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n that has been underlined in the lecture notes is likely to appear on the exams. The list below is intended to be a fairly inclusive summary of the underlined information in the notes; however, recognize that this list is subject to misinterpretation. If there is any doubt on what you need to know, rely first on the lecture notes. Know Definitions – food: Any substance that contains nutrients which provide energy and other materials needed to build and maintain body cells Natural food: A food free of added colors and synthetic flavors or substances Processed food: A food that has been specially treated or changed (at home or in a processing plant) from its original state Fortified food: A food to which one or more nutrients (usually vitamins or minerals) have been added Enriched: A food to which nutrients lost in processing have been replaced Organic: it contains the element carbon and is from a living thing Nutrients and comments about nutrients: are chemical substances obtained from food that are vital for maintenance (including repair), function, and growth of a healthy body throughout life. Human body and foods are made up of the same 6 nutrient classes but have different arrangements ∙ Energy-producing nutrients Fat – 9 kcal/gram Carbohydrate – 4 kcal/gram Protein – 4 kcal/gram ∙ Alcohol is NOT a nutrient but it does provide energy – 7 kcal/gram Macronutrients: the body needs them in relative large (macro) quantities (measured in grams or kilograms) in comparison to vitamins and minerals Examples- Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins Micronutrients: they are needed in smaller quantities (micro means small) (measured in micrograms or milligrams) Examples: Vitamins and Minerals Calorie: calorie is a measure of heat energy, specifically the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree C. The term kilocalorie (or Calorie) which is equal to 1000 calories is used Kcal: Food energy is measured in kilocalories abbreviated kcal or kcalories ∙ 1 Kilocalorie= 1000 calories ATP: The body’s energy is found mainly as the compound Adenosine Tri Phosphate abbreviated ATP. ATP is made as carbohydrates, fats (lipids), and protein are broken down (catabolized / oxidized) in the body Metabolism: all the (bio) chemical reactions that take place in the body (2 general types) Anabolic reactions: those that build (synthesize) compounds and usually require energy Catabolic reactions: those that break down (degrade) compounds and often produce energy Essential nutrient: those which must be supplied by diet / food because the body cannot make them at all or cannot make them fast enough ∙ Essential nutrients have 3 characteristics -Must exhibit at least one biological function in the body -Omission of the nutrient from the diet must lead to a decline in at least one specific biological function -If the omitted nutrient is replaced in the diet before permanent damage occurs, then normal biological functions must be restored. 1Discretionary kcal: Often referred to as discretionary kcal or junk foods. These foods usually contain lots of added fat and sugars but few to no other nutrients Requirement: the amount of a nutrient that prevents the development of a deficiency -EAR for any nutrient is estimated to meet the needs of half (50%) of the population -EARs are used to help set RDAs for nutrients RDA: Recommended Daily Allowances- Nutrient intakes that meet the needs of almost all healthy people (~98% of the population), indicates nutrient adequacy RDAs - based on a variety of well-conducted studies RDAs - derived from EAR calculations plus an added safety margin Tolerable upper intake level (UL): highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of toxicity to almost all healthy individuals. Helps protect against overconsumption of nutrients Phytochemicals: any of various biologically active compounds found in plants. Metabolic obesity: acceptable / normal BMI but excessive %body fat – especially if in the abdominal region Malnutrition: Any condition caused by excess, deficiency, or imbalance of energy protein, and/or nutrients which affects body mass and composition, physical functions, and nutrition and clinical status Sarcopenia: loss of muscle tissue as a natural part of the aging process. 6 categories / classes of nutrients: Vitamins, Minerals, Fat, Protein, Carbohydrates, and Water Which nutrients are macronutrients? : Carbs, Fat and Protein Micronutrients? : Vitamins and Minerals Energy producing nutrients: Carbs, Fats and Proteins How many kcal per gram are generated by carbohydrates, fats (lipids), proteins and alcohol: Carbs: 4kcal/gram Fats: 9kcal/gram Protein: 4kcal/gram Alcohol: 7kcal/gram General functions of nutrients: Regulate body processes such as temperature, blood pressure, blood glucose, often to maintain homeostasis Most help form structures in the body Some provide energy When is ATP made: as carbohydrates, fats (lipids), and protein are broken down (catabolized / oxidized) in the body 3 characteristics of essential nutrients: -Must exhibit at least one biological function in the body -Omission of the nutrient from the diet must lead to a decline in at least one specific biological function -If the omitted nutrient is replaced in the diet before permanent damage occurs, then normal biological functions must be restored. Two classifications /groups of vitamins and the general functions: Water Soluble & Fat Soluble Functions: Facilitates energy release and physiological processes, Vitamins don’t provide energy Two classifications /groups of minerals and the general functions: Trace & Major Functions: Contributes to physiological processes, does not provide energy 5 dietary characteristics of a nutritious diet – including what each characteristic means: Adequacy: providing all of the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health and body weight Balance: providing a number of types of foods in proportion to others, such that foods rich in some nutrients do not crowd out of the diet other foods that are rich in their nutrients -Does not overemphasize one nutrient or food type at the expense of another -Balance may also be called “proportionality” Calorie control: Energy in (intake) = energy out (expenditure) Moderation: providing food constituents within set limits and not to excess. To promote health, the intakes of certain food