Psychology Test Study Guide #1
Humans cannot rely on intuition and common sense.
Three phenomenon illustrate this:
Tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that could have been predicted it. Also known as the Iknewitallalong phenomenon.
Example: In the medical field the hindsight bias is used in the solution of different cases of diseases.
People tend to think they know more than they do
This occurs in academic and social behavior
The limit of intuition and common sense
Perceiving order in random events
People perceive patterns that you wouldn't expect
The need for psychological science?
Hindsight bias, overconfidence, and our tendency to perceive patterns
Includes a passion to explore and understand the world without misleading or being mislead Skepticism If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of the natural logarithm in math?
Supports questions about behavior and mental processes
What do you mean?
How do you know?
Seeking the truth and not always trying to be right
Involves awareness that mistakes are possible and willingness to be surprised Thinking critically
Critical thinking refers to a more careful style of forming and evaluating knowledge. Analyzing, rather than simply accepting information
searching for hidden assumptions and decide if you agree
Explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observation and predicts behaviors and events If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of fact in psychology?
Testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study Replication
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participant and circumstances Example: A kid eats 10 cookies and will become more hyperactive (hypothesis) How many times in an hour are they running around in the classroom (operational definition) The scientific method
Descriptive research is a systematic, objective, observation of people We also discuss several other topics like What are the characteristics of the appaloosa horse?
Types of research
Case studies, examines one individual in depth, cannot be used to generalize Example: What makes a school superior, looking at a small subset of the population. They are used a lot in developmental psychology
Naturalistic observation is descriptive, records behavior in a natural environment, describer but does not explain behavior, can be revealing
Example: Jane Goodall and monkeys
Surveys and interviews
Wording effect: the results you get from a survey can be changed by your word selection Example:
"making it legal for doctors to give terminally ill patients the means to end their lives" "making it legal for doctors to assist terminally ill patient in committing suicide"
Research strategies: Correlation
An observation that traits or attributes are related to each other, thus corelated Scientific definition a measure of how closely two factors are related Don't forget about the age old question of Where is wallacea?
Correlation coefficient provides a statistical measure of how closely two things vary together and how well one predicts the other
Positive correlation one thing increases and the other increases
Negative correlation one thing decreases then another thing decreases
1 People who smile more intensely as children are measured by number of crow's feet around the eyes in photos, are more likely to remain married through middle age (positive correlation)
2 People who sleep less than 8 hours a night on average are likely to have calcium deposits (negative correlation)
Refers to the perception of a relationship between two variables when only a relationship Correlation does not equal causation
Correlation indicates the possibility of a causation effect
Three possible causeeffect relationships
1 Low selfesteem could cause depression
2 Depression could cause low self esteem
3 Depression could be hereditary
With experiments, researchers can focus on the possible effects of one or more factors in several ways
Manipulating the factors of interest to determine their effects We also discuss several other topics like What is the political logic of judicial action?
Double blind procedure: Eliminating bias
Neither those in the study nor those collecting the data know which group is receiving the treatment
Treatment's actual effects can be separated from potential placebo effects Placebo effect
Effect involves results caused by expectation
Example: A group of athletes get energy bars some are a placebo brownie and some are actually energy bars or proteins so with this double blind experiment you can actually see if the energy bars are doing anything to the athlete.
Independent Variable is the experimental variable, what is being effected by the experiment
Confounding variables are factors other than the independent variable that could possibly produce an effect If you want to learn more check out What are the disadvantages of cross-sectional studies?
Dependent variable does not change
Professional associations and funding agency guidelines
Universities: IRB ethics committees; laboratory regulation and inspection
(APA) American psychological association: guidelines for humane treatment and minimization of infection, illness, and pain
Ethics codes of APA and university ethics committee
Obtain potential participants' informed consent before the experiment
Protect them from harm and discomfort
Keep information about individual participants confidential
Fully debrief people
Values in research
Affect what is studied, how it is studied
Accurate statistical understanding
Casual estimates often misread
Measuring of central tendency includes a single score that represents a set of scores. Mean, medium, mode, range
When is an observed difference significant?
When sample averages are reliable and difference between them is relatively large. Chapter 2
The Biology of the Mind
Everything psychological every idea, every mood, every urge is biological
Psychologists working from a biological perspective study the links between biology and behavior.
Humans are Biopsychosocial systems in which biological, psychological, and socialcultural factors interact to influence behavior.
There are things that influence our behavior, like social and cultural things, there are immense amount of variables that go into the way that we think.
