USU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 Study Guide Regional Anatomy: Chapter 1 1 What is the organization of the body from smallest (atom) to largest units? a Atom, molecule, cell, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms 2 What makes a person’s body be "mirror imaDon't forget about the age old question of scm 301
Don't forget about the age old question of ucsc accounting
We also discuss several other topics like x ray tech ivy tech
We also discuss several other topics like cyntoria johnson
Don't forget about the age old question of what separates the parietal and visceral pericardium?
If you want to learn more check out bio 201 final exam study guide
ge"? a Situs inversus 2 What is the term used when a body is face front, toes front, and palms front? a Anatomic position, anatomical view 2 What's the difference between a section and a plane? a Section is an actual cut. Plane is an imaginary cut. 2 A person in a hockey mask cuts a person into anterior and dorsal sections with a chainsaw. On what plane have they been cut? a Coronal or frontal 2 Mr. Chainsaw man cuts the 1st persons friend into left and right. What plane were they cut on? a Midsagital. 2 On the 3rd person he chainsaws they were cut into uneven left and right halves. What plane? a Sagital 2 Finally he chainsaws the last person all the way across at the waist. What plane? a Transverse/ horizontal/cross sectional 2 A kid breaks his arm. At the hospital they use a high energy radiation test to look at the arm. What did they do? a Radiograph 2 A lady gets pregnant on a submarine. After a few months she is back on land and goes to the doctor. They do a common test using sound to look at the baby. What did they do? a Sonograph 2 A person goes to the hospital and has a test done using low level xrays. The results show a series of transverse planes. What did they do? a Computerized Tomography 2 Diane Sarah Andrus has a blocked blood vessel. She has a (blank) done to aid in an (blank). a Digital Subtraction Angiograph; Angioplasty 2 A doctor is looking at some test results that show the movement of an organ. What test was done? a Dynamic Spatial Reconstruction 2 A patient has a test done to look at the gray and white matter of the brain. What is the best test to do? a Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2 A doctor wants to look at different activity within the brain. What test should be done? a Positron Emission Tomography 2 A mini grand piano gets dropped on a person napping outside. The person is crushed like a pancake from their shoulders to their hips. What got smashed? a Ventral cavityUSU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 2 Superman punches you in the chest destroying heart, lungs, and esophagus. This massive blow would destroy everything in the (blank) cavity. a Thoracic 2 Superman then Spartan kicks you in the abs. What cavity would have damage? a Abdominopelvic cavity 2 What cavity superior to the diaphragm houses the lungs? a Pleural cavity 2 What cavity is dorsal to the sternum? a Mediastinum 2 A weird voodoo man reaches into Indiana Jones' chest and pulls out his heart. He had to reach into what cavity? a Pericardial cavity 2 The glistening stuff on Indiana Jones' heart is what? a Visceral pericardium 2 You go hunting. After shooting the animal you gut it. You then shine your flash light into the carcass. What is the shiny stuff on the inside wall of the animal? a Parietal peritoneum 2 Midsagital and cross sectional planes cross at your navel. How is your abdomen now divided? a Into abdominopelvic quadrants 2 The spine is (blank) to the abdominopelvic cavity. a Dorsal 2 The shins are more (blank) than the hips. Hint: not distal a Caudal or inferior 2 A patient was in an accident and has cullen's sign. The doctors do peritoneal lavage and find nothing. This means that there is (blank) bleeding. a Retroperitoneal 2 You get a migraine, strep, nausea, and cramps. You have pain in what major region of the body? a Axial 2 Anakin Skywalker probably had the most pain in this major body region after the final fight scene in star wars 3 with obi wan. a Appendicular region 2 The last part of "head, shoulders, knees, and toes" is about which region inferior to the brain? a Facial 2 What region is most superior in the body? a Cranial region 2 What major part of the central nervous system is the most dorsal in the cervical region? a Spinal cord and column 2 What part of the body anterior to the esophagus is larger in men than women? a Larynx 2 You put deodorant in what region of the body? a Axillary USU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 2 What is the most dorsal region of the thoracic