Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide EDP 301
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Texana Sonnefeld on Monday April 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EDP 301 at University of Arizona taught by Heidi Burross in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 333 views. For similar materials see Child development in Educational Psychology at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 04/13/15
EdP 301 Spring 2015 1 April 2015 Exam 3 Study Guide Bring a 2 pencil and ID to the exam Format The 7 0point exam may consist of matching multiple choice truefalse and short answer questions The exam will take place 15 April 2015 from noon1250 pm in Educ 353 Content This is intended to be used only as a guide to studying not as an exhaustive list of concepts on the exam Not all topics presented here are guaranteed to be covered on the exam The exam will cover topics from the book from lecture Chapter 2 cognitive development 42 of exam Issues and principles in development Issues in development Naturenurture issue I Nature geneticsbiology innate I Nurture environment Continuitydiscontinuity issue I Continuousquantitative smooth curve changes more smooth continuous process amount of what you have ex Height doesn t change in quality I Discontinuousqualitative stair step curve still going up but qualitatively different types ex Piaget s stage theory Stage one is qualitatively less than stage two still growing but different Timing of exposure issue I Critical periods times in which we are more affected by environmental in uences ex Language development critical period I Delays Principles of development any type of development The sequence of develo ment tends to be universal people tend to be in stage 1 before stage 2 h Individuals develop at different rates growth spurts rate of development differs growth spurts rate of development differs Different areas develop and reach maturation at different rates within ourselves we mature at different times even within different types of development ex in adolescences fingers elongate faster than arms Abilities become more specialized and integrated with development as we get older our brains specialize in different things skill set integration of skills and coordination of those skills different areas of the brain that are more developed are more likely to have better skill in those areas when we re older Vygotsky s sociocognitive theory language scaffolding ZPD play Vygotsky s sociocognitive theory Cognition is constructed and based on I Social interactions how we interact with whom and where Cultural background beliefsvalues in uence how we learn what we learn what is most important to us priorities how we interact with information could affect opportunities Language important part of learning eX slinky I Distance between where learner is alone and where she can be with help slinky is stretched out from one hand to the other what affects that gap How much attention you give motivation personal background experience amounttype of content I Need communication and social support who gets you along language communication to move the slinky they provide the support I Scaffolding support along the way until they reach the next level I Initially strong support for learner lessen as foundation built Play in Vygotsky s theory Pla can act as ZPD zone where they work together h substitutions help children separate thinking from objects make the separation between imaginary and real know that a table is not a castle Rules strengthen capacity to think before acting if something is a door don t you dare walk in through the wall sometimes rules are unfair make them in their favor Piaget s cognitive development theory stages ages abilities tasks terms no questions about drawing skills general ages early childhood adolescence etc and associations with skills at those ages dev stages document on D2L Cognition unfolds in a sequence of four qualitative stages each stage has a different quality to it Each is agerelated or biological and distinctive qualitative Each stage is discontinuous from and more advanced than the previous growth Piaget designed tasks to test a child s cognitive functioning for each stage testing where a child is in the theory designed tasks for this While Piaget stopped the theory at the fourth stage he never claimed cognitive development ended there and supported research and theories beyond his fourth level only interested in the adolescence stage so stops after stage 4 1 Piaget s Sensorimotor Stage Birth2 years Coordination of sensory experiences with motor actions learning how to distinguish among different stimuli control limbs distinguishing sounds and images etc By end have I Obiect permanence if you take away an object they still know it exists object is permanent even if they can t sense it develops at 18 months Imitation Piaget develops at about 18 months Newer research Mental representations representing of objects mentally language is the best example this word represents this object once this is mastered they are moving into the next stage according to Piaget develops at 24 months 6 weeks facial expressions imitation you make a face at them and they do the face back at you 6 9 months direct imitation you go tickle tickle tickle they go tickle tickle tickle they do what you do when you do it 12 14 months imitation of intentions you go to throw a ball but don t actually throw it they actually throw the ball this shows the understand the movement they do what they think you were about to do even though they didn t see you follow through with it 18 months mental representations displayed through differed imitation