Study Guide 1. Know the role of interferon in defense against disease? Protects cell that have not been infected by disease 2. Know the purpose of Natural Killer Cells? Type of lymphocyte (WBC); secrete potent chemicals that enhance inflammatory response 3. Know the meaning of opsonization? Process where particles such asWe also discuss several other topics like What is Sociological Theory?
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bacteria are targeted for destruction by an immune cell known as a phagocyte 4. Understand that steroid hormones enter the nucleus and alter gene expression 5. Understand that thromboembolism is a clot that moves through unbroken blood vessels 6. Cytotoxic T Cells are the only T Cells that can directly attack and kill other cells 7. Which organ regulates erythrocyte production? Kidney 8. What is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood? Hematopoietic stem cells (Hemocytoblasts) 9. Understand that Fever production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting 10. Understand the importance of the reticulocyte count Blood test that measure how fast red blood cells are made by the bone marrow and released into the blood 11. Through what structure does lymph exit a lymph node? Exits concave side at hilum via efferent vessels 12. Know the major targets of growth hormone? Bones and skeletal muscles 13. Understand the result of blocked lymphatic drainage? Causes tissue to become swollen and filled with lymphatic fluid 14. Know the type of hemoglobin found in fetal erythrocytes Hemoglobin F15. Know the function of antidiuretic hormone? (Vasopressin) Inhibits or prevents urine formation, regulates water balance (targets kidney tubules) 16. Which blood type is the universal donor? Type O 17. Understand the reason for the difference in blood measurements between males and females Males are larger and produce greater amounts of Testosterone, which enhances EPO production, resulting in a higher RBC in males 18. Know that vasodilation causes the heat and inflammation of hyperemia 19. KNOW the normal pH of human blood forever: 7.357.45 20. Which organ makes ANP? Heart (in response to high blood volume) 21. What is the sentinel node? First few lymph nodes into which a tumor drains 22. Know that the secondmessenger mechanism of hormone action operates by binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP 23. Know the plasma protein that is a major contributor to osmotic pressure Albumin (makes up 60% of plasma protein) 24. The right lymphatic duct is the structure that drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax 25. What is the single most important regulator of calcium? Parathyroid hormone 26. Know the function of Aldosterone Stimulates Na+ reabsorption and water retention by kidneys; elimination of K+ 27. Where are Peyer’s patches located? ileum region of the small intestine (wall of distal portion of small intestines) 28. Know that erythrocytes are not a normal component of lymph 29. Know which hormone is responsible for the fight or flight response Epinephrine (sympathetic nervous system)30. Understand the triggers for erythropoiesis Stimulated by decrease in O2 in circulation 31. Knows the functions of oxytocin? Strong stimulant of uterine contraction, released during child birth, milk ejection and acts as neurotransmitter to brain 32. Know what the lymphoid tissue in the oral mucosa is called. 33. KNOW the cardinal signs of diabetes Polyuria the need to urinate frequently. Polydipsia increased thirst & fluid intake. Polyphagia increased appetite. 34. Chemotaxis is the process of attracting cells to an inflammatory site 35. B cells mature in the Bone marrow 36. Know the class of antibodies that crosses the placenta igG 37. Know the class of antibodies that causes histamine release igE 38. Know which structures constitute MALT? Tonsils, Pever’s patches and appendix 39. Know the targets of Growth Hormone and the basics of how it works Bones and skeletal muscle 40. Understand insulin and how it works and the results of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia Hypersecretion Hyperglycemia (too much sugar in blood) increased metabolic rate, rapid heartbeat and palpitation, hypertensions, intense nervousness, sweating Hyposecretion Not problematic 41. Know the stimulus for erythrocyte production and where the erythrocytes are produced Hematopoiesis – produces RBC Produced in the bone marrow42. Know how fever works Pyrogens act on body's thermostat in hypothalamus, raising body temperature 43. Know that histamine causes anaphylactic shock and the primary treatment Histamine causes anaphylactic shock Primary treatment epinephrine and H1 antihistamines 44. Know which cells are the “warriors” of the immune system? Lymphocytes 45. lymphoid tissue in oral cavity tonsils 46. Know what neutrophils are used to fight. Very phagocytosis “bacteria slayers” Fight infection 47. Understand what makes erythrocytes unique from other cells. Anucleate No mitochondria ATP production uses anaerobic (do not consume O2)Top Hat Questions: Which plasma constituent is the main contributor to osmotic pressure? Albumin What is another name for the anterior pituitary? Adenohypophysis Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of : Cortisol Virtually all of the