cavity? a Vertebral region 2 A patient had a bone break more proximal than the digits, and more distal than the Anticubital fossa. In what part of the upper extremity was the break? a Antibrachium 2 After practicing piano pieces by Liszt for 5 or 6 hours, and being sore from arm day at the gym, you are the most sore in the most proximal and distal parts of your upper extremity. What is sore? a Deltoid/shoulder region, and digits/fingers 2 A crazy shopper starts throwing elbows on black Friday to get to the Wii U games first. What part of the body are they using as weapon to get to the Wii U games? a Olecranal region 2 You go sell your body for money (donate plasma) because you're a poor college student that needs to buy an underwater basket weaving text book. Where do the likely put the needle? a Anticubital fossa 2 You fall off your bike and skid your knees. What region did you hurt? a Patellar region 2 You fall and know your knee is bending backwards. What part of the body is sticking out? a Popliteal fossa 2 You hit your shin on the coffee table. What region of the body hurts? a Crural region 2 You step on a lego. What minor region of the body is now in extreme pain? a Plantar surface 2 You do the little piggies nursery rhyme with your adorable little sister. The "piggies" are actually what? a Digits 2 The part of the foot most distal to the plantar surface is the (blank). a Dorsum of the foot Cavities and Membranes: Chapter 1 cont. 1. The spinal cord and brain are encased in the (blank) with 2 parts, the (blank) and the (blank). a. Posterior cavity; cranial cavity; vertebral cavity 2. The (blank) cavity is made of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. a. Ventral 3. The liver is encased in (blank) membrane a. Serous 4. An Aztec priest reaches into a person and pulls out their heart. The heart glistens. What is the shiny/glistening part called? a. Visceral pericardium 5. You have befriended a zombie. While hanging out, you make him laugh so hard his lung falls out (it's ok he's a zombie). The surface of the cavity where his lung used to be is shiny. What is the shiny part called? a. Parietal pleura USU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 6. The parietal pleura attaches to the (blank) cavity. a. Pulmonary 7. A patient has pain in their abdominopelvic cavity. You find nothing after peritoneal lavage. This means that the trauma is (blank). a. Retroperitoneal 8. A patient has a cleft palate. This means that there is no complete separation between the (blank) and (blank) cavities. a. Oral; Nasal 9. Your eyes sit in what cavity? a. Orbital 10. The middle ear sits in what cavity? a. Middle ear cavity 11. A woman has liver trauma after a car crash. Where would she report having pain? a. Upper right quadrant 12. A man has trauma to the spleen after fighting a ninja squirrel. Where would he report having pain? a. Upper left quadrant 13. A healthy teenager is rushed to the hospital because of pain in the lower left quadrant. What is probably the cause of the pain? a. Appendicitis 14. A woman reports intense pain in the middle of the abdomen. It is found to be ovulation pain called what? a. Mittelschmerz 15. The respiratory tract is lined with (blank). a. Mucous Integumentary System: Chapter 2 1. What are 2 other names for skin? a. Integument and cutaneous layer 2. The integumentary system consists of what? a. Skin, hair, nails, and skin glands 3. What is the largest organ of the body? a. Skin/integument/cutaneous layer 4. While working out like the healthy, active person you are, your skin has erythema. This is due to (blank) in an attempt to keep (blank), a. Vasodilation; homeostasis 5. You go soak in a hot tub with your cute boyfriend for a while. After sitting in the water your hands are all wrinkly. This is due to a reaction of the (blank). a. Nervous system 6. You go snowboarding. After a couple minutes a being outside your nose gets erythema due to (blank). After an hour of being outside you get (blank) from vasoconstriction. a. Vasodilation, pallor 7. The integument is made of 2 layers, the (blank) and the (blank). a. Epidermis, dermisUSU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 8. Your friend eats nothing but McDonald’s french fries. All of the fat from the fries will store in their (blank). a. Hypodermis 9. All skin has (blank) layers except the plantar region, buccal region, and palms that have (blank) layers. a. 4, 5 10. Make up a pneumonic to remember the layers of the epidermis. (or you can borrow mine) a. Basal Spins Grandma's Lucid Corn > Basale Spinosum Granulosum Lucidum Corneum 11. Which layer of the epidermis is continually undergoing mitosis? a. Stratum Basale 12. What