constituents such as saturated fats, added sugars, and salt should be limited 2Variety: eating a wide selection of foods. -Best to choose different foods from within food groups on a daily basis and choose foods from among the different food groups on a daily basis What is meant by high nutrient density and low energy density foods? High nutrient density foods: Nutrient density - the most nutrients for the fewest calories Low energy density foods: Low energy density – foods low in kcal but weigh a lot What are the characteristics of junk foods or foods providing discretionary kcal? : These foods contain alot of added fat and sugars but few other nutrients What are Americans not eating / food groups commonly inadequate in the diets of Americans? : Fruits, Vegetables, Whole grains, Low fat dairy, Seafood, Nuts, seeds and legumes Recognize Healthy People 2020 and Dietary Guidelines for Americans as providing health and nutrition objectives for the Nation: They want to reduce the incidents of chronic diseases, early death, diabetes, increase the health of children, infants, reduce outbreaks due to contaminated food, reduce allergic reactions due to improper allergy exam results, reduce the populace with eating disorders, and increase physical activity all to encourage a healthier weight and more enjoyable life What is MyPlate? : Most recent food guidance system released in 2011, developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture, and replaces MyPyramid plan. Foods are broken down into 5 groups: Fruits, Vegetables, Grains, Protein, Dairy About how many servings per day should adults eat of vegetables, fruits, dairy, and grains including whole grains? : What are Dietary Reference Intakes and who do they apply to? : Standards for energy and nutrient intakes, providing set values for Vitamins and minerals, Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, Fiber, water, and energy 4 categories for nutrients and information about each including (as provided) how the recommendations were made and what percent of the population is covered: Estimated average requirement: Requirement is defined as the amount of a nutrient that prevents the development of a deficiency, based on specific signs and symptoms along with the results of other medical (usually blood) tests. Meets the needs of half (50%) of the population Recommended dietary allowance: Nutrient intakes that meet the needs of almost all healthy people (~98% of the population), Indicates nutrient adequacy, based on a variety of well-conducted studies and derived from EAR calculations plus an added safety margin Adequate intake: Nutrient intake goals for individuals. Based on studies of dietary intakes of healthy people, usually have not determined requirement, insufficient scientific evidence to calculate an RDA, Assumed to exceed requirements and to be adequate Tolerable upper intake levels: Is the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of toxicity to almost all healthy individuals, Helps protect against overconsumption of nutrients 2 categories for energy with an emphasis on AMDR: Estimated Energy Requirement- Estimates of the average energy requirement predicted to maintain body weight for an individual of a particular age, gender, height, weight, and physical activity level, Used as a starting point for determining energy needs Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)- Recommendations for macronutrients (expressed as % total energy intake) Percent energy that should be consumed from each of the macronutrients: Carbohydrate: 45 – 65% of energy intake Fat: 20 – 35% of energy intake Protein: 10 – 35% of energy intake 2 Uses of the AMDR: To help attain adequate nutrients & to reduce chronic disease risk Where daily values are found and on what were the daily values for the vitamins and minerals based? : Food Labels, vitamin and mineral values are based on the 1968 RDAs highest level of nutrient needs among all population groups from children age 4 years to adulthood 3What can the daily values best be used for and what can they not be used for? : Used for comparing foods but can’t be used for ascertaining whether or not you are meeting all your nutrient needs 3 types of label claims and recognize examples of each: 1. Nutrient claims – characterize the level of a nutrient in the food 2. Health claims – characterize the relationship of a food or food component to a disease or health related condition. Must have significant scientific agreement that a relationship exists between a nutrient, food/food constituent and disease 3. Structure / function claims – describe the effect that a substance has on the structure or function of the body and do not make reference to a disease What percent of the daily value must be in a food for the food to be a “high” versus a “good” source of a particular nutrient? : “Good”contains 10 -19% of the Daily Value of a nutrient & “High” contains >20% of the Daily Value of a nutrient Which claims require a label disclaimer about the product / disease prevention, treatment, cure? : Structure/Function claims- Ex: This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent disease. EX (zinc) supports immunity, (calcium) supports digestive health, (calcium) builds strong bones Benefits of consuming foods versus supplements: foods (not supplements) contain other substances that are important for health such as phytochemicals, bioactive substances 3 characteristics of chronic diseases and how chronic diseases impact people: They progress slowly, are long in duration, and that lack an immediate cure. Chronic diseases limit functioning, productivity, the quality of life, and the length of life Consumption of what food groups are most associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases? : Fruits, Whole Grains & Vegetables How does obesity affect disease risk? : It increases the risk and mortality rate How does malnutrition affect infection rates, lean body mass / muscle mass, length of stay, readmission, mortality, and cost? : Increases infection rates as it suppresses immune function, accelerates muscles mass loss and lean body mass, impairs wound healing, increases length of hospital stays, raises readmission rates, and increases mortality. How does loss of lean body mass affect health? : Loss of LBM impairs wound healing. There is a strong correlation between nutrition and wound healing involving protein synthesis 4