protein or amino acidbased hormones exert their effects through intracellular ? Second messengers What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production? Kidney Calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein? Calmodulin The most abundant plasma protein is …. Albumin Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called …. HormonesImportant EXTRA Notes: 1. Major contributor to blood viscosity? erythrocytes 2. Pigment that gives blood its color of red? Heme 3. Atrial Natriuretic peptide ANP; decreases blood Na+ concentration; therefore blood pressure and blood volume 4. Placenta secretes estrogen, progesterone, and human chorionic gonadotropin (Hcg) 5. Most formed elements only survive in the blood stream a few days? True 6. Too much RBC causes sludgy blood 7. Nuclei of hypothalamus function? synthesizes oxytocin and anti – diuretic 8. Where are hormones stored? Posterior pituitary 9. Ghrelin hormone function releases hunger 10. Glucocoritods keep blood glucose levels relatively constant (maintain blood pressure) 11. Steroids and thyroid hormone are attached to plasma proteins 12. Removes hormones from blood Liver – Permissiveness: one hormone cannot exert its effects without another hormone being present – Synergism: more than one hormone produces same effects on target cell à amplification – Antagonism: one or more hormones oppose(s) action of another hormone Know Types of hormones:• Growth hormone (GH) • Thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) • Folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates gamete production • Luteinizing hormone (LH) promotes production of gonadal hormones • Prolactin (PRL) stimulates milk production 13. IGF’s function in the human body? Stimulate uptake of nutrients (DNA and protein) and formation of collagen and deposition of bone matrix 14. Regulates prolactin release? PIH (dopamine) Hyposecretion in adults— myxedema ; goiter if due to lack of iodine Hyposecretion in infants—cretinism (tendons) Hypersecretion—Graves' disease (Autoimmune) 15. Most potent mineralocorticoid Aldosterone 16. Keep blood glucose levels relatively constant Glucocorticoids 17. Major metabolic hormone thyroid hormone (increases heat production) 18. Which is more active T3 or T4? T3 is 10x more active 19. Chief cells that secrete parathyroid hormone or parathormone? Oxyphil cells 20. Most important cell in homeostasis (secretes calcium)? Parathyroid hormone 21. Medullary chromaffin cells Synthesize 80% epinephrine and 20% norepinephrine 22. Secrete melatonin Pinealocytes – show rhythmic variations 23. Glycogenolysis is? breakdown of glycogen to glucose 24. Gluconeogenesis is the? synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and noncarbohydrates 25. Release of glucose to blood 26. Insulin effects lower blood glucose levels 27. Glycosuria glucose spilled into urine (normal level is around 0) 28. What enhances sensitivity to insulin (treats Type 2 diabetes)? Adiponectin 29. Purpose of the ANP? Decrease blood Na+ concentrations, therefore blood pressure and blood volume 30. Hemoglobin binds ______ with ________? Reversibly, oxygen 31. What color would your blood be with an increase of O2? Decrease of O2? Increase: ruby red/pink Decrease: dark red 32. Blood formation in the red bone marrow? Hematopoiesis33. Last stage before RBC are produced? Reticulocytes 34. Direct stimulus for erythropoiesis and released by what? Erythropoietin (EPO), Kidneys 35. Testosterone enhances EPO production, resulting in a higher RBC in males? TRUE 36. What nutrient is the most significant? And where is it stored? Iron, stored in cells ferritin and hemosiderin 37. Necessary for DNA synthesis for rapidly dividing cells? Folic acid and vitamin B12 38. *Know different types of amenia 39. Most abundant white blood cell? Neutrophils (Never let monkeys eat bananas) 40. Rarest white blood cell? Basophils 41. Disorder that involves abnormally low WBC count? Leukopenia (usually drug induced) 42. Acute leukemia is? derives from stem cells; primarily affects children 43. Chronic leukemia is? more prevalent in older people (2030s and older) 44. Infectious mononucleosis also known as? EpsteinBarr virus (causes liver or spleen to swell) 45. Platelets are fragments of? Megakaryocytes 46. What causes platelets to be mobile? Nitric oxide (NO) that come from endothelial cells 47. What would cause a patients platelets to not be “sticky” and not stick to collagen fibers? Defect in the von Willebrand factor 48. Prothrombin converted to enzyme? thrombin 49. Thrombin catalyzes fibrinogen into? fibrin 50. Which pathway to prothrombin activator is faster? Extrinsic 51. What forms the basis of a clot? Fibrin 52. Name an example of a fibrindigesting enzyme? Plasmin 53. Blood levels of hormones are controlled by … negative feedback systems 54. Most common type of bleeding disorder? Hemophilia A (77% of all cases) factor VIII deficiency 55. What affect can an incompatible transfusion have on a patient? Death 56. What are the blood groups? A, B, AB, O 57. Serum containing antiRh can prevent Rh– mother from becoming sensitized? RhoGAMWater soluble cells cannot enter the cell Lipid soluble horomones can enter cell Promotes metabolic activities, or promote synthesis of structural proteins or proteins for export from cell