CRJU 1100/3100 Exam 1 Study Guide 1. What are the main differences between criminal justice and criminology? ∙ Criminal Justice focuses on the Justice Process (Study of society’s Response to crime Study of the way the CJ System and what affects the outcomes it achieves) While Criminology focuses on crime and criminals • Criminology focuses on WHY people commit crime criminal justice focuses on what has already happened / the process • 3 Components of Criminal Justice: police, courts, and corrections ∙ Goals of CJS ∙ Doing Justice ∙ Controlling Crime ∙ Preventing Crime ∙ Perception of Safety ∙ Protect Society ∙ 3 Primary Goals ∙ Offenders are held accountable for their behaviors ∙ The rights of those who have contract with the CJS will be protected ∙ Like offenses will be treated alike and officials will take into account relevant differences among offenders and offenses 2. What are the main differences between the due process and crime control models, and what are the goals of each? (Herbert Packer) ∙ Due process model: Criminal defendants should be presumed innocent, courts must protect suspects rights, some limits must be placed on police powers ∙ Crime control model: emphasizes law and order and argues that every effort must be made to suppress crime and to try to convict and incarcerate offenders ∙ ** crime is driven by social influences (unemployment, racial discrimination and things that have an effect on the poor) ** ∙ Goals of Each: Protecting Rights of defendants (Due process), Controlling Crime (Crime Control) ∙ Crime Control Model ∙ Law enforcement must be counted on to control criminal activity ∙ Compete control is difficult and probably impossible ∙ The system must be quick and efficient ∙ Police are in a better position than courts to determine guilt ∙ Due Process Model ∙ Strives to make it difficult to prove guilt ∙ Ultimate goal: fairness, not efficiency ∙ Rejects the idea of a CJ system with unlimited powers ∙ CJS should recognize its own capacity of making mistakes ∙ Relies heavily on courts
Crime Control Model
Views criminal justice as an…
Protecting Rights of defendants Goal of CJ System
Efficiency, speed, Finality
Formal adversarial procedures
Process of adjudication
Informal screening by police and prosecutor
Whose rights are of most concern?
What are the main differences between the due process and crime control models, and what are the goals of each?
What are the main differences between criminal justice and criminology?
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Crime Control Model
Due Process Model
Who best determines guilt?
Whose rights are of most concern?
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3.What is the consensus model of criminal justice? ∙ Consensus Theory(Model): said to exist where a society functions as a result of a groups common interests and values (because people have experienced similar socialization) ∙ Thomas Hobbs(consensus) ∙ Argued that all people were essentially irrational and selfish ∙ People had enough rationality to recognize their situation and come together to form governments for self-protection ∙ Live in a state of consensus ∙ Conflict theory: said to exist in societies where the working class is exploited by the ruling class According to Locke (consensus) ∙ Each person has the right of self-protection against those who mess with their rights ∙ We’re created by god to be free, equal and independent ∙ Rights to life, liberty and property ∙ People joined together to form governments to which they surrendered their rights of self-protection. In return, they received government protection of their lives, property and liberty ∙ People give up their right to protect themselves and received protection in return ∙ Believed the chief purpose of government was the protection of property ∙ Jean- Jacques Rousseau(conflict) ∙ “Man, is born free, but everywhere he is in chains” ∙ Associated the loss of freedom and the creation of conflict in modern societies with the development of private property and unequal distribution of resources ∙ Describes conflict between ruling group and others ∙ ** Difference between the consensus and conflict theorist is how they view the legitimacy of the ruling groups** 4. What is the wedding cake model of the criminal justice process? ∙ The wedding cake model of CJ (Samuel Walker) ∙ Layer 1: Celebrated Cases ∙ Cases that get a lot of media attention ∙ Or celebrities (Michael Jackson, OJ Simpson) ∙ Layer 2: Serious felonies ∙ Violent crimes committed by people with lengthy criminal records / often prey on people they don’t know ∙ ** police