Anthropology Exam 3 Study Guide
Anthropology Exam 3 Study Guide ANTH 0780
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325 Are We Not Born Equal Ch 7 Social Groups cluster of people beyond the domestic unit who are usually related on grounds other than kinship Primary group social group in which members meet on a facetoface basis Secondary group group who identify with one another on some basis but may never meet with one another personally Age set group of people close in age who go through certain rituals ie circumcision at the same time Friendship close social ties between at least 2 people in which the ties are informal voluntary and involve personal facetoface interaction 0 Fits in category of primary social group nonkin 0 Friends share stories are supportive of each other usually are social equals 0 Carol Stack wrote about how friendship networks promote economic survival among lowincome urban African Americans conducted eldwork in The Flats and found people maintain friends through exchange and support Clubs and FraternitiesSororities social groups that de ne membership in terms of a sense of shared identity and objectives 0 People of same ethnic heritage occupationbusiness religion or gender 0 Economic and politic roles as well as social and psychological support 0 Women s clubs in lower class neighborhood in Paramaribo Suriname have multiple functions raise funds for events meet personal nancial needs send cards for funerals 0 Peggy Sunday studied college frats and their initiation rituals and male bonding solidi ed by victimizing women found that gang rape is common 0 In Amazonian groups men s house is guarded from being entered by a woman if she enters she s punished by gang rape o Crossculturally women don t tend to form androphobic man hating clubs which is parallel to gynophobic womenhating men s clubs Countercultural groups outside mainstream society 0 Youth gangs group of young people found mainly in urban areas often considered a social problem by adults and law enforcement I Recognized leader rituals symbolic markers of identity I Ex Masta Liu in Honiara escaped working in the elds 0 Street gangs formal variety of youth gang more hierarchy and responsibility I Young boys join gangs because they re from homes with no male authority gure with whom they identify or replace missing feeling of family 0 Defiant individualist particular personality type I Intense competitiveness I Mistrust of others I Selfreliance I Social isolation I Strong survival instinct o Structurist view is that poverty leads to this personality 0 Body modi cation of groups people have sense of community strengthened through forms of body alteration I Research in CA shows people feel they re a special group because of their interest in permanent body modi cation branding genital piercing cutting I Motivation is a desire to identify with a speci c group of people Cooperatives form of economic group in which surpluses are shared among members and decision making follows the democratic principle of each individual member having one vote 0 Agricultural and credit are most common followed by consumer 0 Indigenous Kuna women have sewn molas cloth with designs for many years but since 1960 s molas have been important for sale in world market and tourists who come to Panama 1 Stratification the deeply entrenched hierarchical unequal layering or arrangements of social groups in a society An unequal system grounded on the differential distribution and exercise of privilege There is no society in which inequality is not present Ascribed position person s standing in society based on qualities that the person has gained through birth Achieved position person s standing in society based on qualities the person has gained through action Status person s positionstanding in society Mestizaje racial mixture in Central and South America indigenous people who are cut off from their Indian roots or literate and successful indigenous people who retain some traditional cultural practices Racial strati cation is a recent form of social inequality results from unequal meeting of two formerly separate groups through colonization slavery and other largegroup movements Ethnicity group membership based on shared sense of identity that may be based on history territory language or religion Diaspora population dispersed group of people living outside their original homeland Ethnocide annihilation of the culture of an ethnic group by a dominant group Gender and Sexism Gender inequalities vary from one culture to another Patriarchy male dominance in economic political social and ideological domains common but not universal 0 Honor killings when girls and women are murdered by male kin because they defy rules of virginity or arranged marriage 0 Other forms of patriarchy are girls not being sent to school at all Matriarchy female dominance in economic political social and ideological domains 0 So rare in contemporary culture than anthropologists aren t certain it even exists 0 Among Iroquois when European colonialists arrived women controlled public nances in form of maize and determined whether war would be waged also chose leaders 0 Stronger sense is found in Minangkabau people of Malaysia and Indonesia Caste system social strati cation system linked with Hinduism based on a person s birth into particular group 0 Exists in clearest form in India 0 Particularly found in Hindu people because ancient Hindu scriptures are taken as the foundational sources for de ning the major social categories called varnas Sanskrit for color four varnas are brahmans priests Kshatriyas warriors vaishyas merchants and shudras laborers o Harijans children of god Mahatma Gandhi renamed