Geology 101 In Class Sample Questions
What do we think drives plate tectonics?
● Mantle Convection
The Presence of water will ____ the melting temperature of a rock ● Decrease
How old is the Earth?
● 4.5 billion years
Which of the following makes up the bulk of the Earth?
According to the principle of uniformitarianism…
● Geological processes we observe today have operated in the past
Which of the following statements about scientific method is false? A. A scientific theory is never considered finally proved
B. Data used to generate a hypothesis may come from observations, experiments, and chance findings.
C. A theory that has accumulated substantial body of experimental support is called a hypothesis
D. A scientific model represents some aspect of nature based on a set of hypotheses and theories
The three main types of sediments are…
● Clastic, biochemical, chemical
The Earth’s core is made up primarily of…
In which of the following subsystems is the Earth’s magnetic field generated? ● Geodynamo system
What powers the Earth’s external heat engine?
● Solar energy
Which of the following concepts was developed earliest?
● Continental drift
Minerals form as a result of:
a. Crystallization form a magma
b. Recrystallization in the solid state
c. Precipitation from solution
d. All of the above
The two characteristics used to describe a rock are:
● Mineralogy and texture
Where would you expect to find the largest crystals in a lava flow? ● Near the bottom surface of the flow
Large igneous bodies that form at depth in the Earth’s crust are called ______. ● Plutons
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Andesite is an example of a(n) ______ igneous rock.
Oceanic crust that records negative magnetic anomalies formed when he Earth’s magnetic field was ___. If you want to learn more check out pers 2002 gsu
● Reversed from what it is today
Which of the following substances is not considered a mineral ● Coal
Most of the chemical bonds in common minerals are _____.
The Earth’s Lithospheric plates consist of
● Continental and oceanic crust and uppermost mantle
New lithosphere is created ____ .
● At mid ocean ridges
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What type of plate boundary is shown in the diagram?
● a subduction zone
On a map of the oceanic crust, the boundaries between normally and reversely magnetized oceanic crusts are called _____.
What drives plate tectonics?
● Mantle convection
What is the dominant type of bonding in minerals?
● Ionic bonding
Isotopes of an element have different numbers of ______.
Sodium has an atomic number of 11. How many electrons will the sodium cation Na+ have?
Cleavage in a mineral is controlled by the ______.
● Ionic arrangement of atoms within the material
T OR F: Any rock type (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic) can be turned into any other rock type via the processes of the rock cycle.
Which of the following igneous rocks crystallize at the earth’s surfaces? ● Basalt
Which of the following igneous rocks has the lowest silica content? ● Ultramafic
What type of rock makes up most of the Hawaiian Islands?
What type of sediments are accumulations of solid fragments produced by weathering? ● Clastic sediments
Sedimentary basins are formed by a process called_______.
Which of the following tectonic settings will be coolest at 30 km depth? ● Stable continental lithosphere
T OR F: Metamorphic rocks result from the recrystallization of existing rocks while they are still in a solid state. If you want to learn more check out What are the areas for product liability negligence?
Which of the following rocks represents the highest metamorphic grade? ● Gneiss
T OR F: A rock exhibiting high grade metamorphism has experienced high temperatures and/ or pressures.
The parent rock of a quartzite is ______.