped senses 0 Eyes 0 Fossorial I Very compact body I 1 of 2 specialized digging adaptations 0 Large and powerful muscles 0 Considerations I Thermoregulation I Anoxia and high levels of C02 I Social behavior how do you find a mate when you live in a tunnel by yourself 0 Arboreal o 4 ways to move through trees I Scansorial o Scampering climbing style 0 Sharp claws o No special adaptations I Arboreal o Clinging climbing swinging o Prehensile tail 0 Opposable digits I Brachiating o Swinging with arms and hands 0 VERY similar to arboreal o DOES NOT USE TAIL o Olecranon process of the ulna is greatly reduced 0 Elbow reduced allows for elongation of arm straighten arm 0 Pollex greatly reduced fingers greatly elongated Sloth o Inverted quadrupedal movement 0 Hang by all four limbs o Rely on strongly curved claws 0 Aerial o Gliding evolved numerous times independently but ALWAYS from an arboreal species I Extension of patagium a thin membrane of skin between extremities o Fore and Hindlimbs 0 Neck to forelimbs 0 True flight only evolved in Chiroptera I Wing made up of naked patagium I Extended between greatly elongated digits body hindlimbs and tail I Morphological adaptations o Elongated distal portions of the arm o Greatly elongated metacarpals and phalanges o Keeled sternum 0 Development of calcar on ankle o Spur to support uropatagium o All bones slender and light 0 Aquatic o Semiaquatic I General fusiform body shape short thick neck I Adaptations o Forelimbs modified into flippers o Hindlimbs modified into backwards flippers 0 Can be rotated forward for terrestrial movement 0 Propulsion by 0 Lateral undulations of posterior body in seals 0 Use of large forelimbs in case of walruses and sea lions 0 Fully aquatic I Adaptations 0 Lack pinnae o Fusiform body tapered from thick neck to tip of tail 0 Tail extended laterally and dorsoventrally flattened o Flukes tail 0 Undulating body movement 0 Pectoral appendages fins used for steering and stabilization o Flukes and dorsal fins have no bones 32315 Habitat use dispersal and migration 0 Global habitat patterns 0 The world is heterogeneous I Solar radiation life blood of the planet decreases from equator to poles I Convection cells create heterogeneous moisture o Pockets of air I Topographic features affect precipitation I Topographic features affect heat 0 South facing slope in NA will receive much greater solar radiation 0 As we increase in elevation temperature declines 1C every 150m 0 Result in biomes I Deserts I Tropical forests I Temperate forests I Chapparel O O I Savanna I Temperate grasslands I Coniferous forests I Tundra Within each biome is an ecotone shift in environmental characteristics Successional stages also create heterogeneity in habitats I Primary succession I Secondary succession 0 Pioneer species I Climax community 0 Climax species 0 Home ranges and territoriality O O O No two species can have completely overlapping niches I Competitive Exclusion PrincipleGause s Law World is heterogeneous BUT not equal Ideal free distribution I Animal should attempt to occupy the best habitat I But the best habitat will be in short supply in high density I At high density high quality habitats may be lower in value than medium or low quality habitat Ideal despotic distribution I Animals are territorial I Can t occupy any territory you want I Best habitat occupied by dominant quotbestquot individuals 0 Subordinates occupy marginal habitats I Possible that density of marginal habitats will be greater I Possible that territories in marginal habitats will be larger Home range I An area that is traversed by an individual during its normal routine Includes areas for food gathering Shelters 0 Areas for mating o Rearing young I NOT defended and may overlap with other individuals of the species Territory I A home range that is highly defended 0 May be part of a home range HOME RANGE VERSUS TERRITORY I Home range 0 Wide variety 0 More resources 0 Less competition I Territory 0 Resources protected 0 Increased competition I DEPENDENT ON RESOURCE AVAILABILITY o If highly available home range 0 Dispersal 0 Provides connections between populations 0 VERY common in mammals 0 Male biased I Females provide most paternal care 0 Benefit from knowledge of local resources 0 Benefit from presence of kin I Male reproductive success is linked to maximizing the number of females impregnated VERY costly energetically and survival Two categories of dispersal I Natal I Breeding 0 Natal dispersal I Aggressive encounters can occur between mother and offspring I VERY COSTLY huge loss of life 0 Breeding dispersal I Occurs when males disperse from their home range or territory to seek new mates I Males may or may not return to original home I NOT a good strategy if all females in an area become estrus synchronously 0 Why disperse I Reduce competition 0 For mates 0 For food 0 For territory I Inbreeding depression avoidance 0 Large decreases