and prosecution believe they are most deserving of heavy punishment** ∙ Layer 3: Lesser felonies ∙ Lesser felonies that are nonviolent ∙ Offender may have no criminal history, and had a relationship with victim ∙ ** most usually end in plea agreements** ∙ Layer 4: Misdemeanors ∙ Misdemeanor cases ∙ **Make 90% of all criminal matters** ∙ Trials are rare, usually end with plea agreements, fines, probation, or short term jail sentences ∙ Included Junk Crimes: disturbing the peace, minor theft, public drunkenness etc. 5. Be able to identify part I/index crimes. What are the differences between crimes definitions and their rates? ∙ UCR Part I Offenses (violent crimes/ index crimes) ∙ Murder ∙ Forcible Rape ∙ Robbery ∙ Aggravated Assault ∙ Burglary ∙ Larceny-theft ∙ ** violent/personal crimes** ∙ Rates are averaged together, to form a crime index ∙ Researchers focus here the most Crime Rate Number of offenses ------------------------- * 100,000 = Number of offenses per 100,000 population Population of the jurisdiction • Crime rate formula can also be considered a “victim risk rate” or the chances of ones becoming a victim Part 1 offense • Composed of 8 serious felonies (murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny- theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson) • The first four of these offenses are deemed crimes against persons and are offenses that involve force or threat of force 6. What are the UCR and NCVS? Where does each of the reports get their information from, and what type of data is included? What are the general findings from each report? ∙ UCR: Uniform Crime Report ∙ NCVS: National Crime Victimization Survey (Rest of the information can be found in question 7) 7. Be able to identify/give examples of pros and cons for the UCR and NCVS. ∙ What are some of the pros and cons of UCR? ∙ Pros: Most common used method for crime ∙ Just to know where crime is occurring ∙ Which are has a high crime rate/ which ones do not ∙ Cons: Not all crimes get reported ∙ Each department may report or define crime in a different way ∙ UCR Cons ∙ Dark figure of crime ∙ Systematic differences in reporting practices ∙ Systemic changes in reporting practices ∙ Changes in citizen and police reporting practices Underreporting ∙ Crimes cannot be recorded in the UCR if they are NOT reported by the victim Why would a victim not report a crime? ∙ Fear of the perpetrator ∙ Shame ∙ Reluctance to get involved with the criminal justice system ∙ Not worth it ∙ ** we don’t actual get the full extent of crime because of underreporting** • Unreported crimes by police organizations cannot be used in the UCR ∙ UCR includes very little information concerning crime victims ∙ NCVS ∙ **Cannot collect info on murder because the victim is dead ** ∙ Sometimes people lie on the surveys 8. What are some of the general findings and historical trends the UCR and NCVS have found? ∙ 2 major databases used in the Criminal Justice field: ∙ Uniform Crime Report/ National Incident- Based Reporting System (UCR/NIBRS): ∙ FBI ∙ National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS): Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Extra in class notes ∙ Voluntary for police officers to offer up their arrest records to FBI ∙ Having crime reports help reduce crime as well as make new policies (Backfiring: ∙ D.A.R.E program exposed kids to drugs increasing drug use in juveniles) • UCR flawed because it only records crimes that are reported ∙ ∙ ∙ Uniform Crime Report (UCR) ∙ Created in 1930 (in response to the rise in crime in the 1920’s) ∙ Administered by the FBI ∙ Collects data about crimes reported to the police ∙ More than 18,000 police departments across the U.S. report information ∙ National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) History ∙ Conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics through the Census ∙ Began out of dissatisfaction for the UCR ∙ 72,000 house hold are interviewed every 6 months for 3 years • Total of 7 interviews. First interview is used for bounding ∙ NCVS has found ∙ Shown to have higher amount of crimes reported than UCR ∙ • Victimization rates highest for households: ∙ Headed by blacks ∙ Headed by younger people ∙ Has 6 or more members ∙ Headed by renters ∙ Located in central ∙ Why would victimization be higher for renter’s vs owners? ∙ Renters have to go through the land lord for protection vs owners can go ahead and put in an alarm system ∙ Homeowners know their neighbors better ∙ NCVS has found (cont.) ∙ Crime has been decreasing by about 25% since the 1980s ∙ Victimization is uniformly