people of upper varnas this 0 Dalit preferred name for socially de ned lowest groups in Indian caste system oppressed or ground down II Why Talk About Stratification Intrinsic part of everyday life Has much to do with ethnic con icts and violence Has much to do with culture 111 Some Attributes of Strati cation Markers Pointers of cultural ethnic differences 0 Language in Latin America those higher up in the hierarchy speak Portuguese or Spanish while those lower speak indigenous languages 0 Religion I Ex con ict in Northern Ireland bt Catholics and Protestants Protestant meant being at top of hierarchy while Catholics were at the bottom Cultural differences overlap with other distinctions Differential access to exercise of power Ideology justifying rationalizing unequal social order Acquiescence to compliance with Inequality Hegemony IV Emergence Rise of states statelevel societies 0 Inequality of statelevel societies and spread of a dominant ideology legitimizing that inequality were preconditions for the emergence of the state strati cation and inequality European Colonialism 0 Spread of European Empires had a dramatic impact on virtually every society known to us 0 This impact entailed I A rearranging of societies cultures in ways that would bene t imperial rule I Privileging some groups over others particularly those who would cooperate with Europeans through a strategy of indirect rule I Politically fragile unstable arti cial nation states and political boundaries Civil Society collection of interest groups that function outside the government to organize economic and other aspects of life Chinese Women s Movement statecreated organization 0 Ellen Judd studied this movement even though it was very hard to perform research on it o Discovered how important education for women is in terms of their ability to entire into market activities Activist groups groups formed with the goal of changing certain conditions such as political repression violence and human rights violations 0 COMADRESEl Salvador womenled social movement in Latin America I Protest atrocities committed by USbacked Salvadoran government and military against coalition of progressive groups New social movements many social activist groups that emerged in the late twentieth century 0 Formed by oppressed minorities indigenous people ethnic groups women 0 Use Internet to broaden membership exchange ideas and raise funds 0 Ex Obama s campaign via the Internet 330 Why Can t We Get Along thinking beyond stratification Ch 8 1 Why talk about Ethnic Con icts Cleansing and Genocide Deserve more attention Work against sanitized portrayal 0 Has longterm real life consequences Relevance Those who can t remember the past are condemned to repeat it 0 Memory and learning from the mistakes from the past are crucial for avoiding the same things from reoccurring What can anthropology contribute 0 To understand the context of things like mass violencemurder 11 What a world Cambodia war that left around 2 million dead Guatemala war that left 200000 dead Rwanda war that left 1 million dead from rivalry between 2 ethnic con icts that emerged in context of European colonialism Bosnia war that left 250000 dead from breakup of Yugoslavia and emergence of Serbia and Bosnia III The Anthropological Silence Why Too slow too hesitant too re ective and ethnographic knowledge too local 0 Centered on little communities rather than the broader picture 0 By the time anthropologists had something to say it was usually long after the fact 0 Critique spending long periods of time in little communities and losing tact with larger context Fear of exacerbating Western stereotypes o Legitimate fear that the study of indigenous forms of human cruelty and mass killing would only exacerbate Western stereotypes of primitivity savagery and barbarism that took modern anthropology more than half a century to dislodge 0 Thought public would see people they study as barbaric Outdated notion of cultural relativism 0 Cultural relativism has played a key role in inhibiting anthropologists from studying things like genocide Theoretical Framework guiding ethnographic research 0 Anthropologists are always guided by a set of ideas about the culture they re about to study when they go into the eld 0 Neur Sudan EvansPritchard British anthropologist Evans Pritchard carried out eldwork in Southwestern Sudan guided by conceptual framework in which he isolated the Neur from broader political context of Sudan as if the Neur had never met the British I Discusses British presence among Neur I Sudan was a British colony and Neur was under British control 0 Bali Indonesia Clifford Geertz carried out work in Bali by isolating people he was working with from the wider context within which they lived I Cold War context and fact that Indonesia was ruled by military government I Guided by framework that downplayed con ict and violence IV What can Anthropologists dosay that might be relevant Argue against a culturalist spin to bloodshed 0 Role of cultural differences Tutsis vs Hutus Rwanda I Cultural differences aren t the cause of mass con icts there is no reason why that might be the case I Mass bloodshed between Tutsis and Hutus in Rwanda exempli es how cultural differences aren t the cause of mass con icts 0 Importance of how con icts are labeled importance of language Emphasize Contexts Starting Points Leading to Mass Violence 0 Emphasize socioeconomic upheavals that might spur con icts in the future 0 Emphasize unequal distribution of opportunitiesprivilege that are important starting points for understanding con icts V Commitment to an Engaged Anthropology Politics Political Organization and Leadership Politics organized