cell type in the stratum basale creates a substance that aids in cornification? a. Keratinocytes 13. What cell type makes the pigment that colors skin? a. Melanocytes 14. On what cell does melanin travel up through the epidermis? a. Keratinocytes 15. When your cute boyfriend kisses your forehead what cells in the epidermis make it possible for you to feel the cute forehead kisses? a. Tactile Merkel Cells 16. Your middle school sister decides to declare her undying affection for her boyfriend by writing his name in sharpie on her face. Without the aid of soap or cleaning, how long would it take for the undying love proclamation to be off her face? a. 6 8 weeks 17. You are chasing your arch enemy with the help of your bloodhound, Mr. Fluffles. What is Mr. Fluffles smelling to track down the enemy? a. Stratum corneum cells 18. This integumentary layer is sometimes included with stratum basale in the stratum germinativum. a. Stratum spinosum 19. This is a thin clear layer of flat dead cells found only on a few parts of the body a. Stratum lucidum 20. In this layer keratinization begins as the keratinocytes start to dye and disintegrate. a. Stratum granulosum 21. Look at your hand. What layer of skin do you see? a. Stratum corneum 22. You start taking sitar lessons. After the first couple of weeks you gain (blank) on your fingers from holding and playing the strings as a result of additional (blank) in the epidermis. a. Callouses, mitotic activity 23. How many layers of skin do you have on the parts of your body that grow no hair or peach fuzz? a. 4 24. Skin color is dependent mostly on (blank), but red blood cells called (blank) and a yellow orange pigment called (blank) may also have an effect.USU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 a. Melanin, hemoglobin or erythrocytes, carotene 25. An expecting mother has a condition where an enzyme needed for the synthesis of melanin is nonfunctional so that her melanocytes don't produce melanin. The father's mother has the same condition. What is the name of the condition the new child is at risk for? a. Albinism 26. A woman develops vitiligo on her hand. How will that affect the appearance of her hand? a. It will have light colored patches from the lack of melanin in the area 27. A scientist hypothesizes that smurfs have reduced oxygenation of hemoglobin in blood vessels. This would mean that smurfs are blue because they all have (blank). a. Cyanosis or acrocyanosis 28. What happens when there is a deficiency in hemoglobin, erythrocytes, or both? a. You get Pallor 29. The hemoglobin break down product bilirubin will cause (blank) and a (blank) of the skin. a. Jaundice, yellowing 30. You are a superspy hunting down a mass murderer, Kik McStabbe. During your investigation, Kik McStabbe strikes again. You find the body and then poke it with your shoe. It blanches. How long ago were they killed? a. 1 2 hours 31. You find another body killed by Kik McStabbe. Being the professional you are, you poke it with your shoe again and it doesn't blanch and has no venous marbling. How long has the person been dead? a. At least 8 hours 32. You catch Kik McStabbe in his forest hide out. Out back there is another body. It has venous marbling. How long have they been dead? a. 3 5 days 33. You get a face tattoo of your fish, Cat. What layer of the skin must the needle get to in order for your tattoo of your fish, Cat, to stay forever? a. Dermis 34. Your crazy uncle Jim decides that the world is ending and the only way to survive is to lock himself in a bunker for the next 5 years and never come out. He doesn't take any supplements or vitamins. He will be missing out on (blank) from the lack of sunlight and may develop (blank) because his bones won't be able to absorb (blank) and (blank). a. Vitamin D, rickets, calcium, phosphorus 35. The epidermis is nourished by the (blank) in the dermis. a. Blood vessels 36. What 2 layers make up the Dermis? a. Stratum reticularosum/reticular layer, stratum papillarosum/papillary layer 37. Projections called (blank) interlock with deep inward projections of epidermis called (blank) a. Dermal papillae, epidermal ridges 38. Your finger prints are made of (blank) made from dermal papillae and epidermal ridges. a. Friction ridges 39. Nerve endings reside in what layer of the dermis? a. Both the stratum papillarosum/ papillary layer and stratum reticularosum/ reticular layerUSU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 40. A new mother has lines on her belly from carrying the baby she just delivered. What are the lines called? a. Striae, linea albicantes, stretch marks 41. You meet your friend’s mother. She has tan, sagging, wrinkly skin and appears to be much older than she actually is. This is probably due to what? a. Over exposure to UV light 42. You have the same surgery done on each shoulder. The stitches on the left are parallel to the lines of cleavage, or (blank). The stitches on the right shoulder are perpendicular to the lines of cleavage. Assuming that both are under the same conditions of cleanliness, etc., which will heal sooner and why? a. Tension lines, left because the stitches and skin are being pulled apart from the tension lines. 