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UGA / History / HIST 2112 / Who made up the farmers alliance?

Who made up the farmers alliance?

Who made up the farmers alliance?


School: University of Georgia
Department: History
Course: American History Since 1865
Professor: Rohrer
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: history, american, and America
Cost: 25
Name: HIST 2112 notes week 3
Description: These notes cover week 3 of HIST 2112. I have highlighted the important terms, names, and documents.
Uploaded: 01/29/2017
3 Pages 129 Views 2 Unlocks

Key: People Terms Documents 

Who made up the farmers alliance?

HIST 2112: American History Since 1865

Week 3

1/24/17 Industrialization and the labor movement 

1. Working conditions in US factories

a. Sanitation was very poor since there were no guidelines

b. Working hours were extremely long. It was not unusual to work 10-16 hours a  day with only Sunday off. There was also no paid overtime

c. Work was regimented, repetitive, and “on the clock”. Workers repeated the  same task over and over.

i. Tailorism- a scientific management system for labor. Expert tailors would  analyze a factory’s efficiency and create a plan for improvement.  

Employees were told specific movements to make in a specific order to  

be as efficient as possible.

What are the beliefs of the populist party?

d. The “de-skilling” of labor- before industrialization, manufactured items were  handmade by someone who specialized in the craft (artisans) and complete the  entire process. After the assembly line was creates, unskilled workers  Don't forget about the age old question of How do we acquire knowledge?

completed minor tasks to complete the product. This put skilled workers out of  commission.

e. Wages were very low. American factories paid more than European ones. Still,  workers weren’t paid much. Employers also found reasons to dock the pay.  Some Triangle Shirtwaist workers were charged for inefficiency or the materials.  Many workers were also earning money to feed a family (sometimes overseas). 2. Unionization and states- workers resisted the working conditions We also discuss several other topics like What were computers first use?

a. 1886- the National Labor Union was very exclusive (only open to white men who  were skilled workers) and ineffective.

What is agrarian america?

b. 1887- The Great Railroad Strike. After being told that their wages would be cut  by 20%, workers walked out on their jobs in protest. Owners responded by  hiring temporary workers and using the military to break up the strike

3. Labor movements

a. Knights of Labor- A group that fought for increased wages and fewer hours.  They were very inclusive (open to women, unskilled workers, and most races. It  simply required that a person work with their hands). At its peak, 10% of  workers were involved.

i. Producerism- the belief that real wealth is made from hard work with  one’s hands.

b. The Eight Hour Movement- they believed that people should be able to work 8  hours, rest 8 hours, work 8 more hours, and rest for 8 more.

Key: People Terms Documents 

i. 80,000 people showed up to support the movement. There was also a  factory strike on the same day so they joined them. At one point, one  

protestor set off bomb, causing chaos. Afterwards, the Eight Hour  We also discuss several other topics like What is a gigahertz?

Movement was always associated with “bomb throwing radicals”.

ii. 7 members were sentenced to death and one to 15 years in prison. This  was to intimidate protesters.  

iii. The group faded away

c. American Federation of Labor- They believed that the system had problems, but  it wasn’t broken and could be fixed (reformers).

i. Members were far less radical than other groups

ii. They were more moderate and inclusive (skill-wise and racially)

d. Revolutionaries- They believed that the system was broken and could not be fixed. i. The worse the job, the more radicals there are. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between morbidity and mortality?

ii. Some towns were owned by mine companies. Employers paid workers in  If you want to learn more check out What does ontology study?

coupons that could be redeemed at stores that the company owned or use  

them to pay rent on housing owned by the company. This was very similar to  

indentured servitude. The conditions gave rise to radicals.

iii. The United Mine Workers of America, Ludlow Massacre- Employees went on  strike. They were kicked out of their houses and forced to live in tents on the  We also discuss several other topics like What are polymers examples?

prairie. Because the strikers were armed, the company hired armed men to gun  down the tents and people.

iv. Industrial Workers of the World- They were communists who believed in  

revolution and that religion was used to fool people.

v. Homestead Steel Strike- Carnegie was determined to break up the Association  of Iron and Steel Workers. Workers began striking when he raised production  

demands. He was then able to shut down the strike with Pinkerton guards.  

After multiple deaths, the strike ended and Carnegie reinstated longer hours  

and lowered wages.

1/26/17 Farmer Brown strikes back: the populist revolt against industrialism 

1. Agrarian American

a. In the 1880s to 1890s, the rural states pushed back against industrialism

b. They were not happy with the cultural, political, and economic direction that the  country was going in. In response, they created the first third political party.

c. They still believed in the “American dream” of owning one’s own land and having the  means to farm it.

d. Jeffersonian America- The belief that farmers were the ideal citizens. The namesake  originates from Jefferson saying that those who till the soil are the most virtuous and  best citizens of democracy. They believed that farmers were independent and did good  for the community and could not be corrupted

2. Threatened by industrialism

a. Farmers became so adept that they began to overproduce, which drove down prices.  They were in financial trouble because they were barely breaking even.

Key: People Terms Documents 

b. They also felt like the banks were around pushing them around. This is because they  loaned famers money at a higher rate since they were financial risks.

c. They felt that railroads had a monopoly over transportation, which made transportation  of their product very expensive

d. They believed that industrialization violates producerism, the true source of wealth. “I  feed you all”

e. “status anxiety”- farmers were no longer relevant  

3. Farmers alliances (unions for farmers)

a. Patrons of Husbandry (the Grange)- a group that held picnics to speak against  industrialism. Tens of thousands of people attended the rallies. They teamed up with  the Knights of Labors because both had similar causes.

b. Omaha Platform of 1892- what the Populists wanted. Most ideas were not come to  fruition  

i. Abolish privately owned railroads and put them in the hands of the government.  a fair rate could be ensured with democracy.

ii. Graduated income tax- the greater the income, the greater the income tax.  Also, the direct election of senators. Both are still in use today.  

iii. No protective tariffs for industry  

iv. Subtreasury system- creating artificial scarcity of grain by storing it in grain silos.  An institution was attaches to them so that farmers could take out loans.

v. Free coinage of silver. With the gold standard, money was extremely scarce.  But the much more common system would add money to the economy and  

increase inflation. Then farmers would be able to pay off their debts.

4. The Populist Party

a. They were successful at the local, but not national level

b. William Jennings Brian- farmer who ran for president

c. Populists merged with the democrats to have more influence

d. America ultimately went with industrialism

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