The Union Restored or Renewed? 1. Reconstruction: Reuniting a Nation torn a. How much “reconstruction? THE IMPACT ON FORMER SLAVES 2. A Snapshot of America, 1856 a. The Current Population: 2/3 lives in the North, 1/3 lives in the South (4 million of which are slaves) b. The country is overwhelmingly rural 3.If you want to learn more check out what was a major commodity in bruges?
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Presidential Reconstruction (1863): the “gentle” approach a. Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction b. Lincoln’s big plan: easygoing i. 2nd Inaugural address: “malice towards none, charity towards all” ii. The former Confederacy must: 1) change their state constitutions to abide by the 13th amendment. 2) must renounce the idea of succession. 3) 10% of the voting population must sign a loyalty agreement to the Union iii. The fate of free slaves is not addressed, in fact it is omitted c. Andrew Johnson: a born and raised southerner, but with Union loyalty. i. He continues Lincoln’s gentle approach, but why? 1. Johnson hates two things: blacks, but also “cotton snobs” (rich, white, southerners who don’t ever have to lift a finger do to their slave help. He thinks them spoiled). ii. His only change is that he makes Confederate officials directly ask him for forgiveness. 4. Radical Reconstruction: the “get tough” approach a. Radical Republicans begin to gain control; they feel that the South deserves harsher punishments for their crimes. i. A lot of these Republicans are antislavery and wish to aid the freed slaves ii. They want to ensure the South is unable to regain any significant power, against the “the South will rise again” ideals b. Constitutional changes: the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments i. Radicals vs. Johnson: The Radicals view Johnson as a confederate tool, they want to get him out of office. ii. The Radical Republicans strongly advocate and assist in the passing of the 14th and 15th amendments. iii. A shortlived era of black political influence arises c. Freedman’s Bureau (1867): a government organization dedicated to helping former slaves through their transition to freedom 5. Impeaching of Andrew Johnson a. The Tenure of Office Act (1867): Republicans pass an act stating essentially that “a president can’t fire anyone without Congressional approval” i. Johnson fires Stanton (the Secretary of War) who is largely opposed to Johnson’s lenient attitude despite this rule.ii. Johnson goes to trial and is impeached, losing substantial power as a president 6. “Redemption” the white South regains power a. Due to much “reconstruction fatigue” the South is able to regain power. i. The Panic of 1873: a triggered financial crisis ii. many Radicals die (old age) and their bills begin to be denied by the Supreme Court as they lose majority control iii. Industrialization begins to bud and grow b. Much resistance to allowing blacks to vote 7. The Final Act: The Compromise of 1877: Republican Election Win Major concepts: ∙ Understand Lincoln is not a PROGRESSIVE he is a racial MODERATE, aside from addressing slavery he makes no move to change or advocate for freed slaves ∙ Understand the impacts of Reconstruction and the fate of former slaves and newly freedman ∙ Understand that just because the Union may have stood for antislavery it is not inherently racial equality. Many whites who don’t believe in slavery still believe in white superiority.