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ROCKFORD / Philosophy / PHIL 103 / What does metaphysical means?

What does metaphysical means?

What does metaphysical means?

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Sarah Irvin Intro to Philosophy PHIL103-01 Wk2 1/23/2017 Readings Assigned: Allegory of the Cave (144-151) Readings Discussed: Plato (46-49) Background information to better understand his writings Socrates – mentor of Plato, parallel life to Jesus Plato – one of the most prolific writers, most writings lived on for political reasons, had students  himself, sole ancient philosopher who saw woman leaders as valid leaders Translational layers lead to inconsistencies in author’s voice 4th BCE Athens, first attempted Democracy Ancient Philosophy era, “The Good Life” search of what is a good life Aristotle was a student of Plato Presocratics – Aristotle, Plato Hellenistic schools (stoicism, skepticism, epicenterism) Very few fragments survived Referenced by Plato often Dialogues centered primarily around Socrates ex: Republic (what is Justice?) Interlocketer: interactor with Socrates in dialogue, attempts to answer his question Unknown how much of diaogues were influenced by Socrates and how much by Plato’s  own opinions The Apology (70-75) Accused of something? Defend yourself with argument of reason Sophists were modern day lawyers, rhetoric professionals Apologetic = defender The Apology wasn’t actually him saying sorry, he was defending himselfAthenians were polytheistic, Socrates was charged with worshipping false gods Also charged with poorly influencing youth Yet early Christianity adopted many of Plato’s points Key Platonic Concepts: Forms – Metaphysical Appearance is experience and nothing is perfect (only know that’s a chair bc of experience with chairs,  but we’ve never seen a perfect chair so is it really a chair?????) Heaven of Forms gives us reference to what perfection is, how we can distinguish between better and  worse In Heaven of Forms, the perfect form of every object exists Justice (Republic) – State and Individual What is a harmonious state? Tripartite theory of soul – state Reason Philosopher Kings Spirit/Passion Athletes, Soldiers Appetites Artisans


All are abstractions “what is number 2?




What is a harmonious state?




Dialogues centered primarily around Socrates ex: Republic (what is Justice?



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Souls line up with types of citizens, like caste system What we are best suited to do Three tiers of well ordered soul, three tiers of well ordered state Wrap -up: Eastern vs. Western Philosophy have different points of departure from here on out The ideal is the important thing If there is nothing perfect, than all that matters is how we attempt to achieve it1/25/2017 Readings Assigned: None Readings Discussed: Allegory of the Cave (144-151) Book VII of The Republic What is Justice? (justice is harmony in this context) Tripartite theory of soul-state Perfect Forms Argument for objective morality Sophists were moral relativists Winning was more important than the truth Might makes right, justice is deemed by those with power Metaphorical Womb/Birth “An analogy for the human condition” All we know is what is around us Realization of greater/transcendence leaves us temporarily confused, in pain, scared Initial Metaphysicists were mathematicians Try and define number, music, religion, etc Lives in transcendence  All are abstractions “what is number 2?” don’t use examples What Plato is really saying is that nothing we currently experience is the real reality. It is all transcended  above our status. When it comes to the cave we live in allegorically, only Philosopher Kings are able to  attempt to leave and explain.  1/27/17 Readings Assigned:  Descartes introduction (387-391), and pg’s 391-398 (Meditations I and II) Readings Discussed: Allegory of the CaveDialectic – way knowledge of Forms is obtained (defined p. 150) *following references handout from class, labeled Plato’s Divided Line Book VI of The Republic sets up Allegory of the Cave Plato’s Divided Line is essentially the linear version of the Allegory Artisans are naïve but some start to define things with faith Soldiers use reasoning Philosophers have intellect and thought *following references video “To Be” by John Weldon Destruction of original being is what causes dilemma What is real? What defines the original? What defines the copies/versions? Stream of consciousness, separate beings proven by separate reactions Descartes in a nutshell: mind body separation is possible Discourse on Method: I think therefore I am
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