distributed ∙ Victimization _declines_____ with age (after criminogenic age as has passed) ∙ Violent Crimes follows concentric zones ∙ Violent victimization is higher for males ∙ Violent victimization tends to be intra racial (same race) ∙ Violent victimization is highest for non-white individuals NCVS Cons ∙ Cost 10 million a year ∙ Inaccurate Reporting • Time in Sample Bias ∙ Method of Interview ∙ Movers & Stayers ∙ Series Victimization ∙ Missing Variables & Populations ∙ Age and Crime ∙ Crime is a “Young person’s game” ∙ ***Age crime curve very important *** ∙ Bulk of offenses are committed by younger individuals (between the ages of 15 and 24) • ∙ Phrases: ∙ Aging out ∙ Maturing hypothesis ∙ • Criminal career Region and Crime ∙ In 2013 43% of aggravated assaults 44% of murders and 45% of burglaries were committed in the south • ∙ Phrase: ∙ “Southern subculture of violence” ∙ Closer to the borders ∙ More guns ∙ Heat makes people more agitated Communities and Crime ∙ Certain types of crime are more likely to occur in certain communities than others ∙ Research show that drunk driving is more likely to occur in rural communities ∙ The dynamics of victimization are different across communities ∙ Race/ ethnicity and Crime ∙ UCR data shows that Blacks/ Africans are overrepresented in each offense type ∙ NCVS data shows that Whites and Asians had the lowest violent victimization rates ∙ Disparities suggest that race is associated with crime and victimization ∙ Systemic inequality could be another explanation for the offending and victimization difference between whites and minorities Gender and Crime ∙ Female arrests increased between 2003 and 2013 male arrests decreased ∙ Large majority of crimes are still committed by males ∙ There is no definite answer to why males offend more than females, but there are many ideas ∙ Biological explanations ∙ Specialization/ gender role explanations Crime and time ∙ Research shows that crimes tends to carry across time, in terms of time of the day, day of the week, day of the year and month ∙ Burglaries occur more frequently in the evening ∙ Juvenile offending tends to peak when juveniles are out of school ∙ Murders more frequently occur on weekends in the evening or early morning hours and summer months ∙ Social class and crime ∙ Six possible reasons that have been cited to explain ties between class and crime ∙ Stress from poverty ∙ Lower class values ∙ Violence leading to lower social class ∙ Inequality breeding crime ∙ Inequality breeding differential treatment from the justice system 9. What is the general flow an individual goes through as s/he progresses through the criminal justice system? The CJ process: overview of Flow and Functions Arrested ???? initial appearance ???? preliminary hearing or Grand jury ???? adjudication ???? arraignment ???? Trial ????sentencing ** Appellate Review** • Intermediate sentence: 5-10 years • Determinate sentence: 5 years (set amount) The Justice Process • Cases do not always flow from one stage to the next • Cases may drop out of the process at any point • Specific jurisdictions have rules and guidelines regarding justice process • Juvenile justice process flows differently than adult justice, depending on the nature of the case • Seriousness of various types of cases influences how they are processed ∙ Excuses: self-defense, emotional distress, insanity ∙ Difference between formal/informal: formal is the actual implication, going to jail paying for crime. ∙ Informal is something that prevents you from committing crime (Formal is used when informal doesn’t work) 10. Identify different types of laws, how they are made, and what type of behaviors/relationships they govern. ∙ Common law: collections of rules, customs, and traditions of medieval England (created during the reign of Henry the II) ∙ Henry established a permanent body of professional judges who traveled a “circuit” ∙ Stare decisis: (to stand by things settled) doctrine stating when a court has once laid down a principle of law, it will adhere to that principle and apply it in the same manner to all future cases where facts are substantially the same ∙ ** Lower courts must follow decisions of higher courts when the same legal issues and questions come before them** ∙ *** Two primary types of law: Criminal and Civil *** ∙ Statue: law enacted by congress (federal law) or by state legislature (state law) ** Also, known as Statutory law ∙ Ordinance: (or code) typically refers to a law enacted by a local law making body (city council or county board) ∙ Federal law ∙ “the supreme law of the land” – U.S