43. An alien race comes to earth to harvest people fat. They make a weight loss drug the "makes the fat just walk away" as a part of their evil plan. The best plan would be for the drug to target the fat or (blank) in the (blank) layer just under the dermis. a. Adipose, hypodermal 44. What is found on the distal dorsum of the fingers and toes? a. Nails 45. What are nails made of? a. Hardened, transparent stratum corneum 46. Nails and hair are an (blank) derivative. a. Epidermal 47. Why do toe nails grow slower than finger nails? a. Because there is less blood flow to the toe nails than the finger nails 48. Where is there no hair? a. Soles of feet, palms, lips 49. What are the plural and singular versions of the anatomic word for hair? a. Plural pili, singular pilus 50. Hair is a part of the (blank) layer even though the hair extends down through the dermis. a. Epidermal 51. What are the 3 parts of the hair? a. Hair bulb, root, and shaft 52. You shrink down in the magic school bus. You see epithelial cells and a small cluster of dermal nerves and blood vessels. What part of the hair will you see around these things? a. Hair bulb 53. While in the magic school bus, Ms. Frizzle points out that there are cells continually being pushed upward from continued mitotic activity. As the cells get pushed upwards they become keratinized. What part of the hair do you see? a. Hair root 54. You see Pocahontas singing about the colors of the wind. What part of her hair is the wind hitting? a. Hair shaft 55. What are the functions of hair?USU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 a. Protection, heat retention, facial expression, sensory reception, visual identification, and chemical signal dispersal 56. Nose hairs help to disperse (blank) so that they can be detected by the (blank) organ. a. Pheromones, vomeronasal 57. Pheromones are secreted in what areas of the body? a. Axillary, pubic 58. You have dark hair and your friend has blonde hair. Who has more melanin in their hair? a. You (dark hair) 59. Gray hair happens from what? a. Gradual reduction of melanin in hair 60. White hair happens from what? a. No melanin in hair 61. True or false. Mammary glands are specialized sudoriferous glands. What do mammary glands secrete? a. True, milk 62. True or false. Ceruminous glands secrete oils around hairs. a. False. They make earwax 63. What do sebaceous glands do? a. Secrete oils around hair follicles 64. What is the oil called that is secreted by sebaceous glands? a. Sebum 65. A patient has more cell growth than death in a localized area. What do they have? a. Neoplasm or tumor 66. 2 patients both have neoplasms. One patient's cell growth is encapsulated and grows slowly. The second patient's cell growth is unencapsulated and grows quickly. What kinds of neoplasms do they each have? a. Patient 1 benign, Patient 2 malignant 67. The second patient's tumor metastasizes. What does this mean? a. The dedifferentiated cells moved via blood or lymph 68. Cigarettes are a (blank) because they cause lung cancer. a. Carcinogen 69. What are the characteristics of cancer cells? a. Lose control of cell cycle and divide too frequently, lose contact inhibition, exhibit dedifferentiation, produce chemicals to make blood vessels grow to bring blood to the cancerous area, have invasiveness (can squeeze into any space), and can metastasize 70. You decide to quit smoking. To help with quitting you start using nicotine patches which gets nicotine to the body via what? a. Transdermal Administration 71. You are super white and usually would get a sunburn after 10 minutes outside. You apply SPF 15 sunscreen before you go out to work in the garden. You are outside for 3 hours. Will you burn? Why? a. Yes because you should have reapplied at 150 minutes and you didn't. 72. The safest tanners are (blank) tanners and contain (blank) or DHA. a. Sunless, dihydroxyacetone USU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 73. You study finger prints or (blank) at your job. Someone asks you what you do at your job. You say you study (blank). a. Friction ridges, dermatoglyphics 74. You work all day every day in a pool. Assuming that it isn't an infection, what