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CU / International Studies / INTL 2000 / What determine the speed of evolutionary change?

What determine the speed of evolutionary change?

What determine the speed of evolutionary change?


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Lecture 3Don't forget about the age old question of What are the sources of law in hierarchical order?

  • What determines the speed of evolutionary change?

  • Easiest to predict for:
  • A. Quantitative Traits
  • B. Directional Spectrum

  • “Breeder’s Equation”

  • Response to selection= heritability of a trait x strength of selection
  • R= h 2 S
  • R= change in a phenotypic trait from one generation to the next

  • h2= proportion of total phenotypic variance that is due to genetic causes (passed from parents to offspring)
  • Heritability ranges from 0 → 1
  • 0 = not heritable

  • S= selection- how strong the selection is pushing the trait one way or the other (relationship between phenotypic trait and fitness) (survival or reproduction)

  • Antibiotic resistance: response is high because selection and heritability is high

Don't forget about the age old question of What is a level curve?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the ultimate energy source?
Don't forget about the age old question of Describe the transmissible agents of disease.

If you want to learn more check out When was the 13th amendment proposed?

We also discuss several other topics like Define the points of nazism's method.

  • Pesticide resistance: insects get resistance faster than weed because they go through generations faster, also population size would be bigger

  • Smaller bodied species evolve faster than large ones for these reasons.

  • Decline of a pesticide- mosquitos, and D.D.T.
  • There are multiple mechanisms behind this relationship
  • Very strong selection
  • A single gene in mosquitoes to be resistant
  • Behavioral adaptations- locations to avoid D.D.T.

  • But why was D.D.T. banned?
  • Stopped being effective
  • Affected non target species

  • Antibiotic or drug resistance
  • Initial adaptation to low drug concentrations facilities later adaptation to high concentrations
  • If give them 3,000 right away, they die. If they do it in stages, they make it.

  • Malaria- multi-drug resistance
  • People tried a lot of drugs throughout history to prevent or cure malaria
  • Malaria become resistant to whatever they were using really quickly
  • Chloroquine is the cheapest, but higher resistance

  • West Nile
  • Magpie (endemic corvid to CA) affected
  • Along streams, pastures= habitat
  • No sign of recovery yet → small population size
  • Crows can recover a lot better because bigger population sizes

  • White- nose syndrome (bats)
  • Wake from hibernation, die

  • Cross- adaptation (pre-adaptation)- having a  “head start on a selective agent because of another selective agent”
  • Co potato beetles and pesticides

  • Cast of Adaptations
  • Warfarin resistance in rats
  • Evolved quickly
  • Rapid loss of resistance → after 3 years of no exposure, resistance went down.

Chapter 4: Book notes

  • Case study: frogs
  • Cryonics= freezing bodies to later revive them
  • 1700s: found frogs frozen in ice → came to life
  • To avoid harsh winter?

Responses to environment variation

  • Geographical ranges of species are related to constraints of the physical and biological environment
  • Influences an organism’s ecological success
  • 1. Physical environment affects the ability to obtain energy and resources required for metabolism
  • Extreme environment affect survival (#2)
  • Availability of energy and physical tolerance
  • Actual geographical ranges are not equal to potential ranges

  • Climate envelope- the range of climate conditions under which a species occurs.

  • Stress- environment change results in a decrease in the rate of an important physiological process, lowering an organism’s potential for growth, survival, or reproduction.

  • Acclimatization- adjust physiology, morphology, or behavior to lessen the effect of an environmental change and minimize the stress. (INDIVIDUALS)
  • e.g. adjusting to the elevation

  • Populations respond to environmental variation through adaptation
  • Adaptation- a trait with an underlying genetic basis that enhances the survival of an organization.
  • Long-term (population)

  • Ecotypes- populations with adaptations to unique environments

Variation in temperature

  • Dormancy- a state with little to no metabolic activity

  • At what temperature do enzymes start to denature? (hot)
  • Can produce different enzymes to adjust → isozymes

  • At what temperature do membranes freeze?
  • Higher proportion of unsaturated membrane lipids

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