constitution, takes precedence over state constitution even if they conflict ∙ Federal statues: civil and criminal laws enacted by congress ∙ Administrative laws: orders, directives and regulations for federal agencies, such as work place laws promulgated by the occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) ∙ Federal common law: published decisions from the U.S supreme court and the U.S. ∙ circuit courts of appeals, establish legal “precedence” and must be followed by lower courts in the Federal and state systems ∙ State law ∙ State constitutional law: state constitutional rulings (from a state’s highest court), may give greater protection or rights than Federal constitution , may not give less (Civil rights, liberties, separation of Powers, checks and balances ) ∙ State statues: laws enacted by state legislature ∙ State common law: established in published opinions by state appellate judges when deciding civil or criminal cases ∙ City/ County law ∙ Municipal ordinances or codes govern many aspects of our daily lives: ∙ Rent control ∙ Business licenses ∙ Noise and nuisance regulations ∙ Building and construction standards ∙ Public Health and safety ∙ Civil rights and antidiscrimination ∙ ∙ Criminal and Civil law ∙ Criminal law: applies to criminal matters ∙ Civil law: applies to civil matters (property dispute, or wanting to get divorced) ∙ Criminal When someone commits a crime: ∙ State or government, through the prosecutor or District Attorney prosecutes the person on behalf of the people ∙ Typical Criminal Case: U.S V Jones or State of Nevada V Smith ∙ Civil ∙ Two individuals (or business entities like a corporation) are on either side ∙ Property dispute (Person A’s fence is on Person B’s property) ∙ Injured using a product: Civil case against manufacturer or corporation ∙ Typical Civil Case: Jones V Smith or Jones V ABC Corporation ∙ ∙ Plaintiff: party bringing a lawsuit or initiating a legal action against someone else ∙ ∙ Defendant: a person against whom a criminal charge is pending, one charged with a crime ∙ In criminal cases, the prosecutor or the state has the burden of proof ∙ Burden of proof: burden of proving the defendant’s guilt “beyond a reasonable doubt” ∙ (forces the government to prove its case (innocent until proven guilty)) ∙ *** Sometimes burden shifts to defendant when claiming self-defense*** ∙ In civil cases the burden on the party seeking damages or a remedy is less than in a criminal matter – those representing this party must prove their case by Preponderance of the evidence ∙ Reasonable doubt: after hearing all evidence, jurors do not possess an abiding conviction to a moral certainty that the charges brought against the defendant are true ∙ There can still be doubt but only to the extent that it wouldn’t affect a ∙ “reasonable persons” belief that the defendant is guilt. If so, then prosecution hasn’t met burden of proof, and the jury or judge must find the defendant not guilty ** ∙ Civil “reasonable doubt” = 50 percent plus a feather test (much less difficult burden to meet) ∙ Asks jurors to decide which way the evidence causes the scales of justice to tip, toward guilt or innocence and to decide the cases on that basis ∙ The major difference between civil and criminal matters is the Penalty** ∙ Criminal case: state or prosecutor seeks to punish defendant with prison or jail time, a monetary fine or both ∙ Civil case: one party is seeking damages (money or some legal remedy) from the other party ∙ Property Dispute: fence would have to come down ∙ Injury: corporation could be ordered to pay medical expenses and legal fees ∙ 11. Be able to identify different defenses and excuses that a defendant may use in court. ∙ Defenses ∙ Affirmative defense: defendant admits to the criminal conduct but offers reasons for acting **Two categories: Justifications and excuses ** ∙ Justification Defenses ∙ Self-defense: Justification defense rooted in necessity (had to do it to avoid greater harm) • Defense of others ∙ Law enforcement actions ∙ Necessity ∙ Excuses Defenses ∙ Age ∙ 7 > too young to be criminally responsible ∙ 7-14 presumed incapable of committing crime (prosecutors may challenge this) - 16 and up tried in Juvenile Court ∙ Entrapment ∙ Police tactics that unduly encourage or induce an individual to commit a crime he or she typically would not commit ∙ Intoxication ∙ Defendant must show they were operating under diminished capacity ∙ Duress ∙ Claim they committed the act only because they were not acting of their own free will ∙ Double Jeopardy ∙ No one can be tried twice for the same crime ∙ ∙ Mental