use of public power Power ability to bring about results with potential or use of force Authority ability to bring about results based on person s status respect and reputation in the community In uence ability to bring about results by exerting social or more pressure Political organization groups within culture that are responsible for public decision making and leadership maintaining social cohesion and order protecting group rights and ensuring safety from external threats Band form of political organization of foraging groups with exible membership and minimal leadership 0 Typically comprised between 20 and 100 people related through kinship Tribe form of political organization that comprises several bands or lineage groups each with a similar language and lifestyle and occupying a distinct territory 0 Bigman bigwoman system form of political organization midway between tribe and chiefdom and involving reliance on the leadership of key individuals who develop a political following through personal ties and redistributive feasts I Moka strategy for developing political leadership in highland New Guinea that involves exchanging gifts and favors with individuals and sponsoring large feasts where further gift giving occurs Chiefdom form of political organization in which permanently allied tribes and villages have one recognized leader who holds office 0 Large populations centralized socially complex 0 Iroquois provided case of women s indirect political importance men were chiefs but women and men councilors were appointing body State form of political organization in which centralized political unit encompasses many communities a bureaucratic structure and leaders who possess coercive power 0 Have wide range of powers and responsibilities p 165 0 Religious beliefs and symbols are often closely tied to power of state leadership 0 Most contemporary states are hierarchical and patriarchal Social Order and Social Con ict When Kimeli Naiyomeh returned to his village in Kenya and told the Maasai villagers of 911 they gave 14 cows to the US Social control processes that maintain orderly social life Norm generally agreedupon standard for how people should behave usually unwritten and learned unconsciously Law binding rule created through enactment or custom that defines right and reasonable behavior and is enforceable by threat of punishment 0 Religion often provides legitimacy for law Social control in smallscale societies bands are small closeknit groups so disputes tend to be handled at interpersonal level through discussion or one onone ghts o In some Australian Aboriginal societies laws restrict access to religious rituals and paraphernalia to men who have gone through ritual initiations o Punishment is legitimized through belief in supernatural forces and their ability to affect people 0 In highland horticulturalists of Indonesian island of Sumba one of the greatest offenses is to fail to keep a promise and breaking a promise will bring on supernatural assault by ancestors of those who have been offended by person s misbehavior Social control in state increased social stress occurs in relation to distribution of surplus inheritance and rights to land 0 Specialization of roles and tasks related to law and order police judges I Policing exercise of social control through processes of surveillance and threat of punishment related to maintaining social order I Japan s low crime rate has attracted attention of Western law andorder specialists who think it may be the result of the police system there 0 Trials and courts I Trial by ordeal way of determining innocence or guilt in which accused is put to test that may be painful stressful or fatal I Court system is used in contemporary societies 0 Punishment doing something unpleasant to someone who s committed offense I National incarceration rate is calculated as number of people in prison per 100000 people in a country E US has highest 737 per 100000 people I Common form of punishment in case of murdertheft in pastoralist societies Islamic in Middle East is guilty party must pay compensation to members of family that s been harmed Social Inequality and the Law 0 Critical legal anthropology approach within crosscultural study of legal systems that examines role of law and judicial processes in maintaining dominance of powerful groups through discriminatory practices rather than protecting members of less powerful groups 0 Fay Gale compared treatment of Aboriginal youth and White youth in judicial system ndings show Aboriginal youth are overrepresented at every level of juvenile justice system they re considered undependable so they re formally arrested more than White youth for same crime 0 Children s Aid Panels in South Australia give opportunities to individuals to avoid becoming repeat offenders and take their proper place in society 0 Social justice concept of fairness based on social equality that seeks to ensure entitlements and opportunities for disadvantaged members of society Ethnic con ict result from ethnic group s attempt to gain more autonomy or more equitable treatment 0 Genocide killing large numbers of distinct ethnic racial or religious group 0 Sectarian con ict con ict based on perceived differences between divisions or sects within a religion and often related to rights and resources I Within British Isles between Catholics and Protestants Shias and Sunnis I Exclusionary medical service provision women experienced secondclass treatment at obstetric clinics to extent that they retreated to using alternative medicine during Sunni con ict War organized con ict involving group action directed against another group and involving lethal force 0 Cultural variation