Understanding of the relationship between the brain and mind evolved over time. Plato:
Gull: developed phrenology
Thought that the shape of people's skull tells you about your ability to think; however, he said there are specialized parts of the brain that tells you to do different things.
During the past century we have found that…
Nerve cells conduct electricity and communicate through chemical messages across tiny separating gaps
Specific brain systems serve specific functions and information is integrated to construct a wide range of experiences.
The adaptive brain is wired by experience
We are born with a certain amount of hardware that is going to grow over time. Our hardware learns as it grows.
Neuron's structure: Terms to learn
Dendrites "like a tree" receive information (signal) builds up enough charge Firing an action potential is all or none.
Terminal Branches connect to other cells dendrites, connecting to another cell (different types of neurotransmitters can be sitting there at the terminal axon branches)
Axon passes messages away from the body cell to other neurons
Ions are being sent down the neuron by pushing electrons across its surface Glial cells A cell that helps provide myelin
Myelin sheath Covers the axon of some neurons and help speed neural process. A type of fat that helps keep the charge inside.
Allornone response When action potential fires it never hits anything less or more Neurotransmitters
Reuptake the excess of neurotransmitters is engulfed or thrown away or broken down by enzymes
Action potential neural impulse that travels down an axon like a wave
1. Neuron stimulation causes a brief change in the electrical charge. If strong enough, this produces depolarization and an action potential.
2. It is more negative on the inside and positive is on the outside
3. There is a wave of pressure that sends positive charges in as it goes down the axons and tells the neurotransmitters when it gets to the end that it has to release.
Once it gets enough stimulation and reaches the threshold the action potential starts moving, and it always fires at the same 100 percent magnitude.
Synapse a small junction in between two cells ( they don’t actually touch) sends the neurotransmitters across to stimulate the next cell
A simple Reflex
There is a lot of things that happen that don’t require your brain, and there is a lot of things that you don’t need to be aware of to control.
Interneurons don’t have myelin they are going so fast that they don’t lose their signal. They are very small.
Our bodies are working in part independent from our brain.
3 neurons are involved In the tapping of the knee and your brain isn't involved. There are 25 different types of serotonin
Acetylcholine stimulates you when you drink coffee, involved in learning and memory, helps with muscle
Endorphin running/ are natural opiates released in response to pain and exercise Drugs and other chemicals affect the brain
Agonist: Molecule that increases a neurotransmitter's action (help promote that end goal)
Antagonist: Molecule that inhibits or blocks a neurotransmitter's action. Epilepsy your cells are firing too much.
Drinking too much alcohol antagonizes your movement
Caffeine helps agonize your brain
There are different pathways in your brain and most start in your brain stem. Not enough dopamine you are not happy
Ach, Dopamine, Epinephrine (adrenaline) , GABA, glutamate
Central nervous system Brain, and spinal cord
CNS from the spinal cord outwards to the rest of the body
PNS sensory and motor neurons connecting the central nervous system and Peripheral
Autonomic nervous system is under peripheral and it is selfoccurring (arouses and calms) . It happens by itself…. Under this there is parasympathetic is calms and conserves energy, allowing routine maintenance activity and controls involuntary muscles and glands. Rest and digest.
Sympathetic is basically the opposite of what you think it should be, you are getting ready for fight or flight. Heart rate goes up, sweating
Sensory neurons Carry messages from the body's tissues ad sensory receptors inward your spinal cord and brain for processing.
carry instructions from your central nervous system out to body muscle's Interneurons communicate with one another and process all the connections Adult brain has about 86 billion neurons
Brain accounts for about 2 percent of the body weight and uses 20 percent of energy.
Neural networks and pathways govern reflexes through highly efficient electrochemical information system.
A giant chunk of all that you do goes to the brain, so we need to eat a lot.
Somatic nervous system aids in sensory input and motor output (like touching a candle.)
The endocrine system is a set of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream. Hormones travel through the body and affect other tissues including the brain.
Pituitary is the master gland that influences hormone release by other glands, including the adrenal gland
Hypothalamus influences the pituitary gland which influenced other glands, which release hormones and influence the brain
Both help synthesize and create hormones
The endocrine system is slower than the nervous system
Brain Pituitary other glands hormonesbody and brain
As a growth hormone releases it goes into your blood and eventually it goes into all parts of the blood causing the human body to grow.
Our stomachs release a hormone that our brain senses in the pituitary telling the brain that we are full.
The nervous system coordinates with the endocrine system
The space in between is to revamp its signal, but is just one axon.
MRI create an image in three parts of your body
Older brain structure
Less complex brain in primitive vertebrae's handle basic survival functions More complex brain in advanced mammals
The brain stem including the medulla and pons is an extension of your spinal cord. The thalamus is attached to its top. The reticular formation passes through both structures.