illness/ insanity ∙ Right-wrong test: asking whether the defendant understood the nature and quality of his or her act and if they understood it was wrong ∙ Irresistible impulse test: Impulses take over and defendant can’t help it 12.What are the different perspectives of crime? How are they different? ∙ Crime: ∙ Some individuals focus on how society creates definitions of appropriate and inappropriate behavior ∙ From the social perspective, crime can be defined as ∙ A violation of norms ∙ An ethical violation (Crime, hurting other humans) ∙ A social construction (based on understandings of hat the world should be, how society creates what’s right and wrong) ∙ A social justice issue (class, race, gender) (any society would think it’s wrong, dangerous crime) ∙ Mala in se crimes (Evil in itself)- Murder, rape ∙ Mal prohibita crimes (parking ticket, misdemeanor, victimless crime) ∙ Legal Perspectives of Crime ∙ We usually say that a crime is an act that violates ∙ To fully define crime from a legal perspective, it is important to consider the following: ∙ Crime is an illegal act according to the criminal law ∙ Crime is an illegal act according to the criminal law ∙ Crime is an illegal act committed without defense or justification ∙ ** Police officers will act differently with someone who committed murder Vs theft ** ∙ Crime as an Illegal Act According to the Criminal Law ∙ Criminal law defines behaviors (or omissions) that are illegal and proscribes formal punishment for: ∙ The violation of society’s rules ∙ Offenses against the state ∙ Civil law involves disputes between individuals ∙ Contracts, property disputes, child custody ∙ Some acts may carry criminal and civil penalties ∙ Criminal: Beyond a reasonable doubt ∙ Civil: Preponderance of the evidence ∙ Classifications of Criminal Offenses ∙ Felonies: result in a sanction of a year or more in prison or the death penalty (and/or more than $1,000.00 in fines) (murder, kidnapping, rape) ∙ Misdemeanor: punishable by no more than a year in jail (or up to $1,000.00 in fines) (speeding, littering, shoplifting, domestic violence, simple drug charges, trespassing, burglary) ∙ 13. Actus reus and mens rea, what do they mean, and what other components fall under them? ∙ Essential Elements: Mens Rea and Actus Reus ∙ Mensrea: Latin term for criminal intent or guilty mind Intent versus motive to commit crime ∙ Intent: concerns what he or she is seeking to do and is connected to a purpose or goal ∙ Motive: refers to one’s reason for doing something (the “why”) ∙ Ex: woman stealing milk for child ∙ Crime: Stealing ∙ Motive: to feed child ∙ Intentional Crime: Willfully, intentionally ∙ Accidental crime: negligently, recklessly or without due caution ∙ Actus Reus: The Act ∙ • The rule for establishing criminal liability is to prove that the defendant committed the Actus Reus (criminal act) with Mens rea (guilty mind) ∙ ** when both are present, it is known as “concurrence” ** Legal Elements of Criminality • Five elements must be shown for someone to be criminally liable: • 1. Commission of an act (actus reus) • A criminal act, though failure to act may be a crime in some situations • There are exceptions to this • 2. Criminal intent (Mensrea) (motive) • The offender must have intended the crime • There are exceptions to this • (Actus Reus + Mens Rea) = breaking into a house to steal • (Actus Reus) = breaking into a house for shelter during a storm • 3. Concurrence • The act and the intent must be joined together • 4. Causation • Must establish that the action was a direct cause of harm • 5. Harm • Occurs in all crimes (including victimless crimes) • Intent is complicated legal concept • For the act to be considered a crime under the criminal law, the offender must have intended to commit the action • Mensrea refers to guilty mind 14. What is the purpose and nature of law? 15. What are the types of laws? ∙ Substantive and Procedural law ∙ Substantive law: Written law that defines criminal acts (substance of criminal law) ∙ Procedural law: sets forth the procedures and mechanisms for processing criminal cases ∙ ** Fourth Amendment is procedural law** ∙ Also, prescribes rules concerning Jurisdiction, jury selection, appeal, evidence presented to a jury order of conducting a trial and representation of counsel 16. What are types of crime? Be able to give examples for each Violent Crime • Violent Crimes are those that cause direct physical harm or threat of physical harm to victims • Crimes against persons are what most people consider “violent crime” or “street crime” Types of Violent Crime • Homicide • Assault • Violent sex crimes • Robbery Violent Crime: Homicide • Homicide refers to the killing of one human being by another • Two categories for criminal homicides: murder (intentional Killings) and manslaughter (accidental killings) Murder Laws in Georgia **Only two types (no degrees) ** • Murder: Defined as the intentional killing of a person with “malice afterthought” • Felony Murder: any death of a person (intentional or not) while in the act of committing a felony Violent Crime: Homicide Manslaughter • Voluntary Manslaughter (felony, 1-20 years) • Crimes of passion (Seeing someone harming your child and you step in) Involuntary Manslaughter • Causing death while in the commission of an unlawful act other than a felony (felony, 110 years) • Causing death while in the commission of a lawful act in an unlawful manner (misdemeanor) Other classifications of homicide include: • Serial killings • Individuals who kill victims over time Target certain types of victims or commit specific types of offenses Mass murders • Individuals who kill a large number of victims all at once (must be 4 or more) Justifiable homicides • Homicides in which the killing is justified in the eyes of the law and includes cases where a police officer or citizen kills another person while they are in the process of committing a felony Murder • Findings support the murder rate increases in summer months • Most common in southern states • 20-24 y/o were most likely to be murdered • 20-24 y/o were the most likely to be perpetrators • Guns were used in 2/3 murders • Most victims/offenders were acquaintances • ** more crime tends to be committed by young people Violent Crime: Assault Laws in GA Assault • Simple assault: attempts a violent injury to another or places a person in reasonable fear of immediately receiving a violent injury (misdemeanor) • Aggravated assault: assault with the intent to murder, rape, or rob or assault with any deadly weapon or object (Felony) (the presence of a weapon but not using it: Having a knife but not stabbing someone) Battery Laws in GA • Simple battery: (physical impact) intentional physical contact of an insulting or provoking nature • Intentionally causes physical harm to another • Battery: Substantial physical harm or visible bodily harm • Aggravated battery: maliciously causes bodily harm which causes the loss of a member of the body (or disfigurement • **Aggravated** = A weapon (Gun, knife) • **Difference between assault and battery**: Assault is a threat while battery is placing hands on someone else Family Violence in GA Family violence: any felony, assault, battery, stalking, or damage to property that occurs between: • Past or present spouses, parents of the same child, parents and children (includes step and foster relationships) persons living or formerly living in the same household • Likelihood of Violent Victimization: Data suggest that individuals are more likely to be harmed by someone they know than by a stranger Child abuse (or child maltreatment) • Refers to crimes that are perpetrated against children • In 2012 3.4 million reports of child abuse were made to social services Family Violence Intimate partner violence • Abusive behaviors that occur between partners • It is also referred to as domestic violence, spouse abuse, partner violence and couple violence • Males are more frequently abusers and females are more often victims **Two types of violence that occur in families: Patriarchal terrorism Common couple violence • Stalking is a type of intimate partner violence Violent Crime School violence: • Refers to violence that occurs in a school setting • Ex: columbine, sandy hook Cyber bullying • Situations where offenders use technology to harass or harm the victim Hate Crime • Refers to situations where one is targeted for victimization because of their demographic characteristics (religion, health status, or sexuality) • In 2012 5,796 hate crime incidents were reported Violent Sex Crimes Refers to the various types of rape that are committed • In 2013, 79,770 rapes were reported to the police It is believed that many rapes are not reported to law enforcement for a variety of reasons: • Embarrassment • Fear of victim blaming Georgia Sex Crimes • Rape/Statutory Rape (<16 yo) • Sodomy/Aggravated Sodomy (<10 yo) • Sexual Assault (applies to supervisory relationships) • Public Indecency • Prostitution • Sexual Battery/Aggravated Sexual Battery Violent sex crimes Child sexual abuse: • Refers to sexual abuse committed against children • Estimates 1 in four females and 1 in 7 females are sexually abused before