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OSU / Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology / EEOB 2520 / What happens if the popliteal artery is blocked?

What happens if the popliteal artery is blocked?

What happens if the popliteal artery is blocked?

Description

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If you want to learn more check out Which carbon atoms are used to form the glycosidic bonds?

Contents:

  • popliteal artery (deepest)
  • popliteal vein
  • tibial nene (superficial)
  • common fibular nerve
  • termination of the small saphenous vein
  • dumps blood into popliteal vein 

Don't forget about the age old question of Why is it important to know the origin and insertion of a muscle?

Unit 2

Plasma Membrane (Non-Polar)

  • Functions :
  • PM acts as a discriminating barrier (decides what should be inside up and outside of cell)
  • PM binds chemical messengers (some have receptors made of protein)
  • PM determine scell's :
  • Shape
  • motility
  • Connection to other cells (so that we can make tissues, organs, etc)
  • Connection with the extracellular matrix

  • Components:
  • Fluid Mosaic Structure
  • fluid → constant movement
  • mosaic → different pieces
  • Phospholipid(s) (PL)
  • main building blocks of the PM → amphipathic
  • polar head with 2 nonpolar tails ↗   
  • hydrophobic bonding links tails together
  • The PL bilayer forms spontaneously! *we don't need energy to  create this structure*
  • Cholesterol
  • 1:1 ratio with PL in PM
  • creates a barrier for the small components that can slip through the PL layer
  • ex. if PLs are bricks then cholesterol is the mortar
  • increases the stiffness of PM → contributes to cell shape and ability to change cell shape
  • allows for controlled bending of PM
  • allows for vesicle formation (we will learn about this later).

*REMEMBER: PM is non-polar Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of x-inactivation in biology?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the european interaction?

ECF is polar

ICF is polar

  • Protein
  • 1:50 ratio with PLs, but 1/2 of PM mass (less proteins, but they are large)
  • Integral proteins
  • amphipathic (alt parts being in IF(P), ICF(P),and PM(NP)
  • most are transmembrane
  • impossible to remove them without destroying PM

ex. channels (allow P substances to reach P Interior of cell without having contact with NP membrane), receptors, and anchors

  • Peripheral proteins
  • not amphipathic → polar → inside of cell in ICF
  • impacts shape and motility of cell
  • Glycocalyx
  • Sugar component of cell
  • branched carb chains on ELF side of PM → polar
  • attached to the PLs and integral proteins
  • functions:
  • identification every has unique glycocalyx
  • gives cell mechanical protection

ex. like how hair on body protects skin

  • limits cell growth
  • causes a fuzzy appearance 

We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of pure culture in the micro laboratory?
If you want to learn more check out Why is historical perspective important?

Plasma Mimbrary Features

  • Junctions → direct linkage of cells
  • Gap Junctions → small channels created by connexons. → like hollow pegs.
  • ICF flow allowed? Yes, allows a substances from one cell to move to another cell → limited to small substances
  • this is the only junction that allow ICF flow
  • ECF Flow allowed? Yes
  • Desmosomes → strongest connection
  • cadherin linkage create desmosomes.
  • proteins from both cells link up with each other (like a net)
  • ICF Flow allowed? No, there's no opening, justa protein connection
  • ECF Flow? Yes
  • Tight Junctions → create sealing of PM along whole length
  • like a zipper (as compared to buttons)
  • Claudin linkages create tight junctions 
  • proteins from both cells come together → like belts and cells
  • ICF Flow? No
  • ECF Flow? No remember it's like a zipper, nothing gets thru 
  • the only junction that docs not allow ECF
  • common in epithelial cells → in/out boundary
  • Forces movement through the cell (transcellular)
  • How
  • At what cost?

Cellular Metabolic pathways.

  • Energy source = ATP (adenosine Triphosphate)
  • Why? phosphates are high-energy bonds and yield a lot of energy when broken down
  • We do not ingest ATP, we use our food to Create ATP
  • Source? Made in cells

1. Substrate level phosphorylation.

  • bound Pi transferred from ATP to ADP

ex. ADP+XP ↔ ATP+X (X=substrate)

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