TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE ∙ How does the public generally define hypothesis and theory? Compare and contrast this with the definitions we discussed in class. A hypothesis is a well thought out assumption on how an experiment may turn out. A theory is a hypothesis that has been proven multiple times by different individuals. ∙ What are the 3 assumptions of the scientific process that we discussed in class? Write down explanations of each in your own words. Fossil Record- Parts of an organism that are not complete decomposed. Physical and Biological Traits- Homologous traits are traits that have shared evolution. Analogous traits are traits that have similar functions, but developed different Developmental Patterns in Animals Many animals have similar structures during the embryonic stage of development ∙ What is our definition of evolution? Any genetic change in a population ∙ Which of the following do you think is true of genetic drift? Genetic drift is more rapid in a small population. ∙ A forest fire kills off 90% of a rabbit population. What has occurred in this population? The bottleneck effect ∙ How do founder effect, genetic drift, and a bottleneck relate to each other? Founder effect and bottleneck are types of genetic drift ∙ Looking out the window this morning, you saw two birds. You hypothesize they are the same species. What evidence would best support your hypothesis, according to the biological species concept? They’ve been getting frisky, and you see babies in a nest they both visit. ∙ In 2-3 sentences, explain the difference between genetic drift and natural selection. During natural selection in a population, individuals with advantageous traits leave more offsprings. Genetic drift is random changes in gene frequencies. Genetic drift does not relate to the advantages and disadvantages of traits. Genetic drift is more rapid in smaller population ∙ Two species of buttercup are found in a field in North Dakota, and they tend to flower at approximately the same time in early spring. When some ecology students decide to conduct an experiment in community dynamics, they selectively remove one species from the field by hand-picking all emergent plants. When the one species is removed, the other species shows a significant increase in its population size the next season. This study demonstrates: Interspecific competition Intraspecific competition is an interaction in population ecology, whereby members of the same species compete for limited resources ∙ Describe each of the mechanisms of evolution Mutation- The ultimate source of variation; occur randomly Caused by occasional errors in copying DNA or exposure to ultraviolent light or specific chemicals Natural Selection- In a population, individuals with advantageous traits leave more offsprings. 4 postulates of Natural Selection: Variation of Traits, Heritability, Only some individuals in a population reproduce, and Differential Reproductive Success Genetic Drift- Random change in gene frequencies; not related to the advantageous or disadvantage of traits. Genetic Drift almost always reduces diversity Migration- Movement of individuals to/from a population changes gene frequency in that population. MIGRATION CAUSES EVOLUTION
Biological Species Concept Species are interbreeding or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups ∙ Speciation: Formation of new species from an ancestor population ∙ Write out each postulate of natural selection in your own words. Use an example scenario to illustrate your postulates. Postulate 1: Variation in Traits- ALL traits vary to some degree. Variation is the raw material for evolution. Postulate 2: Heritability- Natural selection only works on traits that can be passed genetically from one generation to the next. Postulate 3: Only Some Individuals in a Population Reproduce- Why? because resources are not infinite. Postulate 4:Different Reproductive Success- Individuals with more “useful” traits, on average produce more offsprings. Genes for these traits become more prevalent overtime Reproductive success is the measure of one’s fitness, not survival Example: If you gave birth to ten offsprings and all ten of them die; though you reproduced, you aren’t considered reproductive successful because your offsprings did not survive. ∙ Fitness- Reproductive success relative to other individuals in the population ∙ Is natural selection random? Explain. Natural Selection is not random. The survival and reproductive success of an individual is directly related to the ways its inherited traits interact with its environmentAllopatric speciation relies on separation (generally geographic) of a population. ∙ Explain in your own words how splitting a population can result in development of a new species. In your answer a specific reason why the descendant populations in your scenario are unable to breed after speciation. The isolated population begins to diverge due to genetic drift and natural selection. The new features of the isolated population are efficient for it to survive in its new environment. When the isolated population rejoins the original population, a new species maybe present because the “new species” may no longer be attracted to the “original species” causing them reproductively isolate from one another. Sympatric Speciation is harder to occur because the genes continue to mix sp speciation takes longer to occur. The populations do not separate; they just don’t mate with one another Population –all interbreeding or potentially interbreeding individuals of one species in a given area Community- all interacting populations in an ecosystem (more than one species Biotic factors- Living components in an ecosystem Abiotic factors- Non living (physical and chemical) components in an ecosystem
Many animals have similar structures during the embryonic stage of development ∙ What is our definition of evolution?
