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JMU - SOC 196 - Class Notes - Week 3

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JMU - SOC 196 - Class Notes - Week 3

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background image JANUARY 23-25 EVOLUTIONARY THEORY 2 Jan 23 DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION 1. Individuals within a population vary; most variation can be inherited;  struggle for existence; due to variation, slight advantageous traits appear COINED TERMS 1. Adaptations: features produced by natural selection that allow them  to survive and reproduce in their environment that allowed them to 
reproduce and survive
2. Fitness: an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce    
3. Adaptive evolution: differences in fitness among organisms will 
result in a compatibility between an organism and its environment through 
time
4. Heritability: the extent to which offspring resemble their parents PROBLEMS WITH DARWIN’S THEORY 5. He couldn’t explain why variation existed/maintained (mendelian  genetics helped with this problem later on) 6. Much debate about the rate at which evolution occurs 
7. Some people have maladaptive traits that persist in populations; 
explained via sexual selection (e.g., peacock's feathers; doesn’t necessarily 
help with survival but helps with mating process) 
SEXUAL SELECTION 8. sexual selection: evolutionary change that occurs because of  variation in (often in male) ability to acquire mates 9. Intrasexual selection: “male-male competition”
background image 10.Intersexual selection: “female choice”
11.Sexual dimorphism: differences among the sexes due to sexual 
selection  GENETICS Jan 25 DNA 2. Humans contain eukaryotic cells a. Somatic: cells are the components of body  tissues.Examples include liver cells, skin cells, muscle cells b. Gametes: cells used for reproduction (ova & sperm) i. Zygote: fertilized egg 3. DNA live in the nuclei of most cells; mitochondria also contains DNA
4. Chromosomes: composed of a DNA molecule and associated 
proteins;are often species specific; dna is carried on chromosomes inside the 
nucleus
a. Karyotype: number of chromosomes in a species  (humans: 46 ch. 23 pairs) b. Autosomes: DNA here make proteins that govern all  physical characteristics except sex determination c. Sex chromosomes: associated with sex specification  i. Female mammals: xx ii. Male mammals: xy 5. Total length of DNA can be divided into genes and noncoding DNA
6. Types of nucleotides: A&T, G&C
7. Proteins (contribute to specific characteristics) are found in genes; 
made up of amino acids 8. Genetic code: relationship between codons (DNA triplets) & amino  acids HOW DOES DNA MAKE PROTEINS 12.Transcription: info from DNA is 1st transcribed into messenger RNA in  nucleus 13.Translation: then messenger RNA leaves the nucleus and is translated  into protein

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School: James Madison University
Department: Sociology
Course: Biological Anthropology
Professor: Richard Lawler
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Evolutionary Bio, Genetics, and biological anthropology
Name: bio anth wk 3
Description: evolutionary theory & genetics
Uploaded: 01/28/2017
3 Pages 25 Views 20 Unlocks
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