exists in frequency of war its objectives how its waged and how postwar social relations are built 0 Warfare emerged during Neolithic era with settled life 0 Warlike behavior doesn t exist among bands but does exist among tribal groups Globallocal con ict con ict that s been taking place around the wold since at least 15th cent when powerful European countries began to colonize tropical countries 0 Neocolonial wars wars that seek to control strategic world areas for material and political gain of dominating country wars against terrorism 0 Privatesector nongovemment entity multinational corporation vs local group that typically makes claims against and ghts physically against the corporation 0 Corporate social responsibility business ethics that seek to generate pro ts for corporation while avoiding harm to people and environment increasingly adopted by large multinationals o Anthropologists work as advocates on behalf of affected people to document harm in icted by businesses and gain compensation o Anthropologists also document legal steps involved in Environmental Impact Assessment phase and how the process is tilted in favor of companies due to their power networks 0 In Peru mining company was able to bring in scienti c experts to attest on its behalf the campesinos small farmers lacked ability to bring in their own counterexperts Change in Political and Legal Systems Nation group of people who share a language culture territorial base political organization and history 0 Culturally homogenous o Nationstate state comprised of only one nation 0 Some nations may be a political threat to state stability and control like Kurds in Middle East Maya of Mexico and Central America Tamils in Sri Lanka Tibetans in China and Palestinians in Middle East 0 Benedict Anderson wrote about symbolic efforts that state builders employ to create sense of belonging among diverse people I Strategies imposition of one language as national language construction of monuments and museums that emphasize unity use of songs dress poetry and other media messages to promote image of uni ed country I Some states ex China control religious expression in interest of promoting loyalty to and identity with the state I Puerto Rico is neither a state of US nor an autonomous political unit interesting case among anthropologists Democratization process of transformation from an authoritarian regime to democratic regime 0 End of torture liberation of political prisoners lifting of censorship and toleration of some opposition 0 Political parties emerge 0 Most difficult when change is from highly authoritarian socialist regimes UN and International Peacekeeping 0 Robert Carnerio says during long history of human political evolution warfare has been major means by which political units enlarged their power and domain predicts war will follow war until superstates become even larger and one megastate is the final result 0 If war is inevitable little hope exists that anthropological knowledge can be applied to peacemaking efforts 0 UN still affords an arena for airing disputes and role of NGOs and grassroots organizations in promoting local and global peacemaking through initiatives bridge group interests 41 Forging Peace in Guatemala Film Civil War when government launched campaign against guerillas Campaign was to eliminate guerilla population in countryside Many civilian s homes were burned and people were massacred Over 500 villages were wiped off the map They are beginning to educate their people about human rights Most Mayans receive little or no education 75 can t read or write Mayans are the poorest part of Central America Land distribution is of the most unequal in the land 2 of the population own 65 of the farmland so many people don t own enough to support their families Every year thousands of Mayans travel south to the coast for labor Workers are paid less than minimum wage on plantations but landowners backed by military groups respond with repression when workers confront them about their pay Civil SelfDefense Patrols are the most hated military group they were created to ght the guerillas but ended up becoming an extension of the guerilla group committing crimes and massacres Patrols allowed criminal power to override their communities Many women widowed from the war have trouble living on their own 46 Why Don t People Stay Put Tourism Ch 12 1 Thinking about tourism Different reasons why different kinds of migrants migrate across national and transnational boundaries 11 Why tourism Movement of a lot of people and money 0 Over 750 million in 1999 traveled globe as tourists o Represents 13 of the world s trade in service sector 0 Tourism is the largestscale movement of goods services and people that humanity has ever seen Worldwide impact 0 No society that hasn t been impacted by tourism 0 Tourism provides an encounter of people of different cultures Often involves encounters with cultural others Despite its association with things shallow and frivolous tourism is relative to many theoretical and real issues in the world 111 Anthropology of Tourism as Institutionalized Field Viewed as a legitimate field that s represented by the publications of books journals courses etc IV The Impact of Tourism The good the bad and the ugly Tourism is often destructive of nonWestem indigenous people the bad and ugly 0 Loss of traditional livelihood becoming paidwage laborers and abandoning agriculture Loss of autonomy being overly dependent on revenue of tourism Emergence of inequality and con icts Degradation of the environment 0 Loss of traditional culture Rethinking the negative impact of tourism two issues 0 Causality tourism isn t the sole cause of these