∙ What are the 3 assumptions of the scientific process that we discussed in class?
∙ How does the public generally define hypothesis and theory?
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Competition -sharing a limited resource reduces fitness of all parties Energy is the universal currency used for activity at all levels Plants feed energy into all ecosystems through: Photosynthesis – which uses energy in light to build sugars from CO2 CO2
CARBON CYCLE MAJOR RESERVOIR Atmosphere- 0.038% if the air is CO2 Ocean- found primarily as bicarbonate Fossil Fuel- oil, natural gas, coal naturally made, used at very slow rate Carbon moves through biotic systems via photosynthesis, feeding by different animals and decomposition Greenhouse gas: CO2 increases the amount of heat retained by Earth ∙ What is the Principle of Competitive Exclusion? How might you alter a scenario so both parties could coexist? Strong competition for a limited resource cannot continue indefinitely. One party will always lose. Completely. When there are more resources competition is less likely, but it will continue once the resources become limited again -> This is resource partitioning ∙ Why is the maximum density of P. Aurelia in the shared graph lower than the maximum density of P.aureliain the solitary graph? Because the shared graph the P.Aurelia are competing against P.Caudatum for those same resources that are now limited which causes the P.Aurelia maximum density to slightly decrease ∙ We looked at an energy pyramid with a hawk at the top. Discuss the implications of this, given food is a limited resource for humans in the world. Do you think that the world could support more vegetarians (plant eating) or meat eating humans? Why? More meet eating humans because for a vegetarian to get as much energy as a meat eating human they would have to eat almost three times as much making much harder for all of the vegetarians to enjoy their food with little to no competition. ∙ If you were an aquaculturist(fish farmer) and fed your fish 300 pounds of food, how many pounds of fish would you expect to harvest? 30 pounds ∙ Being environmentally aware, you now look at restaurant menus differently. You notice that the menu includes both tilapia (a primary consumer) and Chilean sea bass (a tertiary consumer). Given what you know about the “Rule of 10,” which fish would you eat as an environmentally conscious consumer? Why? I would eat the Chilean sea bass because if I ate the tilapia I would have to eat more pieces to get the same energy that I would from the Chilean sea bass ∙ How many pounds of plant material would be required to produce a 1 pound filet of tilapia (primary consumer)? Chilean sea bass (tertiary consumer)? Tilapia-10lbs Chilean sea bass- 100lbs Fungi Are heterotrophs, and get their energy from other organisms ∙ Are fungi more related to plants or animals? Animals Fungi do NOT photosynthesize Absorptive heterotrophs- obtains its food by secreting digestive enzymes into the environment to break down large food molecules, then absorbing the breakdown products. Fungi do not posses: Gametes(sperm and eggs) or Diploid (2n) tissue Fungi have a life stage called DIKARYOTIC, where each cell has 2 nuclei, each containing one set of chromosomes THE DIKARYOTIC STAGE: (n+n, NOT 2n) Two haploid nuclei are present in the same cell The sex of a fungus is genetically determined. There is no physical difference between male and female Plasmogamy- is the fusion of the cytoplasm in a fungal cell Karyogamy- the fusion of the nuclei of two separate fungal cells ∙ What compound do fungi use to construct cell walls? Chitin, a polymer used also by insects for skeletons Unicellular forms of fungi are called yeast Mycorrhizae are mutualistic associations of fungi and plant roots ∙ Why are fungal infections more difficult to treat than bacterial infections? Anti fungal medicine causes more harm than good because fungi have more in common with animals