SOC030 Exam 3 Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katrina Iobst on Monday April 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC030 at a university taught by Dr. Silver in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 274 views.
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Date Created: 04/13/15
Lesson 85 Marriage Part 2 The Purposes of Marriage Historical Purposes of Marriage Gaining land or property oJoin families Economicpolitical alliance Survival 0 Family was unit of production is now unit of consumption Spouses less dependent Different worlds marriage is now not about survival but choice 0 Legitimate sex amp protect children Current Purposes of Marriage 1 Legitapproved sexual relation 2 Guarantee property amp support of kids amp wife 3 Ensuring responsible upbringing of children Laws Control Marriage 0 Who can marry o No incest and what de nes incest o Homosexual 0 When we can marry 0 Marriage license 0 Federal laws provide bene ts for marrieds 0 Tax breaks 0 Spouse gets to make decisions over family o If we can end the contract amp how 0 Annulmentdivorce procedures 0 Laws shape beliefs and beliefs shape laws both are socially constructed 0 Interracial marriage became legal Divorce became legal amp easier to get Same sex marriage legal in some states Polygamy ruling in Utah okay to live as polygamists if you re only legally married to one person 000 Lesson 9 Changim Expectations for Marriage Reading quotThe ApproachAvoidance Dance Men Women and Intimacyquot by Lillian Rubin Part 1 Maude Robert and Elmer In 1884 Maude Rittenhouse was courted by 2 men 0 Robert charming handsome clever educated sophisticated Maude is strongly attracted to him amp they share interests 0 Elmer plain shy but hardworking responsible reliable Maude is less attracted to him Maude chose Elmer why 0 Passionate feelings considered too unreliable risky way to pick a partner 0 Spiritual true love is more stable amp uplifting better basis for marriage Spiritual love or true love union of heart soul mind encouraging deep knowledge of each other 0 Spouses interdependent in marriage Family is unit of production Few economic opportunities for women 0 Divorce very negatively looked upon 0 17 of people in our class 11 women 24 men would marry someone they did not love if they had other qualitiescharacteristics they wanted Part 2 2 Eras of Marriage Expectations 0 Case Studyquot Marriage photos 0 1900519105 Women very covered up neck hands feet some got married just in their Sunday clothes Bride does not particularly stand out groom is virtually indistinguishable Sometimes bridge and groom aren t sitting very close or even touching No smiles always serious in life amp pictures and formal poses downplaying romance 0 Modern Full body contact hugging or kissing usually holding hands Everyone s smiling some goo ng around and laughing emotional expression Romantic expressions Some dressed more casual beach wedding party doesn t wear shoes Shoulders hands sometimes feet of bride showing often legs of bridesmaids showing 0 Era 1 Traditional Marriage Pre20th Century 19605 0 Expectation of permanence Strict amp clear gender roles true hierarchical relationship Financial support from husband Raising children not a choice Emphasizes obligation legal status community expectations legal de nition of family Partners and community understand the expectations and obligations marriage is an important social role and contributing to the community not something done for your own pleasure and happiness People not marrying considered not ful lling role as adult Kin network Considered teammatesworkmates with a hope for fondness not romance Important aspects Love early 19005 O 0000 0000 Friendship 19205 Sexual compatibility 19205 Primary bond 19205 0 These expectations are still held today Soc030 women want love trust honesty loyalty nancial supportsuccess breadwinner same nancial level or higher respect familychildren commitment no divorce faithfulness Soc030 men want love trust respect loyalty sacri cing children religion good cook attractive acceptingunderstanding happiness clean 0 Cons Strict gender roles constrain lives educated women stuck in the house etc Separate worlds between husband amp wife less in common Dissatis ed women 0 Pros Permanence allows investment as a team Shared clear simple expectations Era 2 Individualized Marriage Since 19605 Marriage done the way the people in the marriage want to Personal happiness amp ful llment Permanent try hardest not to divorce Primary loyalty amp trust Flexible gender roles Communication intimate communication about love etc Ongoing project strive to be a better couple and improve their relationship Emotional intimacy knowing each other on the deepest level possible Support each other s growth Many traditional expectations These expectations are held in Soc30 Soc030 women want fun compromise communication shared chores sex Soc030 men want independenceseparate time romance similar interests nancially helpful sex smart sense of humor 0 quotIt s more important to be happy than to stay in a bad marriage even if you have kidsquot 