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FAU / Psychobiology / PSB 4006 / How is primary insomnia diagnosed?

How is primary insomnia diagnosed?

How is primary insomnia diagnosed?

Description

School: Florida Atlantic University
Department: Psychobiology
Course: Biological Bases of Behavior 2
Professor: Nikola lucas
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Cost: Free
Name: Chapter 9 Notes
Description: These notes include textbook materials from chapter nine. They also incorporate part of the PowerPoint notes from lecture. Also, ignore the very first page. Somehow, that particular page showed up twice. Pages 2 through 14 are chronologically correct.
Uploaded: 01/29/2017
14 Pages 280 Views 7 Unlocks
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  • Primary insomnia - characterized as difficulty falling asleep after going to bed or after awakening during the night

  • Secondary Insomnia - inability to sleep due to another mental or physical condition such as pains, substance abuse, or psychological or neurological condition.

  • Treatment - pharmacological vs non pharmacology
  • Non pharmacological - cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), progressive relaxation techniques, changes in sleep hygiene
  • Sleep hygiene - maintain consistent sleep schedule, keeping bedrooms dark, quiet, and cool

  • Pharmacological - hypnotic drugs, ambien and sonata are agonists at the GABA rec; benzodiaz and OTC antihistamines
  • Produce side effects such as sleepiness or difficulty concentrating the following day
  • Chronic use of sleep-promoting drugs can lead to tolerance and rebound insomnia (return and increase in insomnia) when use is ended

  • Sleep Apnea - cessation of breathing while sleeping
  • inability to sleep and breathe at same time
  • During period of sleep apnea, CO2 level in blood stimulates chemorec. And the person wakes up gasping for air
  • O2 level of blood returns to normal, person fall asleep, cycle restarts
  • People feel sleepy and groggy during day because sleep is disrupted
  • Many cases caused by airway obstruction that can be corrected surgically or relieved by device that provides pressurized air that keeps arway open

  • Narcolepsy
  • characterized by pds of irresistible sleep, cataplexy attacks, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations

  • Sleep attacks
  • 1o Symptom; irresistible urge to sleep during the day, after which person awakens. Feeling refreshed
  • Occurs under monotonous, boring conditions: last 2-5 min; waking up feeling refreshed
  • Diminished by stimulants ex. Ritalin
  • Trouble drawing pictures ex. clock image
  • Difficulty making skilled movements with arms or hands
  • No trouble using objects properly, imitating their use, or pretending to use them
  • 1o deficit - ability to perceive and imagine gemo. relations
  • Trouble with spatial perception ex. following map

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the dissociation state of acid?
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Sleep and Biological RhythmsWe also discuss several other topics like What are the tools used in mass media?

What is sleep?

  • Sleep is a behavior - its not distinguished by movement

  • Sleep characterization - urge of sleepiness (a motivation) forces us to seek out sleep area (behavior)

  • Electromyogram (EMG) - electrical potential recorded from electrode placed on / in muscle

  • Electrooculogram (EOG) - elec pot from eyes recorded from electrode on skin around them; detects eye movement

  • EEG during wakefulness show two basic activity patterns

  • a activity - smooth electrical activity of 8-12Hz recorded from the brain, generally associated. With state of relaxation

  • b activity - irregular elec. Activity of 13-30Hz recorded from brain; general associated with state of arousal.
  • Shows desynchrony - reflects the main diff. neural circuits

  • EEG electrodes record many neurons at once, reporting sum of activity
  • Cells active at same time, message are synchronized and appear as large, clear waves; if they are randomly active, messages are desynchronized and appear as small, chaotic waves without clear pattern

  • Stage of wakefulness (W), three NON REM stages (NREM 1,2,3) and one REM sleep stage CR

  • Theta activity - 3.5-7.5Hz, during early stages of slow wave sleep and REM sleep
  • Considered stage 1
  • Indicate neuron firing in neocortex is becoming more synchronized
  • Transition between sleep and wakefulness
  • As the night progresses and the indiv continues to sleep, she experiences more REM sleep
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