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OSU / Human Physiology / HPHY 2520 / What happens if the popliteal artery is blocked?

What happens if the popliteal artery is blocked?

What happens if the popliteal artery is blocked?

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What happens if the popliteal artery is blocked?



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- Contents:

popliteal artery (deepest)

popliteal vein

• tibial nene (superficial) lo common fibular rene 1o termination of the small saphenous vein

• dumps blood into popliteal veinn

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What happens if the tibial nerve is damaged?



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Plasma Membrane (Non-Polar) - Functions :


How do you calculate pm in excel?



If you want to learn more check out Which muscle has an origin on the sternum and clavicle and an insertion on the mastoid process of the temporal bone?

PM acts as a discriminating barrier (decides what should be inside up

and outside of cell)

•PM binds chemical messengers (some have receptors made

of protein)

• PM determine scell's :

Shape motility

• Connection to other cells (so that we can make tissues, organs, e

Connection with the extracellular matrix, Components: ofluid mosaic structure

• fluid constant movement We also discuss several other topics like What are the regulatory transcription factors?

mosaic different pieces Phospholipid(s) (PL)

•main building blocks of the PM amphipathic If you want to learn more check out What is the european interaction?

• polar head with a nonpolar tails su

• hydrophobic bonding linkstails together

xwe don't need energy to the pi bilayer forms spontaneously ! create this structure *

• Cholesterol

lil ratio with PL in PM

• creates a barrier for the small components that can Slip through the PL layer bril

ex. if Pls are bricks thenscholesterol is the mortar

• increases the stiffness of PM contributes to cell shape and stue ability to change cell shape and Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of culture in the micro laboratory?

A allows for controlled bending of PM

A allows forvesciche formation (we will learn about this later). *REMEMBER: PM is non-polar studyse

ECF is polar studs ICF is polar

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Protein . 1:50 ratio with Pls, but Iz of PM mass less protein gey

integral proteins

amphipathie (alt parts being in IF(P), ILF(P) & PMCNP) A most are transmembranous dyson A impossible to remove them who destroying PM o n If you want to learn more check out What did watson do for psychology?

ex channels (allow P substances to reach Pinterior of cell

widthout having contact with No membrane), receptors,

and anchors peripheral proteins A hot amphipathic polar inside of cell in ICF

impacts shape & motitity of cell Glyco Decorado calyx

• Sugar component of cell 'branched carb chains on ELF side of PM polar

attached to the PLs and integral proteins soup

• functions:

e identification every orchase unique glycocalyx a gives cell mechanical e n protection

ex. like how hair on body protects skin n & limits cell growth into on

e

• Causes a tuzzy appearanc

s all

like hollow pegs. Plasma Mimbrary Features SOUP - Junctions direct linduge of cells

• Gap Junctions small channels created by connexons.

ICF flow allowed? Yes, allows a substances from one cesty move to another cell limited to small substances this is the only junction that allow ICF flow

• ECF Flow allowed? yeso r e

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Plasma Membrare runchbaillonte

1123 -Desmosomes strongest Connection

• cadherin linkage create desmosomes.

• proteins from both Cells link up wleach other like a ret) souk ICF Flow allowed ? Noitherw noopening, justa protein connection

• ECF Flow? Yes

Tight Junctions create huling of PM along whole Length olike a zipper (as compared to buttons)

• Claudin linkages create tight sunctions

se proteins from botheelscome together like belts anind cele

• ICF Flow? No

• ECF Flow? No remembe its by love a zipper, nothing gets thre a the only junction that docs not allow ELF

common in epithelial need cells in lout boundary oForles movement through the cell (transcellular)

How 4 At what cost?

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Cellular Metabolic pathways. - Energy source= ATO (adenosine Triphosphate)

o Why? phosphates are high-energy bonds ayield a lot of

energy when broken down

We do not ingest ATP, we use our food to Create ATP

• Source ? Made in cells 1. Substrate level phosphorylation.

bound Pi transferred from ATP to ADP usoup ex. ADP+XP ATP +X (X=substrate)

glycolysis, krebs cycle creature use this method 2. oxidative Phosphorylation

• energy input to transfer inbound Pito ADP

• electron trasportchon (ECT) uses this methd.

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helpful hints a important points =definitions

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Cellular Metabolic

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pathways (cont.)

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Glycolysis utilizes substrate level phosphorylation Thot equation a just a part of it) I Catabolism (break down) of sugars I carbs/ glucose I catabolizing gicose into ATP

location:

help arxh wlo

becoming damaged Cytosol of the cell (ICF) does not need a special compartment to occur

Il

process:

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O oglycolysis is a 10step process (IONz rons Nz=enzyme)

- Starting point:

ol glucose molecule End Point:

net products 7 products of glycolysis include a ATP

plus the products determined by o 2 ATP

conditions caenbic anaerobics - Additional Net Products :

o if under Aerobic conditions (including a ATP)

I NADH helps move ATP from one place to another "dump trunk" be able to

dumo "ATP • Pyruvate end point for this system to pick up oifunder anderebic conditions lincluding 2 ATP)

more

I •Lactate (anaerobic conditions convert pyruvate to lactate in

GUSe up I order to relych NADH) "lactic acid"

• this process is independent of oxygen T Regulation of Glycolysis

• How often we run glycolysis binnen b are

high levels of ATP causes less need for glycolysis → less glycolysis high levels of ADP causes more need for glycous is more glycolysis

