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UGA - HIST 2112 - Class Notes - Week 3

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UGA - HIST 2112 - Class Notes - Week 3

School: University of Georgia
Department: History
Course: American History Since 1865
Professor: Rohrer
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: history, american, and America
Name: HIST 2112 notes week 3
Description: These notes cover week 3 of HIST 2112. I have highlighted the important terms, names, and documents.
Uploaded: 01/29/2017
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background image Key:   People   Terms   Documents  HIST 2112: American History Since 1865  Week 3  1/24/17 Industrialization and the labor movement  1.  Working conditions in US factories  a.  Sanitation was very poor since there were no guidelines 
b.  Working hours were extremely long.  It was not unusual to work 10-16 hours a 
day with only Sunday off.  There was also no paid overtime  c.  Work was regimented, repetitive, and “on the clock”.  Workers repeated the  same task over and over.  i.  Tailorism- a scientific management system for labor.  Expert tailors would  analyze a factory’s efficiency and create a plan for improvement.  
Employees were told specific movements to make in a specific order to 
be as efficient as possible. 
d.  The “de-skilling” of labor- before industrialization, manufactured items were  handmade by someone who specialized in the craft (artisans) and complete the 
entire process.  After the assembly line was creates, unskilled workers 
completed minor tasks to complete the product.  This put skilled workers out of 
commission. 
e.  Wages were very low.  American factories paid more than European ones.  Still,  workers weren’t paid much.  Employers also found reasons to dock the pay.  
Some Triangle Shirtwaist workers were charged for inefficiency or the materials.  
Many workers were also earning money to feed a family (sometimes overseas).  
2.  Unionization and states- workers resisted the working conditions  a.  1886- the National Labor Union was very exclusive (only open to white men who  were skilled workers) and ineffective.  b.  1887- The Great Railroad Strike.  After being told that their wages would be cut  by 20%, workers walked out on their jobs in protest.  Owners responded by 
hiring temporary workers and using the military to break up the strike 
3.  Labor movements  a.  Knights of Labor-  A group that fought for increased wages and fewer hours.   They were very inclusive (open to women, unskilled workers, and most races.  It 
simply required that a person work with their hands).  At its peak, 10% of 
workers were involved. 
i.  Producerism- the belief that real wealth is made from hard work with  one’s hands.  b.  The Eight Hour Movement- they believed that people should be able to work 8  hours, rest 8 hours, work 8 more hours, and rest for 8 more. 
background image Key:   People   Terms   Documents  i.  80,000 people showed up to support the movement.   There was also a  factory strike on the same day so they joined them.  At one point, one 
protestor set off bomb, causing chaos.   Afterwards, the Eight Hour 
Movement was always associated with “bomb throwing radicals”. 
ii.  7 members were sentenced to death and one to 15 years in prison. This 
was to intimidate protesters.  
  iii.  The group faded away   c.  American Federation of Labor- They believed that the system had problems, but 
it wasn’t broken and could be fixed (reformers).
  i.  Members were far less radical than other groups   ii.  They were more moderate and inclusive (skill-wise and racially)  d.  Revolutionaries-  They believed that the system was broken and could not be fixed.  i.  The worse the job, the more radicals there are.  ii.  Some towns were owned by mine companies.  Employers paid workers in  coupons that could be redeemed at stores that the company owned or use 
them to pay rent on housing owned by the company.  This was very similar to 
indentured servitude.  The conditions gave rise to radicals. 
iii.  The United Mine Workers of America, Ludlow Massacre- Employees went on  strike.  They were kicked out of their houses and forced to live in tents on the 
prairie.  Because the strikers were armed, the company hired armed men to gun 
down the tents and people. 
iv.  Industrial Workers of the World- They were communists who believed in  revolution and that religion was used to fool people.  v.  Homestead Steel Strike- Carnegie was determined to break up the Association  of Iron and Steel Workers.  Workers began striking when he raised production 
demands.  He was then able to shut down the strike with Pinkerton guards.  
After multiple deaths, the strike ended and Carnegie reinstated longer hours 
and lowered wages. 
1/26/17 Farmer Brown strikes back: the populist revolt against industrialism  1.  Agrarian American  a.  In the 1880s to 1890s, the rural states pushed back against industrialism 
b.  They were not happy with the cultural, political, and economic direction that the 
country was going in.  In response, they created the first third political party.  c.  They still believed in the “American dream” of owning one’s own land and having the  means to farm it.  d.  Jeffersonian America- The belief that farmers were the ideal citizens.  The namesake  originates from Jefferson saying that those who till the soil are the most virtuous and 
best citizens of democracy.  They believed that farmers were independent and did good 
for the community and could not be corrupted 
2.  Threatened by industrialism  a.  Farmers became so adept that they began to overproduce, which drove down prices.   They were in financial trouble because they were barely breaking even. 

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School: University of Georgia
Department: History
Course: American History Since 1865
Professor: Rohrer
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: history, american, and America
Name: HIST 2112 notes week 3
Description: These notes cover week 3 of HIST 2112. I have highlighted the important terms, names, and documents.
Uploaded: 01/29/2017
3 Pages 23 Views 18 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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