in fitness if mate with related individuals 0 Evolution would select against those individuals that breed with kin 0 Reduce the possibility of mating with related kin I Innate dispersal o Predisposition to disperse 0 Do not need to be chased away 0 Proximate versus Ultimate I Proximate what directly caused dispersal o Maternal aggression o Malemale fighting I Ultimate what is evolutionarily driving dispersal o Inbreeding depression 0 Competition for resources 0 Migration 000 Long distance movement Cyclical or return movement Very costly both energetically and for survival Evolved to I Exploit food resources I Breed increase food resources decrease predation I Avoid adverse conditions winter or dry season 0 Not uncommon in mammals 0 Requirements I Innate information about circannual timing I Physiological adaptations supporting energy storage and use I Behavioral adaptations I Navigational cues 0 Problems with migration I Climateinduced changes to environment 0 Mismatch in timing between vegetation greenup and arrival o Decrease food quality and availability at critical time of breedingsupporting young 32515 Ungulates o Specialized cursorial adaptations o Galloping and breathing are synchronized I Movement of their intestines and liver against the diaphragm help to ventilate the lungs I Air is shunted from one side of the lungs to the other 0 Pneumatic stabilization o Helps to stabilize the shoulder and chest on alternating sides of the forelimb that hits the ground 0 Nuchal ligament 0 Heavy band of elastin o Helps support the head so muscles are relieved o Springing ligament o Attaches to canon bone and phalanges o Perissodactyls versus artiodactyls o Perissodactyls I 16 species I Mesaxonic 0 Axis of symmetry of foot passes through large third digit I Teeth o Molariform cheek teeth 0 Hypsodont and Lophodont grazers o Brachyodont tapirs I Stomach 0 Large caecum o Hindgut fermenters o lntestinalfermentation 0 Fast digestion Family Equidae 0 Only the third digit is functional 0 No native species in America 0 ZEBRAS 0 Native to central and south Africa 0 Undergo large migrations o Striped coat I Camouflage or disruptive coloration I Individual recognition 0 Polygamous animals 0 Herd consists of many 39family groups 0 Communication through behavior and vocalizations Family Rhinocerotidae 0 Tropical and subtropical Africa and southeastern Asia 0 Graviport limbs o Nasal bones are thickened and enlarged o Horns LACK bony core 0 Territorial buy may live in family groups or solitary o Sumatran rhino have vocalizations similar to humpback whale 0 Currently all species of rhinos are endangered o Territory destruction poaching Kselected o Artiodactyls 220 species Paraxonic 0 Axis of symmetry passes through line of 3rel and 4th digit Teeth 0 Still retain some premolar form 0 Selenodont and Bunodont Stomach o Ruminants o Foregut fermentation o Microbial fermentation 0 Slow digestion Family Camilidae 0 Only fully digitigrade ungulate o HAVE CANINES 0 Have nucleated RBCs Family Suidae o Omnivorous 0 Big and heavy up to 275kg 0 Thick skin with sparse hair o 4 toed feet BUT still unguligrade 0 Teeth grow straight up 0 Evergrowing I Family Tayassuidae o Peccaries 0 Restricted to new world 0 Canines are sharp and long but NEVER pointed upwards o Habitats include deserts through to tropical forests 0 Highly social 0 Omnivorous 0 Very rapid and agile runners o Suborder Ruminantia OOO Strictly herbivorous Highly cursorial 34 stomachs Specialized dentition I Loss or great reduction in upper incisors I Incisiform lower canids I Loss of upper canids Most families have antlers or horns Twotoed foot Family Tragulidae Chevrotains I 2346 kg I Never has antlers I Upper canines are tusklike I Nocturnal and inhabit areas of thick underbrush Family Antilocapridae pronghorns I Horned and sheds sheath annually I Orbits are unusually far back in the head 0 See predators and eat at the same time I Vestigial digits are gone I The fastest long distance runners 0 Reach 85 kmh 0 Can maintain speed for 10 km 0 02 demand up to 3 times that of normal mammal o Enlarged trachea and bronchi 0 Greater lung surface area 0 Higher concentrations of hemoglobin 0 Greater densities of capillaries and mitochondria 33015 0 Family Giraffidae Giraffe 0 Short skinfur covered horns 0 Females have horns o Acacia are the main food 0 Have tongue that is 20 inches in length 0 Cervical and thoracic vertebrae are shifted to reposition the base of the neck further back on the torso 0 Can reach speeds of 60 kmh Okapia johnstoni 0 Hair covered horns projecting backwards 0 Females lack horns o Solitary only coming together for mating 0 Long tongues used for foraging 0 Live in dense forests in lturi Rainforest in Democratic Republic of Congo 0 Family Cervidae Have antlers one exception 0 Grow from pedicles supported on frontals 0 Can be palmate spoonlike or bifurcated longer pointed tines 0 Growth under control of