give a kid a phone if they put it up to their ear they are showing imitation if they chew it or throw it they are probably not there they are doing it even though they didn t see you or anyone do it right then 2 Piaget s Preoperational Stage Ages 27 Operations refers to logical thought So they are still prelogical Make huge leaps in thought processes have the start of something and they make a jump to the outcome without having the knowledge of what the outcome could be Claims not often based in evidence identi ers that they are still preoperational understands the world in their own perspective they don t understand that other people have different perspectives have dif culty with empathy and sharing cognitively behaviorally they will show they understand it first then they will eventually actually understand it cognitively ex A girl comforts someone who is crying and says I am sorry but they do not actually understand that they are sadhurting Piaget s preoperational stage symbolic function substage Ages 24 Symbolic thought understand symbols what a ag stands for language represents objects etc Language they are sponges absorb everything tons of words every month using more words Limitations I Lack perspective taking get mad you for yelling at them in a dream they had I Animism inanimate objects have life two general rules 1 if it moves its alive and 2 if it looks like it s alive they have trouble understanding that plants are alive because they don t see them moving Development of play Stages I Ages 023 typically and prompted kids do not play with each other I Ages 34 do see interaction with each other both playing with the same thing or same area but side by side can be talking to each other but mostl doin their own thing not cooperative I Ages 46 role play doctor house school I Ages 612 lots of fantasy lava tag Piaget s preoperational stage intuitive thought substage Ages 47 Intuitive thought knowledge without reason gut feeling starting to form logicsome basis their gut feeling Centration is focusing on one aspect of an experience to the exclusion of other aspectsfeatures of the experiences 0 Lack of conservation ability to understand that objects retain certain properties without changing other properties Ex An object does not change shape if you change location Ex If mom gets a short haircut she is still they same person and still a woman 0 Simple classification sort by color they can do that if you ask to sort by color and shape they cannot do it easily they focus on one aspect at a time 3 Piaget s concrete operations stage Ages 7adolescence typically 11 or 12 I Logical reasoning replaces intuitive reasoning but only in concrete situations By the end kids have actually using logical but limited to concrete situations concrete have had experience with and is not abstract I Conservation I Multiple and hierarchical classi cation sort blocks by color and shape hierarchical classi cation I Seriation have to understand importance of order relative perspective before this age they can put things from smallest to biggest but if you give them another one after they have completed the task they have trouble doing it before they have these concrete skills httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvMpREJlrpgv8 I Transitivity using logic to solve problems ex A gt B and B gt C then what is A to C Conservation Ordered by when people usually develop these skills number 9 weight Hierarchical classi cation When shown a family tree of four generations the concrete operational child can classify the members vertically horizontally and obliquely Ex teachers are people outside of school they go to the grocery store Ex adults have parents and are still children to them kids have trouble understanding this Consequences of abstract thought Adolescent egocentrism tends to develop with formal operations can conceptualize ideas that don t exist think of things you ve never seenheard yourself issues in the world space out there see themselves as special and unique David Elkind took Piaget s term to different lengths found some outcomes I Imaginary audience the belief you are being watched people are interested in what you do ex if you wear the same shirt twice in a week people will know I Sensitivity to others criticism don t like to be criticized think that you don t get it so you cant criticize them I Personal fable story the adolescent tells about themselves who they are what they are doing in the world the are going to be the best in the world Idealism and criticism idealism they are going to save and change the world give food to stop world hunger problem with idealism is that they lack experience they are very critical of others even though they do not like others giving them criticism Problems with decision making don t have experience to understand long term consequences how their decisions may affect them in the future 4 Piaget s formal operations stage Age onset of adolescence into adulthood 11 or 12 about 17 Signs of formal operations thoughts I Abstract reasoning concepts that are abstract and don t have concrete basis ex negative numbers infinity freedom 0 Beyond personal and tangible experiences I Hypotheticaldeductive reasoning whether they use a systematic approach to testing develops naturally according to Piaget but research shows that using these techniquestasks in school can increase these skills 0 Systematic approaches to problemsolving Ex have a student pick a card out of a deck ask a series of yes no questions what s the min of yesno questions to find out the card he has 57 questions is it red Is it spades Is it a face card Is it even Is it six or under Is it six 9 Systematic approach trying to