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[Krebs Cycle "converter" - modern names Citric acid cycle & tricarboxylic acid cycle. - Starting point

o catabolism of Pyruvate

• end of glycolysis feeds into krebs cycle

• alternative starting points from breakdown of amino acids

and lipids if glucose is unavailable - Location: lomitochondria houses this rn lo process SNZ reactions - End point: to net production

.2 ATP (made through substrate level phosphorylation)

•CO2 (this is why we need EQ 3 to deal with this coa)

NADH different ways to load up ATP

•FADH2 I this process is indirectly dependent on Orudy

• O2 is not involved in the process, but citric acid cycle won't Work without the presence of oxygen lo Will not work under anaerobic conditions. - Regulation osame regulation as Glycolysissa lo high leve is of ATP lesskrebs cycle o high levels of ADP more Krebs cycle

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Electron Transport Chain / System "morey-maker" Starting points Oo recycles NADH (from Glycolysis & Krebs) & FADH2 ( from Krebs) so

"modern-day dump

location for sorting out waste to find more energy - Location:

• mitochondria

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- Endpoint Tonet products 1.28-34 ATP oxidative phosphorylation,

H2O- metabolic water

recycling NADH so we can keep running the cycle entically I this process is directly dependot on 0, (0 found inequation)

immure system can tweak the Krebs cych so instead Of H20 as a product. free radicals are created

•Canmon adjustment when you're six

thats why you should drink a lot of water when you are Sicki to replace the lost metabolic water) e

story

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Combining Processes -combining all three processes yields critical Ea2

Glucose to + ADP + Pi ATP + CO2 + H2O theat product + glycolysis

product of krebs cycle product of ECT

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Transport Across the PM - Recall

PM is a fluid compartment barrier (IF+ICF) 1. Tight junctions block ECF movement forcing transcellular movement - Discriminant Barrier lo not absolute

PM is a bilayer (PINPP) created by hydrophobic interactions lo Polar substances have issues crossing PM Itail Area nonpolar) shot a barrier to small, nohpolar substances

ex.apicket fence keeps corgi out, but not chihuahua lo it is a barrier to polar substances of any size and large

NP structures by utilizing proteins study

ex. Channels doors

Trorsporters - revolving doors

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Transport Across PM (cont.) o

r

absolute zen - Review of Diffusion Basics

o components are always in random motion (unless at Okelun) Soup to concentration LX determines motion

•Concentration

of companas Ispace in which being held tof things

volume lo diffusion occurs when [x] differs between the areas

high (x] to low [x] movement "Following the gradient"

• If theres no gradient (difference in [x]) then there's no diffusion - Dependencies for Diffusion Rates to be

• Permeability = direct a

1127 ex, a screen has high permeability bigger holes faster diffusion

•DIRECT RELATIONSHIP between diffusion rate & divider of the spaces

• Surface Area direct m asona en

as SA increases, diffusion increases DIRECT RELATIONSHIP ex. digestive tract has a highs A for high diffusion

ex. decrease SA in winter by bundling up in layers dec. diffusion of heat

• Concentration [xl gradient = direct

high to low pattern of movement DIRECT RELATIONSHIP the greater the gradient, the higher the rate of diffusion

ex. similar to riding a bike down a small hill v.tall hill up to Distanu = inverse donn a

• longer distance of diffusion Ibad) creates issues wirate of diffusion

INVERSE RELATIONSHIP; inc.distance = dic, diffusion

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Diffusion through the Bilayer a n d - Diffusion NEVER goes against the gradient n o Dex. we never roll uphili

the ull never has to output energy for this movement - Small, nonpolar substances are the only things that can

diffure across the PM w o u ex. O2 and cor

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ay soup small, nonpolar substances

1127 Diffusion Through the Barrel cont.) I the PM is not a barrier for small NP Ssubstances

ex.a chain fence cannot hold in a mouse Issue: because PM is not a barrier for oz putting high oa in cells will be ineffective bc it will follow the gradient back to If

ex. if you put in the bank & it follows you out the door Storage is not a possibility with compounds that can poss

through the PM - Solutions il. Fix Gradient flood the If wlo2

"if IF is flooded with on, it will constantly follow the

gradient (high to low) in to the cell ex. putting a bunch of mile in your neighbors yard, so

your mouse gets annoyed & comes to your house. 2. FixSize : Bond the O2

o if O2 is bonded to a substance that cannot pass PM,

then the gradient will be higher in IF Stud

ex. give mouse a core of shame "so it cannot get the force ex. we attach O to protein myoglobin in skeletal muscles.

N o

s larger honpolar e polar substances Diffusion through Protein Chanrel lion chanri). - Always with the gradrent no energy costs - Channels are solute specific

ex. Specific channels for proton sodium chloride, potassium, &

therefore other ions cant move through them" ex Channels are like doors (ho binding needed) CLOSED OPEN types of Channels:

leak channels always open (rare) Bru n

• Gated channels only opened when triggered (closed /opened)

Chemically concedoeer gated channelsbinding (ligond channels) binding cavera shape Change that opens the gate

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-Types of Channels:

• Voltage-gated channel electric distribution change

ex. like the key fobs for unlocking cars o mechanically-gated channel stretch Idefom

• "stretched channels"

• doesnt damage the PM dits fluid mosaill structure lo thermally-gated channels temp changes shope closed to open

• heat & cool - Special category:

• Aquaporins Water

do aquaporins exhibit diffusion? osmosis!

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