disease might your nails are at risk for? a. Brittle nail syndrome 75. What is it called when you get a fungal infection in your nail? a. Onychomycosis 76. Your nail becomes concave instead of convex, spoon nails. This could be a sign of what? a. Iron deficiency 77. Your sun burn doesn't blister. How bad is it? a. 1st degree 78. Your sun burn blisters. How bad is it? a. 2nd degree 79. You are burned in a fire that destroys the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer. How bad is it? a. 3rd degree Cartilage and Bone Connective Tissue 1. A man comes into the hospital with the part of the body most distal to the plantar surface being thickened and deformed. Upon examination and testing you discover that he has increased osteoblast and osteoclast activity. What does he have? a. Osteitis Deformans 2. You and your space exploration crew land on planet Samlint and discover that there were humans, exactly like earthling humans, on the planet a bajillion years ago. You come across a dead city with lots of skeletons. You have members of your crew take a few to study. You find that one has open fusion of the epiphyseal plate, one with partial union, and one with complete union. Which skeleton was the youngest when they died? How can you tell? a. The one with open fusion is the youngest because open fusion suggests that the bones weren't done growing. They were a kid. 3. A patient comes in for a broken arm. The patient is also bowlegged and reports spending most of his time indoors and drinks pop more than milk. This patient has low levels of calcium in their bones. What do they have? a. Rickets 4. A person you met online tells you they have achondroplasia. What can you guess they would look like? a. Shortened limbs, normal length torso and head, protruding forehead, and flattened nose 5. You meet another person online. They tell you they have pituitary dwarfism. What could you guess they look like? a. Proportionate but very short 6. You do a bone scan and find that the patient has multiple hot spots. What does this mean? a. There are increased metabolic rates in those areas 7. What makes someone more prone to osteoporosis? a. Women (less bone mass and start losing bone mass sooner and faster than men), and a drop in estrogen levels after menopause USU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 8. Your patella is an example of a (blank) bone. a. Sesamoid 9. You have extra bones in the sutures of your skull. What are these bones called? a. Wormian bones or sutural bones 10. Cartilage doesn’t grow back very well. Why? a. Because it is avascular and so it doesn't get a lot of blood and nutrients very quickly 11. What do chondroblasts do? a. They produce the matrix that matures into chondrocytes. They are in cartilage 12. Batman punches you in the throat. What kind of cartilage is damaged? a. Hyaline cartilage 13. What kind of cartilage lines and protects your spinal cord? a. Fibrocartilage 14. What kind of cartilage is your epiglottis made of? a. Elastic Cartilage 15. What even is the point of bones? a. Provide a framework and armor for the body b. Provide protection of all the internal organish squishy stuff 16. The epiphyseal region of the bone is where what happens? a. Hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis 17. Where is the safest place to get a red marrow sample? a. Ossa coxae/pelvis bones 18. The (blank) produce (blank) that control hematopoiesis in red marrow. a. Kidneys, erythropoietin 19. 90% of the body’s reserves for the minerals (blank) and (blank) are stored in bones. a. Calcium, phosphate 20. (Blank) is used for muscle contraction, blood clotting, and nerve impulse transmission, whereas (blank) is used for ATP utilization. a. Calcium, phosphate 21. What are the 4 different types or classifications of bones? a. Long, short, flat, irregular 22. What type of bone is the femur? a. Long 23. The bones in your wrists and ankles and sesamoid bones are what type of bones? a. Shorts 24. The bones that make up the top of the skull are what type of bones? a. Flat 25. The vertebrae or pelvic bones are what type of bones a. Irregular 26. Your femur breaks between the most proximal and distal epiphyses. What part of the bone broke? a. Diaphysis 27. True or false? Red marrow resides in the medullary cavity of the diaphysis of the bone. a. False. It's yellow marrow because red marrow is in the epiphysis 28. The (blank) membrane lines the medullary cavity.USU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 a. endosteum 29. What is the name of the tough sheath of connective tissue that lines the outside of bones? a. Periosteum 30. What type of cartilage is the growth plate made of? a. Hyaline 31. In