eliminate as many possibilities to try and solve the problem faster ex Guess Who game uses this strategy Piaget s pendulum problem ask adolescent what makes the pendulum swing faster amount of weight length of string forceheight you release the pendulum key to formal operations do they take a systematic approach or only do one approach at a time It s how they test the variables and if they are systematic or not Elkind s consequences of abstract thought Consequences of abstract thought Adolescent egocentrism tends to develop with formal operations can conceptualize ideas that don t exist think of things you ve never seenheard yourself issues in the world space out there see themselves as special and unique David Elkind took Piaget s term to different lengths found some outcomes I Imaginary audience the belief you are being watched people are interested in what you do ex if you wear the same shirt twice in a week people will know I Sensitivity to others criticism don t like to be criticized think that you don t get it so you cant criticize them I Personal fable story the adolescent tells about themselves who they are what they are doing in the world the are going to be the best in the world Idealism and criticism idealism they are going to save and change the world give food to stop world hunger problem with idealism is that they lack experience they are very critical of others even though they do not like others giving them criticism Problems with decision making don t have experience to understand long term consequences how their decisions may affect them in the future Evaluations of Vygotsky amp Piaget piaget was rigid no ages overestimated children and underestimated adults Evaluation of Vygotsky s theory Contributions encouraging social atmosphere helping them become more independent from the teacher focused on child and what they need allows for sharing value of ideas and increasing creativity social and learning are not separated Criticisms ZPD use is difficult measuring and distinguishing for each child in a classroom it is general he died shortly after creating this theory children can learn without scaffolding children can learn without a social environment figuring how something works on their own environment can affect ways that learning occurs may differ for various children Overall evaluation of Piaget s theory Contributions clear benchmarks welldefined and laid out where someone should be at a certain age one of the first to talk about cognition as qualitative and a stagetype the sequence tends to hold his tasks he gave howto test the theory ex are they conserving Are they demonstrating perspective Criticisms we learn in different ways so we may hit benchmarks at different times he underestimated the younger ages in terms of what they could do today we see younger children accomplishing tasks before that age Piaget said he used small sample groups he used his own children he doesn t account for cultural factors and experiences in formal operations stage he overestimated adolescences tends to be area specific ex a child understands math first rather than language he only wanted to focus on young children through adolescence and that s why he didn t expand his theory typically where we see problems is in the transition phases Piaget development has to precede learning stair steps Development learning Vygotsky development goes with learning bimodalsymbiotic relationshipspiral Development 9 Learning Compare and contrast Vygotsky s amp Piaget s theories Goals Role of Language Social Interaction View of Learner Instructional Implications Piaget How is new knowledge created Aids in developing symbolic thought Language is a skill Does not qualitatively raise the level of intellectual functioning Provides a way to test and validate schemes Is that how you see the world Active in manipulating objects and ideas Active participant in their environment Design experiences to disrupt equilibrium Want to disrupt equilibrium to help them gure things out Vygotsky How are the tools of knowledge transmitted in a speci c culture How do we share knowledge Is an essential mechanism for thinking cultural transmission and self regulation Qualitatively raises the level of intellectual functioning Language and thought are almost interchangeable the way you think about it is how you talk about it Provides an avenue for acquiring language and the cultural exchange of ideas How learning really occurs Active in social contexts and interactions Part of the social context Provide scaffolding Guide interaction Provide scaffolding and guide social interactions Chapter 3 social amp moral dev 38 Bronfrenbrenner s ecological system in uences theory Urie Bronfenbrenner s Ecological Systems Theory social development who are you How different systems in our life affect who we are Inner part of the tree trunk model above individual sex age health etc Microsystem individuals with whom we interact on a daily basis family peers friends teachers coworkers etc has direct in uence on us Mesosystem middle not made up of peopleinstitutions it is the interactions others have that affects us ex when two of your friends make plans for the weekend but you aren t there doesn t directly include us but it affects us Exosystem don t see them regularly ex neighbors govemmentpoliticians media social welfare friends of the family etc Macrosystem values norms ideals and attitudes of our culture they mediate our culture it comes in and effects us all don t have a direct in uence on that typically Chronosystem makes the tree trunk bark time time period you live in how old you are ex if you were 15 in 1915 it would be different than being age 15 in 2015 Microsystem Exosystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem Social welfare semo39es Chronosystem Patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course sociohistorical conditions Chronosystem Sociohistorical conditions and time since life events gt These can change over time ex people who surround you may change over time Freud s psychosexual development theory stages ages Freud s psychosexual developmental stage theory who we are in terms of socially and sexual basis stages named after the main taskfixation during that stage Oral birth to 18m explore the world through their mouths interacting with others through feeding behaviors Oral fixation if disruption in this stage ex not getting needs met getting too much attention it leads to fixation which leads to life long problems ex being comforted through feeding can cause an eating disorder in their life later on according to Freud 0 Anal 18m to 3 years potty training about selfcontrol learning that they can control things favorite words no and mine Anal retentiveness if they had to hold it they become retentive need for control because they were potty trained too early parents are more controlling perhaps Anal expulsive don t need to control their environment potty trained too late 0 Phallic 3 to 7 years symbol of the genitalia making determinations about gender what it means to be a girl or boy superego develops during this stage stereotypical gender roles what should be amp what is typical gender identity confusion for those who may not have a role model in their life Castration fear for little boys See people without them and people with them afraid it might fall off Penis enyy for little girls having penis means having the power men are usually the breadwinners Latency 7 to adolescence there isn t much going on calm period in development may see early xation starting to develop that occurred in earlier stage no speci c drive Genital adolescence exploration of sex and genitalia exploration of self and others what do you like and what you don t like pleasure through exploration Sexual frigidity restricted from exploring Sexually promiscuous Allowed to explore Erikson s psychosocial development theory stages ages both stages names will be on the exam Erik Erikson s LifeSpan Development Theory Development proceeds in stages Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial challenge or crisis we are in crisis during every stage of development this is different from Freud Resolution of the con ict is the focus of the stage crisis is a continuum have to nd out where you are on the continuum May revisit earlier stages Freud called it regression Erikson saw this as healthy you can go back and revisitresolve earlier stages later in life Erikson s LifeSpan Development Stages on the test both names will be presented 1 Trust vs Mistrust hope are we trusting individuals or do we mistrust In uence is the caregiver if they are nurturing we trust them if they are not we mistrust 0 1 years caregivers 2 Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt willpower independence vs doubt abilities are we ashamed when we fail parents are the main in uencers 1 3 years parents 3 Initiative vs Guilt purpose whole family has in uence on the child does the child initiate activities purposefully or do they have guilt about mistakes they ve made 3 5 years family Begins to initiate with purpose as opposed to imitate just for play May have guilt if unsuccessful or fails to initiate Extremes may lead to showing off or inhibition 4 Industry vs Inferiority con dence main social in uence is the school 6 years puberty school relations Productivity supersedes desire to play trying to do something productive will be useful instead of mere play Extremes lead to lack of fun or exploited by others have dif culty being productive 5 Identity vs Role Confusion delity those we turn to most are peersfriends gure out who they are and what they want to be period of exploration fashion handwriting 6 Adolescence peers Intimacy vs Isolation love not necessarily romantic signi cant others best friend close sibling can you open up to others or do you keep distance Early adult years signi cant others Generativity vs Stagnation care social in uence involves family typically generativity productivity are you giving stagnation in dead end Stuck in one place Question this stage faces Is who I am who I want to be if yes continue if no may revisit stage 5 You can revisit other stages 9 people who enter stage 6 young may have issues in stage 7 because they have not completed stage 5 in guring out who they are People in stage 7 can reidentify may also called a midlife crisis Middle Adulthood children society Integrity vs Despair wisdom look to all of humanity to determine if we lived a life of integrity or do we despair and regret our life It is a retrospective stage of our life looking back on our life Late Adulthood humanity Sullivan s stage theory of interpersonal relationships Henry Stack Sullivan 18921949 Created a stage theory for the development of similar to Piaget in changes in play behaviors How people interact with each other over time Stages Birth2 adult directed interactions with older people plays with friends peers and family playbased picks friends based on similarities schoolbased usually shifts between who your best friend is lOadolescence form best friends intense relationship at this stage more stable more seen in girls Adolescence understanding your identity through your interactions with others romantic partnerships focus is on dating behaviors can cause turmoil between the best friend relationships eX if one friend dates before the other one does the one who gets left out