77 of Soc30 students agree 78 of women 71 of men The marriage is seen as a vehicle to happiness not a social unit to produce children 0 Pros Potential for deeper connection amp happiness Flexible gender roles that perpetuate varied opportunities 000000 0000 Freedom to decide what you desire o Cons Higher risk of divorce Happiness is eeting Less secure for kids both people focused on career Expectations change with time Hard to do for a lifetime 0 Wedding Cake Example 0 Traditional marriage is the base of the cake sets the precedent o Individualized marriage is on top newer but still an important part of the equa on Fiddler on the Roof How Love Becomes Important 0 Father sets up marriage between his daughter amp an old man she doesn t love who has money security job etc Love is not part of the arrangement 0 Parents are excited she s going to be a bride of an honorable man though younger person remarks quotRich is no reason to marryquot 0 Father had an agreement with the man quotIs that agreement more important than my happinessquot 0 Father thinks its crazy that a man offers himself to marriage kids gave each other a pledge to marry It s the father amp matchmaker s job nothing to do with love or happiness 0 He realizes that his daughter loves the man and agrees that they should marry parent s authority diminishing 0 Father tells mother the situation she is angry that she is marrying a pauper amp she wasn t even consulted lt prompts the discussion between the parents if they truly love each other 0 Mother points to the social rolewifer duties quotThat s love isn t itquot Lesson 10 Parents and Children Bene ts Challenges and Changes Readings 1 quotMama Don t Preachquot by Reiter Pronatalism the push to have babies 2 quotDaddy Dilemmaquot by Smith A man s POV on wanting children 3 quotThis Wonderful Decisionquot by Lewis Compares the lives of lesbian single moms with the lives of heterosexual single moms how sexuality in uences the experience of motherhood Motherhood is more in uential than sexuality mothers have more in common with other mothers than people have with people of the same sexuality it trumps the sexual identity Why Have Children 0 Biological drive desire to be parents 0 Love want to give love to a child and express love with partner 0 Some want something that will always love them 0 Continue lineage 0 Sense of Identity our conception of ourselves our selfimage or mental model of ourselves Cultural values 0 Religion not okay to prevent children quotbe fruitful and multiplyquot o Pronatalism idea that having child is good and being a parent is good 0 Social norm shared cultural understanding amp expectation for behavior Implication that married couple isn t a family until there s a child 0 Strengthen family bond create a social family Socialization Girls are socialized with dolls and maternaloriented dogs 0 Boys are typically denied dolls but new male expectations are to be involved with child care Trend Across the developed nations of the world women are older when they have their rst child 0 US average age in 1970 was 21 in 2006 it was 25 Having No Children 0 More women of all races are childless o 2008 18 of women childless by end of childbearing years 44 More people see childlessness as okay not an quotempty lifequot doesn t de ne a successful marriage individualized marriage Public amp Private Explanations for Children as a Choice 0 Technology physical culture 0 Acceptance of diverse family types cultural values 0 Less social pressure on women cultural values 0 Women typically had more social pressure because the window of fertility is smaller than men 0 Women have more opportunities like career 0 Acceptance of childlessness cultural values 0 Education amp occupation options 0 Married at older ages Transition to Parenthood 0 First baby pregnancy l 2 years transition in social role Baby Bene ts 0 Understand previous generations 0 Feel closer tounderstand parents better 0 Feel more like family idea that kids make a family 0 Love Valued role pronatalism 0 Yet we don t encourage young teens or very old generation gap baby health issues with old speci cally people with transferable diseases or handicapped drug addicts or low income single parent by choice homosexual couples 0 Growing personally Shared creation of child Baby Challenges 0 Less time for everything else 0 Combine with work 0 Help declines Tiredness Physical recovery of birth 0 quotOn the jobquot learning Expenses The Business of Being Born Expenses Monthly expenses for Stella at 1 year old in 2005 Food 75 Baby food snacks drinks Diapers amp 70 Provided for daycare use at home wipes Daycare 50 Woman s home unlicensed cheaper than 0 normal Health 20 For family of 3 through work insurance 5 Clothing 35 Clothing also coming as gifts Toys Books 15 Toys amp Books also coming as gifts Misc 20 Sippy cups paci ers dishes TOTAL 92 Did not include big items car seats 5 babyproo ng etc Change Traditionalization 0 Relationships often become more traditional after the birth of the rst baby 0 A problem when couples don t expect or don t want it to happen His Tasks Her Tasks Birth of Baby Before Baby