adults the growth plate (blank) and the only remnant is the (blank) a. Ossifies, epiphyseal line 32. What growth hormone controls the mitotic activity in the growth plate? Where is the organ produced? a. Somatotropin, pituitary gland at the base of the brain 33. Where is the pituitary gland located? a. Silla Turcica (Turkish saddle) of the sphenoid bone 34. Where are osteoprogenitors and what do they help create? a. The periosteum and endosteum of the bone. They give rise to cells that become osteoblasts 35. What do osteoblasts do? a. They create bone by making a semisolid bone matrix called osteoid that later calcifies to become bone 36. What do osteocytes do? a. They detect mechanical stress on bones and communicate the information to osteoblasts and osteoclasts 37. What cells are in charge of osteolysis? a. Osteoclasts 38. Your osteoclasts are more active than your osteoblasts. Are you more or less susceptible to bone breakage? a. More 39. What percent of your bones make up are organic and what are the organic components? a. 1/3, cells, collagen fibers, and ground substance 40. What are the inorganic compounds found in bones? a. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride 41. What part of the bone is spongy in? a. Epiphysis 42. What's diploe? a. Spongy bone 43. What is ossification or osteogenesis? a. The formation and development of bone connective tissue 44. When does osteogenesis begin? a. In embryonic development 45. What type of ossification happens to create the flat bones of the skull, collar bone, and some facial bones like the zygomatic bone, maxilla, and mandible? a. Intramembranous ossification or osteogenesis 46. What type of ossification is used to create most bones? a. Endochondral 47. What is the process for endochondral ossification?USU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 a. Chondroblasts make cartilage matrix and hyaline cartilage model forms during the 8 12 weeks of fetal development b. The cartilage model grows in the center of the shaft (hypertrophy) and minerals are deposited by calcification c. Osteoblasts are created and secrete osteoid to make a bone shell on the outside of the bone called periosteal d. Osteoblasts and blood vessels fill the middle of the bone where the cartilage is disintegrating e. Calcification continues until the only cartilage left is articular cartilage and epiphyseal growth plates f. Once a person reaches adulthood the epiphyseal growth plates 48. What 4 hormones greatly influence bone growth? a. Somatotropin, thyroid hormone, estrogen, and testosterone 49. What activates osteoblasts? a. Vitamin A 50. Vitamin C is required for the synthesis of what? a. Collagen 51. What stimulates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus? a. Vitamin D 52. How does exercise build bones? a. The exercise puts pulling stress on the periosteum of the bones stimulating increased bone growth 53. What is a roentgenogram? a. Xray 54. What causes a stress fracture? a. Increased loads and pressure on the bone 55. What can cause a pathologic fracture? a. Severely weakened bone strength from osteoporosis, cancer, or other disease 56. What's the difference between a closed and open fracture? a. A closed fracture has no opening in the skin by the break. An open fracture does have an opening of the skin, even if the opening wasn't caused by the bone breaking, it's still an open fracture. 57. What is a comminuted fracture? a. It breaks off into little pieces 58. What causes a spiral fracture? a. A twisting movement 59. Do greenstick fractures generally happen in adults or children? a. Children 60. What is a depressed fracture? a. When part of the bone is pushed inward 61. What is the difference between a displaced and nondisplaced fracture? a. A displaced is where the bone is out of proper alignment, nondisplaced is in proper alignment 62. What are the steps to a fractured bone healing?USU Biology 2320 Anatomy Test 1 a. Gets a fracture hematoma b. Phagocytic cells and osteoclasts clean the area c. A fibrocartilage callus forms d. Osteoblasts begin to ossify the cartilage to form a bony callus e. The excess callus is broken down so that the bone is the correct shape f. A new vascular system is established 63. What effects does aging have on bone tissue? a. Reduced ability to produce organic bone matrix b. Increased percentage of inorganic minerals in bone making bones brittle c. Reduction in calcium and other minerals (demineralization) d. Insufficient ossification osteopenia 64. Give an example of each a. Condyle b. Facet c. Head d. Alveolus e. Fossa f. Crest g. Epicondyle h. Process i. Spine j. Trochanter k. Tubercle l. Tuberosity m. Fissure n. Foramen o. Sinus