usually has hurt feelings Young adulthood seek role modelsnetworking relationships friends are based on common values not necessarily interests Peer statuses Peer statuses Coie amp Dodge 1988 study was done by going to various schools and asking students who other students were if they knew them and their impression of them Popular they know them and they re a pretty good person Neglected people you don t know and don t make an impression on others not liked or disliked just not know ex loners etc Rejected they know them but don t like them eX troublemakers etc Controversial moderately known some like them and some don t tend to be in the extremes identity that they strongly personi ed Average the rest of us moderate range generally liked some don t majority of people Marcia s identity statuses Marcia s Four Statuses of Identity level of commitment low high identity moratorium identity achievement identity diffusion identity foreclosure Identity diffusion start as diffused individuals we haven t explored and we aren t committed to any identity yet religious relationship etc Identity foreclosure when individual has not explored a lot of options but know what they want to do there are risks to foreclosure can be problematicunhealthy Ex Child who has been through sports their whole life and end up not wanting to do it they haven t explored other options Ex Family pressure to take over the family business Identity moratorium a lot of exploration but low commitment taking different classes going to different camps not committed to being anything but are exploring Identity achievement after period of exploration you nd what you want to do you nd who you are Typical identity sequence Diffusion 9 moratorium 9 achievement gt Foreclosure can revisit Piaget s theory of moral development Heteronomous morality age 4 7 understand a little of morality preoperational in Erikson 0 Rules are unchangeable properties of the world if you break the rules you must be punished right away 0 Imminent justice if the rule is broken punishment is immediate 0 Rule broken Consequence Autonomous morality age 7 10 concrete operations in Erikson selfgoveming and independent 0 Laws are created by people and intention and consequences should be Individually considered understand rule violations based on the circumstances people make mistakes people can change 0 Rule broken 9 Why Punish appropriately Kohlberg s stage theory of moral development amp ages identi ed through research Preconventional level ME how does this affect me Stage 1 avoidance of punishment moral reasoning falls in avoidance in response to Heinz dilemma I Q he should not steal the drug because he will go to jail if he gets caught or 2 m he should steal the drug so he doesn t get in trouble with his wife Stage 2 instrumental purpose what do I get out of this 1 m Heinz should steal the drug so then his wife can cook for him 2 Q will post on D2L Conventional level ME and how I am seen by society Stage 3 good boynice girl morality of interpersonal cooperation how people are going to look at you in the decision you make 1 should steal the drugs so his in laws will think of him as a nice person 2 Q so people don t think he is a thief Stage 4 social order maintenance desire to keep society ordered out of chaos to maintain social understanding 1 yes but he should turn himself into the cops because we have rules in society 2 Q he shouldn t steal because if he steals then everyone will start stealing These stages can change in a person even within a day can move in and out of stages but typically you fit one stage This is a qualitative theory it is understood that an individual understands the stages before the one they are in Kohlburg refused to include ages Physical development 20 Nature and nurture in physical development Nature vs nurture revisited Much of physical development can be traced to naturebiological heredity The heritability estimate determines the in uence biology has on variations of that aspect of development e g height is 8095 affect physical traits phonotypical traits Shared environments make it tough to determine the individual effects of nature and nurture in many cases Shared environments making siblings more similar to each other Have a proportion of shared genetics AND environments with family This is why identical twins separated at birth are so popular in this research same genetics different environments have exact DNA but raised in different environments Most likely explanation in most cases is the interaction of the two forces Genetic factors lead us to seek out speci c environments nichepicking we gain more from certain environments ex nichepicking if you are good at readying you seek out to read books which in turn makes you even better at reading books Brain development and structure in childhood and adolescence Brain development Infants born with all of the neurons that they will have throughout the lifespan Generally born will all neurons Genetics determine the number of neurons Axon long tube structure signal producer for signals that leave the cell body Dendrites branches of the neuron responsible for information coming into the cell body Cell body principle part of the neuron powering neuron by producing proteins needed to function and processes information going in and out Synapse the gap between neurons that the signals jump across Myelin fatty covering that covers the axon it speeds up the signals down the axon Plasticity Synaptic pruning of connections between brain systems Born with too many shapes cell death Plasticity experience selects the preservation of connections Strengthening use it or lose it connections used more become stronger Pruning under