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UO / Sociology / ANTH 369 / bio 369 class notes

bio 369 class notes

bio 369 class notes

Description

School: University of Oregon
Department: Sociology
Course: Human Growth and Development
Professor: Josh snodgrass
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: assessment of maturation, growth standards, evolutionary life perspective, and and Mammalian and Primate Foundations of Human growth.
Cost: 25
Name: ANTH 369 Week 3 Notes
Description: These notes cover assessment of maturation, growth standards, evolutionary life perspective, and Mammalian and Primate Foundations of Human growth.
Uploaded: 01/28/2017
8 Pages 84 Views 0 Unlocks
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ANTH 369 1/24/17 Today: ∙ Basic principles of growth and methods for assessing growth and maturity o Methods for assessing growth and maturity o Growth standards and references o Human variation in development o Poor growth and catch-up growth Assessment of maturation ∙ Dental markers of maturation o Formation and eruption of deciduous and permanent dentition  Includes baby teeth and adult teeth  Largely genetically and individually determined  NOT influenced by environment and population Discussion: How do we assess the maturation of age? How do we get at  interpreting this? ∙ Enamel samples to look at the makeup ∙ Look at the permanent molars: it is fully grown ∙ Emergence of secondary sexual characteristics o Changes of hormones and growth in the adolescent stages

Males ∙ Testes  enlargement and  sperm production ∙ Pubic hair ∙ Penis  enlargement ∙ Axillary hair ∙ Facial hair


Why do we use PHV instead of age?




How do we get at interpreting this?




Discussion: How do we assess the maturation of age?



Females:  ∙ Breast  development ∙ Pubic hair ∙ Hip broadening ∙ Menstruation ∙ Fat deposition ∙ Fully “fecund”  cycles

Don't forget about the age old question of -That is, what makes a thing good (morally right)?
If you want to learn more check out abnormal psychology uh
We also discuss several other topics like umd sociology
If you want to learn more check out umd bsci
We also discuss several other topics like amalgamize
Don't forget about the age old question of mgmt 200 purdue

