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OSU - NEUROSC 3000 - Study Guide - Midterm

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OSU - NEUROSC 3000 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: Ohio State University
Department: Neuroscience
Course: Introduction to Neuroscience
Professor: Robert Boyd
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: neuroscience and neurons
Name: Neuroscience 3000, Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers chapters 1-4 of the textbook and everything that was gone over in lecture from 1/9/2017 - 1/27/2017.
Uploaded: 01/28/2017
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background image Neuroscience 3000 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1-4 Chapter 1: An Introduction to Neuroscience
A. Early History of Neuroscience 
a. Ancient Egypt i. Believed memories were stored in the heart ii. Knew that brain damage was serious iii. Preserved the body for mummification, but discarded the  brain iv. Had a hieroglyph for “brain” b. Hippocrates  i. Believed the brain was the center of sensation and  intelligence  ii. Thought epilepsy was a brain disease c. Alcmaion of Crotona i. Described the optic nerve at 500 BC d. Plato i. Believed the brain was the center of mental processes e. Aristotle i. Believed the heart was the center of intelligence ii. Thought the brain just cooled the blood f. Galen i. Similar view to Hippocrates ii. Tried to determine brain function by its structure  iii. Believed nerves were hollow tubes and that humors (vital  fluids) flowed to the brain ventricles  iv. Believed a soft cerebellum meant that sensations and  memories were formed there v. Believed a hard cerebellum meant there was muscle control  there vi. Believed the brain received sensory info vii. Thought the brain was in control, but because of the  movement of vital fluids through hollow nerves  g. Major themes i. Two major views: heart vs brain as the center of intelligence ii. Anatomy was described very early iii. Major theory: the body functioned by balancing 4 vital fluids  called humors h. Anatomy was studied through animal dissections and by looking at  injured gladiators  i. Experiment: cut a pig’s laryngeal nerve and found that it  could no longer squeal 1. Concluded that nerves from the brain and spinal cord  control function i. Leonardo da Vinci
background image i. Made a wax cast of ventricles  j. Andreas Vesalius i. Made detailed drawings of the brain k. Descartes i. Believed in the fluid-mechanical theory 1. BUT also thought that human abilities came from the  mind ii. Thought the “mind” communicated to the brain via the pineal  gland l. 1500s i. Much of the gross brain anatomy was described  ii. Hippocampus and pons were named iii. Andreas Vesalius, da Vinci, Descartes B. History of Neuroscience a. 17 th  and 18 th  century found more detail i. distinguished white and gray matter 1. white matter contains fibers that make up nerves and  bring info to and from the gray matter ii. peripheral and central divisions iii. every brain has same general pattern of gyri, sulci, and  fissures b. By 1800, knew… i. peripheral and central divisions ii. brain injury can cause death, disrupted  thought/movement/sensation iii. brain communicates to the body via nerves iv. there are different parts that most likely perform different  roles v. brain operates like a machine and follows the laws of nature c. 19 th  Century i. nerves act as wires, are NOT tubes 1. Galvani and du Bois-Reymond showed that  electricity can stimulate movement  a. The brain generates electricity  2. Nerves are made of fiber bundles a. Spinal nerve bundles carry both sensory and  motor info i. Bell and Magendie C. Localization of Function a. Bell i. Proposed motor fibers come from cerebellum and sensory  fibers go to the cerebellum b. Flourens i. Experiments showed that Bell was correct ii. Thought that all parts of the cerebellum contributed to all  functions
background image 1. Wrong iii. Used ablation to prove phrenology wrong  c. Gall i. Phrenology 1. The brain was divided into regions that correlated with  personality traits 2. Proven wrong d. Broca i. Thought different functions were localized to different areas ii. Evidence:  1. A lesion in the Broca’s area causes a person to be  unable to speak, even though they can still understand 
the language 
e. Fritsch and Hitzig  i. Showed specific regions of the brain controlled movement  ii. Used electrical stimulation of dogs and frogs f. Ferrier i. Showed specific regions of the brain controlled movement 1. Found the removal of the brain region(s) caused  paralysis 2. Used monkeys g. Munk i. Showed that the occipital lobe was required for vision D. Evolution of Nervous Systems a. Thomas Willis (1621-1675) i. Noticed that animals behaved similarly to humans at a very  basic level  b. Nervous systems have evolved
c. Different parts of the brain are relatively larger in some species than
in others d. Different animal brains are better different, specific functions E. Animals in Research  a. Why should we study specific species? i. Outstanding features 1. Echo-location in bats ii. Convenience 1. Short life spans in fruit flues
2. Cheaper costs
iii. Comparison 1. Some species have more developed brain regions than  others iv. Preservation v. Economic importance vi. Treatment of disease b. Model Animals i. Invertebrates
background image 1. nervous systems provide models for studying specific  aspects of function and structure  ii. Squids, snails 1. Basic biology of neurons, synaptic transmission,  plasticity iii. Cats, primates 1. Visual system iv. Rats, mice 1. Neuropharmalogical and behavioral studies
2. Used for early studies of the somatosensory system
v. Worms 1. Aging, development vi. Fruit fly 1. Synapse formation vii. Zebrafish 1. Development, drug screening  viii. Specific animals are suited for specific questions 1. The more fundamental the process, the “older” the  animal can be  c. Animal research i. A small number of animals are used 1. Mostly rats and mice
2. Pets are not used
ii. Major discoveries have been made with rats, mice, chickens,  cows, fruit flies, squid, rabbits, frogs, dogs, monkeys, pigs, 
fish…
iii. Animals benefit from research as well iv. Animal welfare is very important and tightly regulated 1. Sometimes more than human welfare
2. Alternatives are considered
3. Anesthesia is used
4. Only worthwhile, minimal numbers of animals are used
5. Animal Review committees 
6. Animal rights- animals have the same moral and legal 
rights as humans  a. Scientists believe animals should be cared for and not abused, but do not equate a rat’s life as being 
as equal as a child’s 
F. Major Disorders of the Nervous System a. Alzheimer’s Disease i. Degeneration of cholinergic neurons, dementia, is fatal b. Parkinson’s Disease i. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, loss of voluntary  movement c. Depression i. 30 million experience, major cause of suicide

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School: Ohio State University
Department: Neuroscience
Course: Introduction to Neuroscience
Professor: Robert Boyd
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: neuroscience and neurons
Name: Neuroscience 3000, Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers chapters 1-4 of the textbook and everything that was gone over in lecture from 1/9/2017 - 1/27/2017.
Uploaded: 01/28/2017
19 Pages 74 Views 59 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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