Organizing & Finding Support for Your Speech – Ch 12 “If you can’t write your message in a sentence, you can’t say it in an hour.” – Deborah Booher, author on Business Communication Crafting Thesis Statements ∙ thesis statement – one-sentence version of he message in your speech; the goal of your speech o be concrete, specific, detailed o make a statement (not aIf you want to learn more check out nau class search
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question) o tell the truth o ex: Today I’ll introduce myself to the class through two objects. Organization of Your Speech ∙ introduction – previews the information to be presented and states the goal of the speech ∙ body – composed of specific main points o easiest to write this first o main point – a statement expressing a specific idea or theme related to the speech topic ∙ conclusion – summarizes the main points and creates a memorable moment ∙ transitions – connect the main points to one another; help your speech flow smoothly; provide a path for listeners to follow o 4 types: previews, summaries, signposts, nonverbal ∙ template I. introduction A. attention gainer 1. capture your audience’s interest (quote, story, question, joke, startling statement) B. reason to listen 1. familiarize topic for audience; connect attention getter to topic C. speaker credibility1. establish your knowledge or experience with the topic D.thesis statement 1. purpose of your speech; goal of your talk E. preview main points II. body A. main points (2-5) 1. support your central theme 2. key ideas that work together to prove claim/thesis B. sub-points (equal amount of info for each point) 1. support its main point 2. taken together legitimize main point III. conclusion A. restate thesis B. review main points C. provide a “reason to remember” 1. create a “closing device” for your speech Textbook Notes – Chapter 12 State Your Purpose and Thesis ∙ purpose statement – declaration of your specific goal for your speech o ex: Teach listeners the differences among five Italian red wines. o Be specific, declarative, and concise ∙ thesis statement – one-sentence version of the message in your speech o ex: Although sales of herbal supplements are growing, medical research shows they are no more effective than placebos. o Be concrete, make a statement, and tell the truth Organize Your Speech ∙ elements to include 2o title, purpose statement, thesis statement, introduction, main points and subpoints, conclusion, bibliography of sources ∙ to generate interest you can… o present a quote, tell a joke, pose a question, cite an opinion, startle the listeners, note your occasion, identify something familiar, or incorporate technology ∙ main point – statement expressing a specific idea or theme related to the speech topic o speeches typically have between 2 and 5 main points o main points should be… related to one another, distinct, equally important, organized in patterns ∙ there are five types of patterns o topic pattern – separates by categories o time pattern – chronological order o space pattern – organizes main points according to areas o cause-and-effect pattern – describe causes of an event and it’s consequences o problem-solution pattern – describe a problem and offer a solution ∙ What does a conclusion do? o reinforces the central message, creates a memorable moment ∙ transition – logically connects one point to the next ∙ types of verbal transitions o preview – alerts listeners that you are about to shift topics o summary – briefly reminds listeners of points you already made o signposts – single words or phrases used to distinguish points ∙ transitions can be nonverbal 3o body movement – moving where you are standing o vocal inflection – change in voice o pauses – brief silences o gestures – hand movements Create an Effective Outline ∙ rule of subordination – specifies some concepts in your speech are more important than others ∙ rule of division – specifies that if you divide a point into subpoints, you must create at least 2 ∙ rule parallel wording – states that all points and subpoints in your outline should have the same grammatical structure ∙ formal outline – structured set of all the points and subpoints in your speech ∙ speaking notes – abbreviated version of your formal outline Find Support ∙ identify places in your speech where you need support o where you make a claim ∙ determine the type of support you require o ex: definitions, examples, statistics, quotations, narratives ∙ evaluate the quality of supporting material o credibility – information is believable and trustworthy o How objective are the sources? o How current is the information? ∙ avoid plagiarism o global plagiarism – stealing an entire speech o patchwork plagiarism – copying words from multiple sources and putting them together o incremental plagiarism – failing to give credit for small portions of your speech 45