Tanner Puberty stage classification system ∙ Classification into discrete stages of development of secondary sexual  characteristics o Assessed in clinical setting or by self-assessment (due to privacy  reasons) o Most researchers use the Tanner Scale (1-5 categories) o Breast development, genital development, pubic hair development ∙ Females o Earlier:  Breast development,  Pubic hairo Later  Menstruation  Ovulation ∙ Males o Earlier:  Testosterone  Pubic hair o Middle  Sperm o Later  Muscle growth Discussions: Why do we use PHV instead of age? ∙ Early and late mature processes ∙ Girls mature earlier than boys so it makes more sense What are the key sex differences? ∙ Distinct differences ∙ Ability to reproduce for females is after the peak in HV, men it’s before peak  HV ∙ Sperm quality decreases slowly over time, women’s eggs stop quickly  ∙ Women’s estrogen is variant on environment: o Long distance runners have decreased estrogen based on how much  they run Growth Standards Back to our earlier example ∙ De Montbeillard’s son ∙ Final height over 6ft o tall for a French man in 18th century ∙ Questions: o How do we know that someone is “tall” or “short” o Environment differences? (he was wealthy) Growth reference charts ∙ To assess whether growth is “normal” or “typical” ∙ Depicts avg. height to be expected through growing years ∙ Depicts centiles (range of normal height in a percentile) o Point on the distribution ∙ Conditional upon sex and age o Can also add parental size but rarely done   just for comparison and interpretation reasons  Shared genetics and shared environment  Target ranges∙ Median centile is 50% above, 50% below ∙ US model: 7 centiles (3,10,25, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th) ∙ Reference curves may use mean and standard deviations if normal  distribution o How many standard deviations are they above or below the mean? ∙ Z-score: indicates how many standard deviations a value is above or below  the mean Growth charts based on a reference population ∙ Reference data must be based on an appropriate population standard ∙ How is it being used: clinical or public heath tool? o Misinterpretation matters ∙ Clinical: Child’s measurement centiles a measure of heath o Medical assessment as interpretation of centiles o Reference population must be appropriate o If small, default answer is there’s a problem with environment  Have to prove it’s not the case ∙ Public Heath: Applicability to ind child less important o Goal: sum nutritional/growth status of a group of children in order to  compare with other groups o Applies to different groups in different societies o Low and middle income nations often us WHO (international)/NCHS (US standards)/CDC charts  Are we creating a problem by comparing a distinct population to  US population? o Most developed nations use nationally specific charts  US gives a renewal every few years (Fell’s longitudinal study)  ∙     Growth standards vs. references o Standards: “optimal” situation, growing optimally without  environmental discretions   Much harder to carry out in reality, (exclude minorities? Medical  conditions?)  How do we do this ethically?  Discussion: What are we motivated to carry out standards in populations? ∙ Contrast to wealthy societies to other minorities ∙ Creating standards to better different societies ∙ Further explore factors of growth ∙ Different people coming together to help interpret the public health standards ∙ What creates poor growth in terms of economics, nutrition, etc.? Developmental Age ∙ Differences in tempo of growth make problematic the notion of, for example,  an “average” 14-year-old boyo Some 14 y-o pre-pubescent while others have finished their growth  spurt and are sexually mature o Enormous differences may exist in sexual, emotional, and physical  development in children Human Variation in Development ∙ Chronological age vs. Maturational age ∙ Same chronological age, but dramatic differences in maturity o Size o Appearance of secondary sexual characteristics o (some are early developers, others are late) ∙ Maturation assessed by markers, many of which are continuous in their  change but divided into discrete stages  o Ex: pubic hair development  Canalization ∙ During childhood, all were growing near 50th centile ∙ After deviation because of AGS, they return to same centile position ∙ Very different formations on the HGV ∙ Adherence to particular centile or “canal” o Genetically determined o Target seeking “unconstrained environment” o Keep in this 50 centile canal Catch-Up growth ∙ But, no such thing as “unconstrained” environment ∙ Catch-up depends on timing, severity, and duration of insult ∙ Ex: Celiac syndrome and then diagnosis (can’t get adequate nutrients they  need) o Growth was stunted (until age 11), then there was a change in  environment (dietary) o Complete catch-up ∙ Note: this can be rare because this was in a wealthy environment. In poorer  countries, you can’t get that same nutrients, thus no catch-up growth o Ex: In 3rd world countries, the children start growing well  (breastfeeding), then after they fall short quickly Describing poor growth o When you look at 2 measures of poor growth o Stunting: Assessed by height for age o Long-term nutrition o Wasting: assessed by weight for height o This is present/near past nutritional statusANTH 369 1/26/17 Today: ∙ Evolutionary and comparative perspectives on human growth o Life history approaches o Mammalian and primate foundations of human growth o Brain evolution and the human life history pattern o Integration of evolutionary and biocultural perspectives Discussion: Points of interest in the last week: ∙ Importance of repeatable, objective, analysis (even for straightforward  measurements) o Need to standardize ∙ Issue of cost vs. convenience (BMI is easy and cheap and is easily  transferred over populations, whereas high resolution measurements are  much more expensive. There is a time and place for everything ∙ Importance of visceral adipose tissue, focus on different