pituitary hormones Reduced or absent upper canines same exception Hollow hair 0 Provide exceptional insulation Always 4toed o The lateral ones are vestigial and reduced Hydropotes inermis o No antlers 0 Large upper canines as tusks to fight for mating Caribou only group where females have antlers 0 Family Moschidae Large back legs reduced front legs 0 Extremely agile o Climb trees Highly valued for musk glands 0 Family Bovidae Have horns that are NEVER shed 0 Used for mating display competition predator defense 0 Weight determines whether females have horns or not 0 lt25kg lack horns o gt40kg have horns generally Very important commercially Domestication began 800010000ya Originated in Africa Came to NA via Beringia Land Bridge 0 Acted as a filter bridge 0 Family Hippopotamidae I Potentially closely related to cetaceans I 2 genera Hippopotamus Hexaprotodon pygmy hippo I Hippopotamus Order Cetacea LARGE 5103200 kg Make sunscreen Specialized skull 0 Elevated orbits o Tusklike canines and incisors Foot posture is semidigitigrade Gregarious Spend much time in water 0 Mating o Birthing o Rearing and suckling Ecosystem engineers Can produce a wide range of sounds that can be heard above and below the water 4115 0 Adaptations to life in water 0 Fusiform body shape I Nearly hairless I Blubber insulation I Lacks sebaceous glands I Single pair of mammaries Lie flat along abdomen with teats enclosed in slits Ejects milk into the mouth of offspring o Offspring lack lips and the ability to suckle I Testes remain abdominal I Penis is retractable o Skeletal adaptations I Collapsible ribs I Compressed cervical vertebrae I Clavicle absent I Long digits Extra phalanges per digit Flukes flattened tail I Vestigial hindlimbs I Tympanic and periotic bones 0 Skull adaptations I External nares o Blow hole I Elongated premaxilla and maxilla I Reduced frontal o Adaptations to life in water I Must remain active during long periods of apnea o 2 layers of capillaries in lungs for gas exchange 0 12 02 used from inhaled air 0 Twice as many RBCs o 29x as much myoglobin in muscles 0 Heartrate drops to half of surface rate during deep dives o Brachycardia 0 Blood shunted away from muscles to brain 0 High tolerance of lactic acid and C02 0 Built up during anaerobic respiration I Blow hole separate from other passages I Swimming 0 Produced by tail flukes 0 Powered by muscles in the tailstock 0 Fat and ligaments build up 0 Produced dorsal ventral spring 0 Energy savings through the use dorsal and ventral springs o Suborder Mysticeti 0 Family Balaenidae I Large robust whales 0 Bull etc I Huge head and tongue I gt350 LONG baleen plates I N0 furrows on throat or chest I Rostrum is arched to accommodate baleen I Feed by swimming through water with mouth open 0 Family Balaenopteridae I Small and large 0 Minka whale 0 Blue 0 Hump back I Baleen plates are SHORT I Long furrows on throat and chest I Narrow rostrum I Feed by lunge feeding 0 Open mouth and speed ahead then close mouth 0 Attempt to trap prey on surface of water 0 Family Eschrichtiidae gray whale No dorsal fin Small head with arched rostrum Short baleen plates 2 long furrows on throat Dive down to bottom of ocean turn sideways rub nose into substrate and eat benthic animals 0 Suborder Odontoceti Toothed whales porpoises dolphins O O O O O Characterized by their ability to echolocate Sperm whales produce loudest biological sound at 160 decibels Used to echolocate objects prey THEY HAVE A MELON structure in head MAY be used to stun or kill prey 0 Large squid and sharks in sperm whale gut bore no teeth marks 0 Sperm whales with deformed jaws still able to eat 0 Trained bottlenose dolphins capable of producing signals of an intensity that can kill marine fish and squid Family Delphinidae dolphin Melon well developed Most are 39beaked but many lack beaks such as killer whale and pacific whitesided Rapid swimmers Gregarious very social Excellent hunters in packs often Orcinus orca 0 Feed on fish seals sea lions gray whales 0 Three subgroups of killer whales N0 OVERLAP BETWEEN SUBGROUPS o Transients I Migratory I Feed on mammals I Wide ranging in small less permanent groups I Little vocalization 0 Residents I Nonmigratory I Feed primarily on fish I Found in coastal waters have home range I Live in pods I High vocalization o Offshore I Little known Family Phocoenidae Porpoises Small Low or absent dorsal fin Short jaws with little to no beak Eat fish squid crustaceans Family Physeteridae sperm whales Head accounts for 13 of body length Rostrum is trunucated Extremely important commercially Spermaceti Organ 0 Oil filled 0 Used to make candles soaps lubricating oils etc Junk 0 Second oil filled organ 0 Oil is more dense and organ is separated by connective tissues baffles 0 Less prized Exceptional divers o Dives often exceed 1000 m o Dives for foraging o No light 0 Rely on echolocation 0 Hunt squids deepwater squid sharks skates etc Assemble in