used cells Driven by external world experiences Synapses organized by experience throughout development Complexenriched environment research Increased synapses Basic brain structure Regions of the Human Brain J Bram Stem Cerebellum Front BaCk httpwwwknutsfordscibarcoukpreviousscibardiscussionshtm Four lobes Occipital back at the brain primary function is visual processing center Parietal middle top portion of the brain main sensory processing unit of the brain Frontal in the front decisionmaking and executive control behavior 0 Temporal by your ears associated with auditory processing Experience and hormones change the brain structure plasticity which then results in behavior changes Brain in childhood Brain matures at different rates does not all occur at the same age By age 4 sensory and motor systems developed Last to develop in adolescents are centers for judgment and decisionmaking Brain is more complex and specialized the more experiences the better Language center shifts to the left hemisphere coinciding with experience of native language at 20 months Sensitive period in external in uence Around 78 years old learning a second language more grammatically difficult Specialized areas of the brain develop and are used to support language as learning becomes more complex Not all parts of language develop at the same rate syntax vocab prosody etc Importance of language development experience reasonable experience around language in a lovingcaring environment Allow children experience to practice new language skills Opportunity to learn multiple language strongest at ages 35 Face to face interaction is the best listen to language stories aloud match objects with words Brain in adolescence In adolescence the following show growth Corpus callosum bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the brain Motor and speech function areas getting fine tuned during this time Prefrontal cortex 1220 years old grey matter and myelin of the axons is still developing Frontal lobe development in the early 20s Gray matter increase grey matter and cells Prefrontal cortex undergoing myelination of axons Speed of signal conduction make decisions quickly help with impulse control and distractibility Decision making greater activity of amygdala than frontal lobes Impulse control distractibility More prone to addiction than adults More sensitive to substances Teens need more guidance to realize negative consequences Skeletal development Skeletal Changes Bones ossify through adolescence hardening of bones during growth Low calcium leads to demineralization calcium helps ossi cation process Low calcium diet most important mineral during this process Phosphorus in soda when drinking large amounts everyday Steroid use may stunt bone development interfere with genes that signal ossi cation Inactivity is the MOST problematic Bone density increases most in adolescence Puberty Delayed puberty or amenorrheic adolescents tend to have lifelong bone problems Puberty happens in multiple processes not just all at once Experience differs by seX females 811 males about 1012 Defined as chemical and physical changes in the body that prepare us for reproduction Adrenarche rise in androgens 6 years in girls 9 years in boys rise in testosterone primarily Gonadarche increased hormonal production leads to reproductive viabilitymaturity 2 years later outward changes in your body hair etc Secondary sexual characteristics appear 2 years later after gonadarce Boys increased muscle mass deeper voices body amp facial hair increased sweat and oil output Girls redepositingincrease of fat breasts hips body hair increased sweat and oil output Menarche first menstrual cycle 10l4 years for girls Spermarche first ejaculation 12l4 years for boys Puberty timing What are some of the factors that affect puberty onset and offset Genetics nutrition environmental amount of fat on your body primarily for girls physical activity What are the effects of early or late onset Going through puberty early can have negative effects but positive for males amp negative for females if late and negative for males who develop late social factors seek older friends Bullying acne can appear earlier or later both negative Harmful and helpful to development Harmful to Physical Development Inactivity not exercising enough Injury leading cause of death in adolescence automobile accidentsserious injuries damage to nerves that can lead to later problems in life Poor eating habits Can create eating disorders although not always about food Lack of needed nutrients can lead to physical and cognitive de ciencies Substance useabuse addiction can linger in the brain causing harm Early sexual behaviors possible to become pregnancy which the body may not be ready for at an early age extra hormones stress on organs also getting STDs at an earlier age is detrimental they are more lingering to the body and are harmful to development relation to getting cervical cancer later on Helpful to Physical Development Language early exposure to spoken language having good nutrition lots of sleep physical activity ages 35 is critical Guidance for adolescents in decision making having axons myelinated helps in decision making Appropriate amounts and types of foods 0 Calcium protein fruits and veggies o Minimize soda sugars too much of most foods Plenty of sleep Maybe even more in puberty at least 8 hours sleep involved in social cognitive emotional factors that you are really involved with during this age Circadian rhythms change in adolescence to later sleep shifts to being awake until later at night and sleeping through later in the morning Physical activity
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