types of body fat ∙ Difference types of maturation markers, may focus on one or another ∙ Genetic patterns of growth, but also influence on the environment ∙ Sex difference in adolescence in terms of rate of growth ∙ Use of reference populations and growth o Reality: Comparing populations is incredibly complicated The human life cycle is unique ∙ Life history traits in humans o Short duration of breast feeding o Short interbirth interval o Delayed development (prolonged childhood) o Pronounced growth spurt An evolutionary life history perspective ∙ Describing the human pattern vs. other close related species o Then focus on the HOW then the WHY ∙ Variety of factors shape growth and development o Genetics o Environmental influences o Note: It’s never nature or nurture, always both, just how much of each) ∙ A life history perspective (branch of evolutionary theory, a way to  understand changes) o Patterns of growth and development can be viewed as adaptations o Any point in life course can be the focus of evolutionary change o What has to happen in terms of growth and development that leads  you to grow in a certain way? Mammalian life histories∙ Life History: Theoretical framework that focuses on the strategies an  organism uses to allocate energy (calories) and other resources to: o Basic survival costs (maintenance, thermoregulation, activity, etc.)  and productive costs (growth and reproduction)  Less energy for survival, more into productive o Focuses on:  Timing of key life events (birth~ how long the baby stays in  the mother, weaning, age at reproductive maturation,  longevity~ how long species lives)  Trade-off allocation: resources (energy) are generally limited;  investment in one function affects investment in others ∙ Appropriate trade-offs dictated by environment Something Old, Something New ∙ Focus: conserved traits (traits are kept in history), and derived traits (the  newer traits that develop) o Separate the new traits vs the old traits o Decide the importance of the new emerging traits o Discussion Questions: How do we know whether a trait is derived or whether it is a conserved trait? ∙ Conserved: what do we have in common with living species (ex: thumbs) ∙ Derived: Nothing like other living species (ex: standing upright) Did we evolve from chimpanzees? ∙ No: We have a common ancestor, but not based off chimpanzees themselves o Look close to the common ancestor, they look like chimpanzees than  us o New question: how did we  Mammalian and Primate Foundations of Human Growth Humans as mammals and primates ∙ Many human morphological, physiological, and behavioral features rooted in  mammalian patterns ∙ Features of mammals relevant to life history: o Features live lives that are expensive in terms of energy expenditure  and consumption o Mammals can inhabit many different environments o Mammals live flexible lives both in terms of behavior and biology Our heritage as mammals∙ High energy costs of endothermy but allows environmental diversity o We do things differently in terms of regulating temperature and energy ∙ Increased relative brain size (same as dolphins, elephants) o Greatly enlarged cerebrum (Neocortex with higher-order thinking) for  processing sensory information  High, obligate metabolic demands  Increased behavioral flexibility and learning ∙ Dietary adaptations o Helps meet relatively high and continuous energy demands  Ex: Heterodont dentition (different teeth variations to optimize  use)  Beaver: continuously growing incisors are useful for food and  trees  Humans: a well-adapted omnivore (not specialized to eat one or  2 things) ∙ Locomotor adaptations o More dependent on an active life o Growth phase then reproductive phase o Set adult size: finite period of bone growth (epiphyseal fusion) ∙ Unique reproductive biology o High reproductive costs  Placenta: efficient maternal nourishment  Lactation: High quality nutrition to poorly developed, toothless  infant  o Mother remains mobile during gestation and buffers from external  environment  Different than fish (who dump eggs in a stream)  Here, investment in smaller number of offspring o Increased mother-infant interaction after birth  Importance of bonding with mother and offspring  o Divergence in male and female (anatomy, physiology, and behavior)  Sexual dimorphism: two different shapes/size for the sexes (size, antlers, etc.) ∙ Emphasis on Body fat o Fat reserves allow for energy buffering  Fat present in other vertebrates but most for mammals ∙ Ex: Bears in the winter, whales, etc.  Nutritional reserves especially important in reproduction and  growth o Human body fat primarily as energy buffer but amount and distribution has reproductive role ∙ Emphasis on sociality and parental care o In general, mammals lead “slower” lives (more “K” selected, or well  adapted for environments where it takes investment to grow offspring)  Contrast: R-selected: many offspring, not much attention  Emphasis on quality over quantity but considerable variation o Increased dependency Importance of mother-infant bond  Increased opportunities for infant learning and behavioral  flexibility  Optimal growth includes a stimulating environment (social  involving) o Increased reliance on behavioral flexibility and learned information Discussion: Why are some species more K-selected and other are more r-selected? ∙ Environment: social dimensions and what is invested  o Why sociality in first place? Cooperative aspect, teamwork, etc. ∙ R-selected: well in unpredictable environment (more genetic variation), it’s  going to help some offspring adapt ∙ Increased biological and behavioral flexibility o Relatively long lifespan and increased physiological, behavioral, and  morphological flexibility  Environmental tracking  Developmental plasticity ∙ Greater effects of proximate environment on phenotype ∙ Ex: baboons o Baboons foraging in an East African garbage dump o Sexual maturity earlier in food enhanced o Sexual dimorphism enhanced
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