the age of 18 Date Rape: • 1 in 5 women on a college campus are date raped • Victims and offenders know one another, are not married, and are not related • Drugs and alcohol are often involved • It is a concern on college campuses • 10% are reported to the police Violent Crime: Robbery • Defined as taking another person’s property by force or threat of force • In the U.S 404 million dollars was lost to robbery in 2013 • Force used in robberies: threats, prodding force and incapacitation force Property Crimes 8.3 million reported annually Occur far more often than violent crimes • They are crimes that target an individual’s property rather than their physical person • Common property crimes: Larceny theft Shoplifting Identity theft Plagiarism Arson Property Crimes Larceny-theft Specific elements: (1) Talking, (2) Someone else’s property, (3) with intent, (4) to keep the property • Most states have different degrees • It is the most common property crime reported to the police Shoplifting • Involves larceny-thefts where individuals steal from Property Crimes Identity Theft • Stealing someone else’s background • It is perpetrated through other crimes, such as forgery, counterfeiting, check and credit card fraud, computer fraud, impersonation, pickpocketing, etc. Plagiarism • Stealing the intellectual property of another Burglary • The definition has evolved • Three types of burglars: novice (younger individual, spur of the moment) Middle range (usually do it to fuel drug or alcohol addiction) professional (what signs to look for, expert) Arson • Occurs when individuals intentionally set a structure on fire • Arsonists start with small fires and begin to select other targets Public order crimes • Refers to a class of crimes that appear to be victimless, but are classified as crimes because of the belief that they harm the public order one way or another Alcohol related crimes • Public drunkenness offenses, underage drinking crimes and drunk driving laws Prostitution • Refers to situations where individuals provide sexual behavior in exchange for money • Status offenses by juveniles • Behaviors that are illegal for juveniles but legal for adults (truancy, curfew, etc.) Conclusion • Crime typologies are useful in taking thousands of different crimes and collapsing them into categories that are easier to grasp and understand Be Familiar with: • Violent Crimes • Property Crimes • Public Order Crimes 17. What are correlates of crime? (HINT: the last few slides from lecture 4 gone over in class) ∙ Age and Crime ∙ Crime is a “Young person’s game” ∙ ***Age crime curve very important *** ∙ Bulk of offenses are committed by younger individuals (between the ages of 15 and 24) • Phrases: ∙ Aging out ∙ Maturing hypothesis ∙ • Criminal career Region and Crime ∙ In 2013 43% of aggravated assaults 44% of murders and 45% of burglaries were committed in the south • Phrase: ∙ “Southern subculture of violence” ∙ Closer to the borders ∙ More guns ∙ Heat makes people more agitated Communities and Crime ∙ Certain types of crime are more likely to occur in certain communities than others ∙ Research show that drunk driving is more likely to occur in rural communities ∙ The dynamics of victimization are different across communities ∙ ∙ Race/ ethnicity and Crime ∙ UCR data shows that Blacks/ Africans are overrepresented in each offense type ∙ NCVS data shows that Whites and Asians had the lowest violent victimization rates ∙ Disparities suggest that race is associated with crime and victimization ∙ Systemic inequality could be another explanation for the offending and victimization difference between whites and minorities Gender and Crime ∙ Female arrests increased between 2003 and 2013 male arrests decreased ∙ Large majority of crimes are still committed by males ∙ There is no definite answer to why males offend more than females, but there are many ideas ∙ Biological explanations ∙ Specialization/ gender role explanations Crime and time ∙ Research shows that crimes tends to carry across time, in terms of time of the day, day of the week, day of the year and month ∙ Burglaries occur more frequently in the evening ∙ Juvenile offending tends to peak when juveniles are out of school ∙ Murders more frequently occur on weekends in the evening or early morning hours and summer months ∙ Social class and crime ∙ Six possible reasons that have been cited to explain ties between class and crime ∙ Stress from poverty ∙ Lower class values ∙ Violence leading to lower social class ∙ Inequality breeding crime ∙ Inequality breeding differential treatment from the justice system