Audio recording started: 11:10 AM Thursday, January 19, 2017
White matter filled with different axons
Grey matter Cell body
Myelin is wrapped around axons and made of fat and fat at room temperature is white. Brain stem the oldest and innermost brain region
Medulla is located at base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing Pons sits above medulla and helps coordinate movement
Cerebellum Aids in judgement of time, sound and texture discrimination, and emotional control Coordinates voluntary movement and life sustaining functions
Helps process and store information outside of awareness.
Amygdala consists of two limabean neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion.
Hypothalamus Helps control your feeding behaviors, emotional behaviors, sexual behaviors (linked to your emotion). Ability to become HANGRY.
Helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotions.
We have two halves of the brain that can act independently, but they are formed in connection with each other through axon masses.
The left hemisphere tissue devoted to each body part in the motor cortex and the somatosensory cortex…….. This aids in the movement of our mouth.
By touching and feeling different objects we are able to comprehend and execute social appropriate behaviors.
somatosensory cortex processes information from skin senses and boy parts movement Association areas are associated with your primary area.
If your frontal lobe is damaged then our instincts to keep us back from doing bad things without thinking, we lose our sense of self.
Brain plasticity If one hemisphere is damaged in life, other will assume many functions by reorganizing or building new pathways.
Your brain remolds itself to do what it needs to do, it works especially well if you are younger.
Plasticity diminishes later in life
Brain sometimes needs to mend itself by forming neurons through neurogenesis. Split brain hemisphere
Isolated cutting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them.
Intact brain data received either by hemisphere are quickly transmitted to the other side across the corpus.
Right left differentthe difference is that there is a preference for left or right.
Left handedness more likely to have reading disabilities, but more common among musicians, artists.
The place of consciousness in Psychology's History
Cognitive neuroscience Interdisciplinary study of the brain linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
Owen Takes FMRI scans of individuals in both vegetative states and healthy states. Dual processing
information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious (explicit) and unconscious (implicit) task
For example, walking.
Perceptions, memory, attitudes, and other cognitions are affected.
Blind sight awareness: condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it.
Selective attention: focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus. For example, the cocktail party affect
For example, the Gorilla that walked across the screen
in attentional blindness
For example, the man asking for directions, approximately people in the study didn't notice that the person they were talking to was not the same person. The door study.
Periodic natural loss of consciousness
Biological rhythms 24hour biological clock
Circadian rhythm is our daily schedule of awaking and sleep. Our general drive is sleeping. Circadian rhythms will be more intense when we are sleep deprived.
Women tend to be morning oriented
Teenagers tend to be more energized in the evening
Brain waves and sleep stages
REM – rapid movement (beta waves, low voltage, EEG’s increased heart rate
NREM 1 sleep waves, can wake up easily
NREM 2 – More relaxed sleep, sleep spindles, no conscious awareness of your environment
NREM 3 (delta waves), night terrors can occur, sleep walking can occur, and bed wetting can occur.
If you are awake during REM sleep you most likely remember your dreams. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) when bright lights hit you it activates you SCN Melatonin promotes sleep
Social Jet lag our sleep patterns can change based on our environment
REM and NREM 2 sleep strengthens neural; connections that build enduring memories. During sleep pituitary glands secrete growth hormones, good for muscle development. Increased cortisol means you are sleep deprived.
Chemical introductions into the body that alter our perceptions moods and other elements of consciousness
Addiction is a compulsive craving
Withdrawal is a discomfort you get from weaning yourself off an addiction Tolerance results when someone no longer responds to a drug in a way that they used to when they first started using it.
Tolerance feeds addiction
When is a drug a disorder?
Diminished social functioning
Types of psychoactive drugs?
Depressants alcohol, barbiturates, opiates
Stimulants Nicotine, cocaine, Meth, ecstasy (also a hallucinogen)
Hallucinogens LSD, marijuana
Dopamine is associated with withdrawal
Alcohol reduces our SNS activity, distorts brain cognition, memory and slows neural processing
Barbiturates tranquilizer, meant to slow you down, reducing anxiety, depress the activity of the central nervous system
Opiates depress neural activity (morphine), can cause your brain to stop producing natural opiates endorphins
Nicotine Signal nervous system to release a flood of neurotransmitters, calms anxiety, boosts alertness and mental efficiency
Cocaine produces a quick rush of eutrophic, and it feels good to your neurotransmitters, but within 1530 minutes the person may feel agitated or depressed.