consequences 0 lndiscriminate generalizing about tourism and tourists The Good 0 Revive old values traditions rather than undermine the local ones 0 Reinforce ethnic cultural identity with the people they interact Migration movement from one place to another Linked to basic aspects of life providing for one s food or marriage has profound effects on person s economic and social status as well as on health language religious identity and education OOO 1 Internal migration movement within country boundaries Ruraltourban migration was dominant form in 20th cent Maj or reason why people migrate to urban areas is availability of work Pushpull theory explanation for ruraltourban migration that emphasizes people s incentives to move bc of a lack of opportunity in rural areas compared with urban Also caused by war or poverty 2 International migration movement across country boundaries Grown in volume since 1945 and especially wince mid1980 s Around 100 million people live outside their home countries Mostly composed of migrants who move for workrelated reasons Maj or destination countries are US Canada Australia New Zealand and Argentina Immigration policies these countries applied in 20th cent were White immigration Earlier classiv areas of outmigration north west and south Europe are now instead receiving many immigrants such as refugees from Africa and Middle East Millions of Turkish immigrated to Germany in later decades of 20th cent 3 Transnational migration movement in which person moves back and forth between two or more countries and forms new cultural identity transcending a single geopolitical unit Increasing with globalization Rising rates of this is related to creation of state boundaries in recent centuries Motivated by economic factors Astronauts businesspeople who spend most of their time ing among different cities as investment bankers or corporate executives Affects migrant s identity sense of citizenship and entitlements Transnational country country with substantial proportion of its population living outside country s boundaries Haiti Colombia Mexico Brazil Dominican Republic Portugal Greece and Philippines Remittance transfers of money or goods from a migrant to his or her family back home Reasons for Moving Labor migrants people who migrate for work 0 Wage labor migration form of migration when work is legally contracted 0 Asian women are fastestgrowing category among world s more than 35 million migrant workers I Most in domestic service some as nurses and teachers I Sending countries are Indonesia Philippines Sri Lanka and Thailand 0 Circular migration regular pattern of population movement between two or more places within or between countries I Ex female domestic workers throughout Latin America and Caribbean Displaced persons people evicted from their homes communities or countries and forced to move elsewhere 0 Colonialism slavery war persecution natural disasters and large scale mining and dam building are major causes 0 Refugees internationally displaced persons I Victims of persecution on basis of race religion nationality ethnicity gender or political views I About 16 million people 80 of world s refugees are sheltered in poor countries Pakistan Iran and Syria mostly women and children 0 Internationally displaced persons people who are forced to leave their homes and communities but remain within their country I In Africa Sudan has highest number I Many live for extended periods in makeshift housing or refugee camps with limited access to basic amenities I Political violence and con icts over access to critical resources are major causes of people becoming IDPs o Developmentinduced displacement forced migration of population due to development 0 Megadam projects dam construction projects involve costs in billions of dollars and affect massive areas of land and huge numbers of people now attracting attention of concerned people worldwide who support local resistance to massive population displacement I Ex India s construction of series of high dams in its Narmada River Valley Institutional migrants people who move into a social institution 0 Monks nuns elderly prisoners boarding school or college students people serving in military The New Immigrants to the US and Canada New immigrant international migrant who s moved since 1960 s Globalization more countries are involved in international migration leading to increased cultural diversity in sending and receiving countries Acceleration growth in numbers of migrants has occurred worldwide Feminization women are a growing percentage of international migrants to and from all regions and in all types of migration some types eXhibit majority of women Mexican immigrants neither here nor there seasonal migrants Chain migration form of population movement in which a first wave of migrants comes and then attracts relatives and friends to join them in destination place 0 Frequent among Dominicans moving to US o Cadena chain 0 Business marriage individual seeking to migrate pays legal immigrant or citizen a fee to contract a marriage with that person migrant then gets a visa through family uni cation provision 0 Many Dominicans in NY working in manufacturing industries 0 Bodegas retail businesses established by Dominicans located in unsafe areas Salvadorans many came to US to escape civil war in El Salvador 0 Mojado derogatory slang meaning wetback illegal immigrants 0 Work in the informal sector doing nonsalaried work that s not of cially registered 0 Attracted to Long Island by its thriving informal economy New Immigrants from Asia Hong Kong has been the largest source of migrants to Canada since 1987 Many Vietnamese relocated to US Canada Australia France Germany