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rg 207

rg 207


School: University of Delaware
Department: Psychology
Course: Research Methods
Professor: Kristen begosh
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Survey_and_Observation.pdf
Description: These notes cover the lectures of Eric Splan
Uploaded: 01/28/2017
4 Pages 80 Views 0 Unlocks

o How many positive/ negative comments do you (other parents) give your (their) child during hockey games?

o How many words do you speak a day?

- How would participants respond to the previous types of questions in a questionnaire?

Construct Validity of Surveys and Polls - Survey o used when people are asked about a consumer product - Poll o used when people are asked about their social or political opinions  - Surveys and polls o A method of posing questions We also discuss several other topics like ece 3111
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to a sample of people over the phone, in personal  interviews, online written questionnaires, or online - Question format - Wording of the questions - Encouraging accurate responses  Choosing Questions Format - Open-ended questions  o Allow respondents to answer any way they like  o Spontaneous, detailed information  o Needs coding and categorization  ▪ Time-consuming, difficult - Forced-choice format  o People give their opinion by picking the best or more options o Frequently used in political polls  - Likert scale  o People are presented with a statement and are asked to use a rating scale to  indicate their degree of agreement  o For example, strongly agree, agree, neither agree or disagree, disagree, strongly  disagree o If it does not follow this format exactly, it may be called Likert-type scale - Semantic differential format  o Respondent might be asked to rate a target object using a numerical scale anchored with adjectives Writing Well-Worded Questions - Leading Questions o Leading or priming respondents to respond in a certain way  o Word questions as neutrally as possible to get true opinions - Double-barreled question  o Questions that ask multiple things  o Don’t know which part of the question respondents are responding to o Have poor construct validity  - Negative wording o Items are cognitively difficult to process o Captures memory or motivation to respond accurately  o Can make surveys unnecessarily complicated  o Reduce construct validity  - Question Order o The order in which questions are asked can also affect the responses to a survey  o Responses to earlier questions can change the way respondents understand and  answer the later questions  o Different versions of survey, with different order of questions  Encouraging Accurate Responses  - Giving meaningful responses efficiently  o Self-report can sometimes be ideal - Using shortcuts o Response sets or non-differentiation  ▪ Respondents adapt a consistent way of answering all the questions  ▪ A type of shortcut respondents can take when answering survey  questions  ▪ Weakens construct validity  ▪ Two types -> Acquiescence and fence sitting o Acquiescence or yea-saying  ▪ Occurs when people say yes or strongly agree to every item instead of  thinking carefully about each one ▪ Weakens construct validity  ▪ Reverse word items ∙ A way to differentiate between respondent who is yea-saying and  one who really does agree with all the items o Fence sitting  ▪ Playing it safe by answering in the middle of the scale, especially when  the survey items are controversial  ▪ Remove the neutral option  - Trying to look Good o Socially desirable responding or faking good or faking bad  o Concern about giving an unpopular response  o Solution  ▪ Anonymity  ▪ Include filler questions – mask true purpose of survey  ▪ Collect friend’s ratings  ▪ Implicit measure  ∙ People can’t control - Self reporting “more than they can know” o Respondents unintentionally give inaccurate responses  o Fail to recognize causes of own thoughts, behaviors, and feelings  - Self reporting memories of event o People’s memories for the events they have participated in are not very accurate o Confidence of memory not equal accuracy of memory  Is Self-report the Best or Worst option? - Ideal opinion  o Demographic information  o Subjective perspectives (what they think) - Only option  o Measuring a non-observable trait  Observational research - Researcher watches people or animals and systematically records how they behave or  what they are doing Observational vs Self-report - Many researchers think behavioral data > survey data - How would participants respond to the previous types of questions in a questionnaire? o How many words do you speak a day? o How many positive/ negative comments do you (other parents) give your (their)  child during hockey games? o How does your child react when you return home from work? Construct Validity of Behavioral Science  - Do the observations accurately measure the variable or interest? - Measurement reliability & validity - Observations can be better than self-reports - The construct validity of observations can be threatened by three problems o Observer bias  o Observer effect  o Reactivity  Observer bias: when observer see what they expect to see - Occurs when observers’ expectations influence their interpretation of the participants’  behaviors or the outcome of the study - Observers record what they want or expect to see, rather then what is really happening  (often times, unintentional)  - Affects how observers interpret behaviors they’ve watching Observer effects: when participants confirm observer expectations  - When observers actually change the behavior of those they are observing, such that  participants’’ behavior changes to match observer expectations Reactivity  - Occurs when people change their behavior (react) in some way when they know  another person is watching  - Solutions o Blend in  ▪ Make unobtrusive observations – that is, make yourself less noticeable ▪ For example, one-way mirrors, pretend to be causal onlooker o Wait it out ▪ Wait to make observations until targets get used to their presence, or  forget about being observed  o Measure the behavior’s results  ▪ Instead of measuring behavior, researchers measure the traces that a  behavior leaves behind  ▪ Use unobtrusive data Preventing Observer Bias and Observe Effects  - Codebooks  o Clear rating scale, reduces bias  - Multiple observers  o Interrater reliability  - Masked (blind) research designs  o Observers are unaware of the conditions to which participants are assigned, or  study’s hypotheses  Observing people ethically - Study must be reviewed by the IRB.  - Must obtain permission in advance to watch or videotape people’s private behavior.  - If filmed covertly, must explain at the end of filming. If people object, the film must be  discarded

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