large groups 0 Family Platanistidae long snouted river dolphins Small populations Long beak high forehead Small eyes Good at echolocation 0 Family lniidae other river dolphins Amazon Chinese La plata river dolphin 0 Family Monodontidae narwhal and beluga Rely on polynyas open water when other water is frozen in winter 0 Major cause of death is suffocation during winter Gregarious Incredibly vocal 4815 0 Effective communication cycle 0 Message 9 encoded 9 send 9 decode 9 interpret 9 feedback 0 Communication 0 Visual signals Made up from facial expressions body posture and anatomical structures Can be communicated to a single individual or to a group Can be intraspecific or interspecific Facial expressions and body posture are fleeting and flexible O Morphological signals are more permanent 0 Le baboons going into estrus Limited in range and poor at night or underwater light is poor Often facial or body markings accentuate the visual display Olfactory signals The process whereby a chemical signal is generated by a presumptive sender and transmitted to a presumptive receiver who by means of adequate receptors can identify integrate and respond to the signal Types 0 Pheromones chemical transmitted by a conspecific o Allomone chemical signal to and from a different species the response being adaptive to the emitter o Kairomones chemical signal to and from a different species the response being adaptive to the responder o Synomones chemical signal to and from a different species the response being adaptive to both Advantages 0 Can convey very specific message 0 Can persist for long periods after deposited Disadvantages 0 Can disperse rapidly o Receiver must have acute and specialized sense of smell to detect 0 Can be used by others Scent marking 0 Means of communication 0 Often done by dominant individual 0 Maintain dominance 0 Show of health to distance members outside of group 0 Often associated with the possession of a territory Urine and feces 0 Metabolic waste that can serve as chemical signals 0 Many mammals are highly specific about where they urinate and defecate 0 Usually used to signal territory boundary 0 Can signal health and physical condition Scent glands o Maturation and use of scent glands are controlled by gonadal hormones produced at sexual maturity o Glands can be associated with eyes mouth sex organs anus and skin 0 HUGE range of functions 0 Different glands for different reasons 0 Sex differences in use 0 Male I Malemale competition 0 Female I Attraction of mate I Selfanointing 0 Can be used to increase the scent in aggressive interactions 0 Can be used as defensive signal I Individual recognition 0 Important in nocturnal mammals 0 May be important in colonial or social animals 0 Important for offspring recognition 0 Allowing offspring to feed while excluding nonrelatives I Vomeronasal organ 0 Olfaction plays a strong role in sexual behavior and reproduction in most if not all terrestrial animals 0 Vomeronasal organ plays important role in activating reproductive and copulatory behavior 0 Ungulates and some carnivores make characteristic flehmen behavior which activates the V0 0 Acoustic signals I Important in mammals for o Defensealarm calls 0 Individual recognition 0 Group cohesionterritoriality I Signals can be 0 Simplistic 0 Complex 0 Ultrasonic above our hearing 0 Infrasonic below our hearing I Alarm calls 0 Can differentiate specific predators 0 Use different calls depending on habitat 0 Can use intra or interspecific calls eavesdropping I Groupcohesionterritoriality o Keeps individuals in contact that may not be closevisually in contact 0 Used to announce position in landscape 0 Used to announce territory 0 Used to announce group ID size and strength I Complexity of vocalizations o Mammals have a very wide range of sounds 0 Complex sounds in humpback whales 0 Can have ultrasonic signals 0 Echolocation 0 Evidence that rodents signal in ultrasonic 0 Can have infrasonic 0 Low frequency I Infrasonic sounds 0 African Elephant 0 1224 hertz 0 Can travel in air for up to 6 miles 0 Alarm aggression mating social identity 0 Underground communication I Sealed burrows with little to no air current making visual olfactory and auditory communication difficult I Use combination of low frequency and seismic signals 0 Propagted greater distances and greater intensity Decibels I Nakedmole rat 0 Richest vocal repertoire of any rodent 0 Use a large variety of signals Acoustic Visual Scent OOO Tactile o Tactile signals I Widespread across mammals o Particularly important in social animals 0 Grooming 0 Important prior to copulation I Allogrooming 0 Grooming of one individual by another o In primates I Establish and maintain social contact I Groom of higher social rank I Reduce social tension I Nongrooming 0 Very important precopulatory behavior 0 Touching may be sexually stimulating for females
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