and Britain Make up 1A of US Asian American minority group With 1965 change in legislation in US rst wave of South Asian immigrants dominated by male professionals from India arrived 0 Concentrated in medicine engineering and management 0 One of the betteroff immigrant groups and is an immigrant success story New Immigrants from Former Soviet Union Breakup of Soviet Union spurred movement of over 9 million people throughout Eastern Europe and Central Asia Many refugees are Soviet Jews many of which have settled in US Migration Policies and Programs in Globalizing World Protecting migrants health health risks to migrants are many and varied Inclusion and exclusion national policies that set quotas on quantity and types of immigrants who are welcome and that determine how they re treated are dictated largely by political and economic interests Lifeboat mentality view that seeks to limit enlarging a particular group because of perceived constraints on resources Migration and human rights question of whether migration is forced or voluntary o Forced migration would be a violation of a person s human rights 0 Right of return refugee s entitlement to return to and live in his or her homeland I Basic human right in West I Issue among Palestinians who ed during war I Can be considered within states 0 Differential resettlement little chance of returning to homes I Ex Blacks relocating to New Orleans after Katrina People Defining Development Ch 13 Development change directed toward improving human welfare Poverty the lack of tangible and intangible assets that contribute to life and the quality of life 0 Some approaches to reducing poverty focus on basic needs access to decent food water housing clothing etc o More expanded approaches are access to education and personal security Two Processes of Cultural Change Invention discovery of something new Diffusion the spread of culture through contact 0 Can occur in mutual borrowing where two societies roughly equal in power exchange aspects of their culture 0 Sometimes involves a transfer from a dominant culture to a less powerful culture 0 More powerful culture may appropriate aspects of a less powerful culture through cultural imperialism o Acculturation form of cultural change in which a minority culture becomes more like the dominant culture 0 Assimilation form of cultural change in which a culture is thoroughly acculturated or decultured and is no longer distinguishable as having a separate identity Theories and Models of Development Social impact assessment study conducted to predict the potential social costs and benefits of particular innovations before change is undertaken o The Saami Snowmobiles and Social Impact Analysis pg 274 Five theories of development differ in terms of 0 Definition goal measures of development and attention to environmental and financial sustainability Modernization model of change based on belief in the inevitable advance of science and Western secularism and processes including industrial growth consolidation of the state bureaucratization a market economy technological innovation literacy and options for social mobility o Originated in Western Europe in beginning of 17th cent with emerging emphasis on secular rationality and scientific thinking as the pathways to progress Growthoriented development development as induced change brought about through applying modernization theory in socalled developing countries 0 Emerged after WWII when US began to expand its role as world leader 0 Trickledown effect gradual increase in wealth among the less well off as it filters down from the more well off I Process by which investments in economic growth will lead to improved human welfare 0 Promoting economic growth in developing countries includes I Increasing economic productivity and trade through modernized agriculture and manufacturing and participation in world markets I Reducing government expenditures on public services schools health to reduce debt and reallocate resources to increase productivity structural adjustment I GDP rate of growth of economy to measure for assessing achievement of development Distributional development emphasis on social equity in bene ts especially in terms of increased income literacy and health 0 Rejects trickledown process as ineffective in reaching poor people 0 Opposes structural adjustment policies Human development strategy that emphasizes investing in human welfare 0 UN adopted this phrase to emphasize need for improvements in human welfare in terms of health education and personal security and safety 0 Investments in improving human welfare will lead to economic development Sustainable development form of improvement that doesn t destroy non renewable resources and are financially supportable over time Institutional approaches to development Institutional research includes studying the management systems of large scale institutions and smallscale organizations Largescale development institutions 0 Multilateral institutions those that include several countries as donor members 0 Bilateral institutions those that involve only 2 countries a donor and recipient o Largest multilaterals are UN and World Bank 0 Largest bilaterals are Japan International Cooperation Agency US Agency for International Development Canadian International Development Agency 0 Tied loansgrants require certain percentage of project expenditures go for goods expertise and services originating in donor country 0 Untied loansgrants recipient country may decide freely how to use funds Grassroots approach locally initiated smallscale projects 0 Social capital intangible resources that exist through social ties trust and cooperation 0 Many local grassroots