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USC / Art / GEOL 101 / geology 101 exam 1

geology 101 exam 1

geology 101 exam 1

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Art
Course: Introduction to the Earth
Professor: Scott white
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Geology, geology notes, geology study guide, james kellogg, University of South Carolina, Columbia, test 1, intro to earth sciences, introduction to earth sciences, and earth sciences
Cost: 50
Name: GEOL 101 EXAM 1 TEST REVIEW
Description: all in-class questions that will likely make up the majority of the exam-- study this and you should ace it university of south carolina- columbia dr. James Kellogg Key Search Words: geology study guide james kellogg university of south carolina columbia test 1 intro to earth sciences introduction to earth sciences earth sciences
Uploaded: 01/28/2017
4 Pages 9 Views 8 Unlocks
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Geology 101 In Class Sample Questions


How do we know the earth is 4.5 billion years old?



What do we think drives plate tectonics? 

● Mantle Convection 

The Presence of water will ____ the melting temperature of a rock ● Decrease  

How old is the Earth? 

● 4.5 billion years 

Which of the following makes up the bulk of the Earth? 

● Mantle  

According to the principle of uniformitarianism… 

● Geological processes we observe today have operated in the past 

Which of the following statements about scientific method is false? A. A scientific theory is never considered finally proved 

B. Data used to generate a hypothesis may come from observations,  experiments, and chance findings. 

C. A theory that has accumulated  substantial body of experimental support  is called a hypothesis 

D. A scientific model represents some aspect of nature based on a set of  hypotheses and theories 


What powers the Earth’s external heat engine?



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The three main types of sediments are… 

● Clastic, biochemical, chemical 

The Earth’s core is made up primarily of… 

● Iron 

In which of the following subsystems is the Earth’s magnetic field generated? ● Geodynamo system 

What powers the Earth’s external heat engine? 

● Solar energy 

Which of the following concepts was developed earliest? 

● Continental drift 

Minerals form as a result of:

a. Crystallization form a magma 

b. Recrystallization in the solid state 

c. Precipitation from solution 

d. All of the above 

The two characteristics used to describe a rock are: 

● Mineralogy and texture 

Where would you expect to find the largest crystals in a lava flow? ● Near the bottom surface of the flow 

Large igneous bodies that form at depth in the Earth’s crust are called ______. ● Plutons 


Where would you expect to find the largest crystals in a lava flow?



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Andesite is an example of a(n) ______ igneous rock. 

● Intermediate 

Oceanic crust that records negative magnetic anomalies formed when he Earth’s  magnetic field was ___. If you want to learn more check out pers 2002 gsu

● Reversed from what it is today 

Which of the following substances is not considered a mineral ● Coal 

Most of the chemical bonds in common minerals are _____. 

● Ionic 

The Earth’s Lithospheric plates consist of 

● Continental and oceanic crust and uppermost mantle 

New lithosphere is created ____ . 

● At mid ocean ridges

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What type of plate boundary is shown in the diagram? 

● a subduction zone 

On a map of the oceanic crust, the boundaries between normally and reversely  magnetized oceanic crusts are called _____. 

● Isochrones 

What drives plate tectonics? 

● Mantle convection 

What is the dominant type of bonding in minerals? 

● Ionic bonding 

Isotopes of an element have different numbers of ______. 

● Neutrons 

Sodium has an atomic number of 11. How many electrons will the sodium cation Na+ have? 

● 10 

Cleavage in a mineral is controlled by the ______. 

● Ionic arrangement of atoms within the material 

T OR F: Any rock type (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic) can be turned into any  other rock type via the processes of the rock cycle. 

● True 

Which of the following igneous rocks crystallize at the earth’s surfaces? ● Basalt 

Which of the following igneous rocks has the lowest silica content? ● Ultramafic

What type of rock makes up most of the Hawaiian Islands? 

● Basalt 

What type of sediments are accumulations of solid fragments produced by weathering? ● Clastic sediments 

Sedimentary basins are formed by a process called_______. 

● Subsidence 

Which of the following tectonic settings will be coolest at 30 km depth? ● Stable continental lithosphere 

T OR F: Metamorphic rocks result from the recrystallization of existing rocks while they  are still in a solid state. If you want to learn more check out What are the areas for product liability negligence?

● True 

Which of the following rocks represents the highest metamorphic grade? ● Gneiss 

T OR F: A rock exhibiting high grade metamorphism has experienced high  temperatures and/ or pressures. 

● True 

The parent rock of a quartzite is ______. 

● Sandstone

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