Meth Triggers the sustaining release of dopamine, sometimes leading to 8 hours of europhia and energy, reduces your natural hormones
Ecstasy/MDNA increases dopamine, increases serotonin, CNS stimulation LSD interferes with serotonins neurotransmitter, perception of reality changes Marijuana disrupts memory formation, impairs motor coordination, impairs brain development. Chapter 4
Nurture environment, how you are raised
Nature biology, genetics, things that make up who you are
Behavior genetics: predicting individual differences
Evolutionary Psychology: understanding Human nature
Culture, gender and environmental roles
Behavior genetics' study of relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
any nongenetic influence, prenatal nutrition, where you grow up, education Environment every non genetic, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us Chromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the gene DNA complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
Genes are units of heredity that make up chromosomes, when genes are expressed they provide the code for creating proteins that form the building block of who we are
Genome an organisms complete set of genes
Humans have 46 chromosomes that come in a set of 23 each set from the mom and dad. The 23 set is the sex chromosomes.
Identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg
can share the same placenta or be different
Fraternal twins develop from two fertilized eggs
Do not share the same placenta
Identical twins are always going to be the same gender, have the same blood type and they can have biological differences, because they can still not share the same placenta and get different amounts of nourishment.
Biological versus adoptive relatives allow researchers to tease apart the influence of heredity and environment.
Separated identical twins maintain genes while testing effects of different home environments
Adoptive families maintain home environment while studying effects of genetic differences (looking at the impact of nurture) if the adoptive child grows up to be like their parent you could say that nurture is at work.
More nature is prevalent if the child is more like their adoptive parents
Identical twins in adulthood show that identical twins are more alike that fraternal twins in Personality
behaviors/outcomes (divorce rates)
Abilities (IQ tests)
Similarities found in identical twins despite being raised in different homes Personality
Studies conducted with adopted children for whom the biological relatives are known
Adopted children seem to be more similar to their genetic relatives than their environmental nature nurture
Siblings only share half of our genes, like fraternal twins
Genetic differences can be amplified as people react to them differently The environment changes with each addition to a family
Siblings are raised in slightly different families; the youngest has more older siblings has one older parents.
Your environment can change even within the same environments
persons characteristics emotional reactivity and intensity
Apparent from first weeks of life and generally persists into adulthood
More biological, doesn’t really change over time
Genetic effects appears in physiological differences such as heart rate and nervous system reactivity
Starts during your infancy and can continue into childhood, adolescence Heritability
Heritability is the proportion of variation among individuals that can be attributed to genes (differences among people due to genes)
The heritability of a trait may vary
It does not tell us how much of a trait comes from a gene
Doesn’t tell you how many genes are contributed to one person
Heritability ranges from 0 to 1
1 means genes are the only reason for example a phenotypic feature
0 genes are not the reason for that trait
Shyness a heritability of shyness is about .4 showcase
Is the study of molecular structure and function of genes
Finding some of many genes that together contribute complex traits
Revealing at risk population for disease
Studies molecular mechanisms by which environment can trigger or block genetic expression
Epigenetics marks from experiences
Modifying DNA that can turn on or off a gene
Food you eat; exercise how you eat can show how this can affect future offspring
Life experiences beginning in the womb lay down epigenetic marks often organic methyl molecules that can affect the expression of any gene in the associated DNA segment
Using DNAscanning techniques, molecular geneticist can provide parents with readout on how their fetus genes differ from normal and the consequences of these differences.
various ethical conundrums (MICE)
Experience and Brain development
Mark Rosenwein and David crash
Looked at different mice in an enriched environment in an impoverished environment
The rats raised as pets did better in problem solving tests and had a more stimulated cerebral cortex
Experience and Brain development
Nature and nurture interact to shape synapses
To make well used brain pathways work better, unused connections are "pruned away This means that if certain abilities are not used, they will fade away.
Brain plasticity allows neural tissue to change and reorganize in response to new experience (brain plasticity)
The parents and Peers (blame or credit)
The largest parenting effect occurs at the extremes
In personality measures, shared environmental influence from prenatal development onward account for less than 10 percent of child differences
In late childhood and adolescence, peers may take on a more important role Selection effect
Social learning theory
Identity based theories
Both peers and parents influence us
even indirectly your parents can affect you, by choosing your school/ neighborhood Cultural influences
Culture refers to the patterns of ideas, attitudes, values, lifestyle habits, and traditions shared by a group of people and passed on to future generations.
Each culture has norms standards for acceptable, expected behavior.
overtime, culture can change
culture shock: feeling lost about what behaviors are appropriate