organizations use social capital to provide basic social needs are are successful even in poorest countries 0 Religious organizations sponsor wide variety of grassroots development projects 0 Ex In Philippines the Basic Ecclesiastical Community movement Development project set of activities designed to put development policies into action Project cycle steps of a development project from initial planning to completion project identification project design project appraisal project implementation and project evaluation Project were often failures in the past because 0 Project didn t fit the cultural and environmental context 0 Project bene ts didn t reach the target group poor or women instead project bene ts went to elites or some other less needy group 0 Intended bene ciaries were worse off after the project than before it Culture t characteristic of informed and effective project design in which planners take local culture into account Traditional development anthropology an approach to international development in which the anthropologist accepts the role of helping to make development work better by providing cultural information to planners o Anthropologist may act as cultural broker who uses knowledge of donor culture and recipient culture to devise a workable plan 0 Dam stories document negative effects of dam construction on local people including destruction of their economy social organization sacred space sense of home and environment Critical development anthropology approach to international development in which the anthropologist takes a criticalthinking role and asks why and to whose bene t particular development policies and programs are pursued Development Indigenous People and Women Indigenous people have been victimized by many aspects of growthoriented development Indigenous people differ from minorities in that they tend to occupy remote areas and areas rich in natural resources Contemporary global and state political and economic interests often involve the takeover and control of indigenous people s territory In Southeast Asia states use policies of planned resettlement that displace indigenous people or hill tribes in the name of progress Indigenous peoples have actively sought to resist the deleterious effects of civilization 0 Few Latin America countries provide legal protection against encroachment on the land of indigenous groups 0 Political activism by indigenous people has occurred since the 1990 s sometimes involving physical resistance violence between indigenous groups especially in southern Mexican state of Chiapas o In Canada law distinguishes between 2 different types of Native Peoples and their land claims 0 Specific claims problems arising from previous agreements or treaties 0 Comprehensive claims those made by Native Peoples who haven t been displaced and have made no treaties or agreements o In Asia most countries have been reluctant to recognize the territorial rights of indigenous people 0 In Africa political interests of state governments in establishing and enforcing territorial boundaries have created dif culties for indigenous people especially mobile populations such as foragers and pastoralists Many indigenous people have formed organizations for change to promote development from within 0 Ex Ethiopia where several NGOs organized by local people have sprung up since the 90 s Women and Development Male bias in development the design and implementation of development projects with men as bene ciaries and without regard to the impact of the projects on women s roles and status Women s projects were typically focused on the domestic domain 0 This emphasis led to the domestication of women worldwide meaning their lives became more focused on domestic domain and more removed from public domain In many countries women have improved their status and welfare through forming organizations which are sometimes part of their traditional culture and sometimes a response to outside inspiration 0 Mother s clubs that help provide for communal child care credit organizations that give women opportunities to start their own businesses 0 Ex Kazakhstan Central Asia Society of Muslim Women declines to work with the police and civic activists who provide secular responses that involve criminalization of the offense arrest of offenders and other public procedures Urgent Issues in Development Development aggression imposition of development projects and policies without the free prior and informed consent of the affected people Life project local people s definition of the direction they want to take in life informed by their knowledge history and context 0 Can be considered a human right in accord with UN s Declaration of Human Rights Extractive industry business that explores for removes processes and sells minerals oil and gas that are found on or beneath the earth s surface and are nonrenewable Cultural Heritage and Development Linking the Past and Present to the Future Promoting cultural heritage through tourism requires an expansion of supportive infrastructure ie roads hotels electricity provision of food and other supplies for tourists Tourism can preserve and protect cultural heritage but the presence of the tourism industry and the tourists may damage and even destroy it 0 Ex Angkor Wat in Cambodia and Machu Picchu in Peru are physically suffering the strains of huge numbers of tourists Cultural Anthropology and the Future culture will be a major factor in international regional and local development and change Insights and strength often come from those with the least terms of material wealth but with cultural wealth beyond measure
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