Similar Lives Moms 0 Fewer work responsibilities in early weeks 0 Maternity leave 0 May quit or reduce hours 0 Focus on direct baby care feeding bathing etc 0 Choice 0 Encouragement from others women tend to have primary responsibility of child care encouraged to be the one who knows their baby 0 Socialization primed since childhood to think being a mother is part of being a woman she must care for the baby 0 Fathers may have paternity leave but some choose not to don t want to be seen as less serious about work Dads More focus on indirect baby care paid work 0 Family needs more 0 Breadwinner expectation via socialization 0 Man usually earns more so makes more sense to add hours for extra 0 Less direct baby care due to work 0 Choice 0 Gatekeeping woman pushes him away from childcare because she is better at it intentionally or unintentionally Socialization Practice 0 One with more time doing direct baby care will be better at that care Usually the mother 0 Direct baby care is an important type of bonding Gives con dence to caregiver System can become very dependent on the mother man doesn t know how to do domestic things or relate to child Kid l Mom Dad no direct relationship between kid and dad Contributes to divorce o If unwanted traditionalization can be a source of tension BUT Men usually specialize in Rough amp Tumble Play Emotion Regulation Traditionalization is a Social Process 0 Partners gender socialization amp attitudes 0 Male breadwinner expectation 0 Female as nurturer 0 Partners identity 0 quotBaby personquot 0 Interaction with other family friends media amp their expectations Soc030 survey If I have children I expect Will do most of the direct child care such as feeding bathing diapering etc o 79 women 0 14 men Soc030 survey I expect that will be the breadwinner for my family meaning I Will earn most of the and be responsible for working 0 26 women 0 88 men Lesson 11 Home Context 6 Parenting Readings quotSocial Class and the Daily Lives of Childrenquot by Annette Lareau Social class has a larger determination than race of how a child is raised Types of Families 0 American family has slowly moved from mostly 2 married parents in their rst marriage amp kids 73 in 1960 to a broader distribution in 2013 o 46 2 married parents in rst marriage gone down since 1960 o 34 single parent gone up since 1960 o 15 2 married parents 1 or both remarried has remained about the same since 1960 o 5 no parent has remained about the same since 1960 Parenting Styles 0 Parenting style general approach to disciplining amp interacting with children 0 2 Dimensions 0 Support responsiveness emotional warmth caring affection acceptance 0 Control behavioral control amount of exibility demandingness monitoring 0 4 Types of Patterns 0 Authoritarian high control low support Expect obedience to the point of corporal punishment rigid don t listen to child s POV low warmth amp support quotmy way or no wayquot signals stressful environment for parents marital con ict money issues unstable work depression I Kids tend to be irritable moody unfriendly environment doesn t care about them 0 Authoritative high control high support Considered most effective Flexible to compromise and discussion consistent limits and rules encourages autonomy rewardspunishments but not necessarily force I Kids are selfreliant achievementoriented better in school resistant to peer pressure 0 Uninvolved low control low support Doesn t care but also doesn t particularly want children s happiness absent or neglectful passive puts themselves in front of kids to the point of danger Kids withdrawn underachieving rebellious due to no rules variety of psych problemsdrug use bullying Permissive low control high support Overly monitoring of happiness no instructions lenience few requirements of kids tolerates unruly behavior inconsistent limits today there s a consequence but it ll never be enforced again quotjust let them be kidsquot Kids quotrun the showquot badly behaved rebellious irresponsible due to lack of accountability less matureable to assume leadership behavior problems when faced with rules Exam 3 does not have samesex parenting or social class Readings ARE on exam Lesson 11 only goes to race amp parenting Parenting Style Quiz 0 Matilda uninvolved 0 Mean Girls permissive 0 That 70 s Show Authoritarian 0 Full House authoritative The Cosby Show Authoritative Willy Wonka amp the Chocolate Factory Veruca Salt permissive 8 Simple Rules Authorita rian RaceEthnicity and Parenting RacialEthnic Socialization RacialEthnic Socialization a form of parental involvement where parents are actively teaching their children about the signi cance of belonging to their racialethnic group 0 Protection in a potentially hostile environment 0 Messages 0 History amp heritage o Racialethnic pride amp identity 0 Role of race in society 0 Awareness of racial discrimination amp barriers o Sdfwo h Bene ts for Children 0 Positive racialethnic identity 0 Higher psychological wellbeing higher selfesteem o More resilient to discrimination 0 Improved cognitive and school performance
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