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PENN / Psychology / PSYC 001 / unsystematic observation

unsystematic observation

unsystematic observation

Description

School: University of Pennsylvania
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Experimental Psychology
Professor: Carolineconolly
Term: Winter 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: PSYC 001, Midterm #1
Description: These notes will aid in studying for the 1st Midterm exam; includes key terms.
Uploaded: 01/30/2017
11 Pages 116 Views 1 Unlocks
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Why do we value art?




What is knowledge and data?




What is Psychology actually investigating?



PSYC 001 Midterm 1 – February 2nd, 2017 Class Notes 1. Intro & The Science of Psychology a. What is Psychology i. Psychology: describes and explains  ii. What is behavior 1. Anything you do  2. Is empirical because you can observe, record, and  measure it iii. What are mental processes 1. All conscious (you are aware of it) and unconscious  (you don’t have access tDon't forget about the age old question of utd cover sheet
Don't forget about the age old question of What Do Managers Do, and What Skills Do They Use?
Don't forget about the age old question of synticum
If you want to learn more check out the smallest amount of a stimulus necessary to allow an observer to detect its presence is known as the ______ threshold.
Don't forget about the age old question of 4 a's of mitigation
If you want to learn more check out civil justice concerns itself with fairness in relationships among citizens, government agencies, and businesses in private matters.
o it) states  b. Psychology is scientific? i. It is systematic, objective methods of observation help to  learn about and explain phenomena c. What is Psychology actually investigating? i. Tries to describe and explain the entire human species ii. Diversity across the lifespan iii. Diversity of influences (family, culture, environment) iv. Diversity of content d. RESEARCH!!!! i. Basic research: research carried out primarily to test a  theory or empirical issues ii. Applied research: research carried out to investigate a real world problem 2. Research Methodology a. What is knowledge and data? i. Can you observe and measure everything ii. What can we quantify iii. Can we create art from data? 1. When people are idle, they create art 2. Why do we value art?  48% of Americans want to  see blue in their paintings 3. Shows limitations of data a. Least/most wanted songs by country b. Least/most wanted art by country c. “At Sony CSL Research Lab, we have created  two entire pop songs composed with AI thanks  to flow machines…” b. How do Psychologists Learn About Things? (Example: how do we  understand aggression) i. Make accurate and consistent observations 1. Unsystematic observations are often skeweda. “The naked intellect is an extraordinarily  inaccurate instrument” –Madeline L’Engle 2. The plural of anecdote is not statistic ii. Operational definitions (define something that you are  observing so as to more easily measure it) 1. eg: are men more aggressive than women?  depends on your definition of “more aggressive” 2. physical aggression – popular definition a. pushing, physical intimidation, punching,  kicking, biting 3. social aggression – popular definition a. ignoring, gossiping, isolating someone from a  group iii. Research designs 1. Descriptive: naturalistic observation (does not  interfere with the environment, you are trying to  control or manipulate the situation) 2. Correlational: correlating indicate relationship  patterns, NOT CAUSES a. Directionality and third variable problems b. Used in early stages of research, relating 2 or  more naturally occurring variables c. Positive: both variables increase at the same  time d. Negative: both variables decrease at the same  time e. Zero: no relationship between the variables 3. Experimental: a. Establishing cause and effect   (independent variable) (dependent  variable)  Exposure to violent TV  Aggression Populationsamplerandom   assignment no exposure to violent TV  Aggression iv. Type A behavior pattern (example) 1. Two cardiologists observed behavior pattern in  coronary patients characterized by: a. Sense of time urgency b. Free-floating hostility c. Intense competitive striving for achievement 2. Case studies accumulated 3. Researchers developed operational definition…4. Correlational relationship between type A behavior  and incidence of coronary heart disease established 5. Attempts made to rule out third variables (by  statistical means) such as smoking, obesity, serum  cholesterol levels, etc..) 6. Experimental studies attempt to demonstrate causal  relationship between type A behavior and heart  attacks a. Group 1: counseling to avoid risky behaviors  such as smoking and eating fatty foods b. Group 2: counseling to reduce Type A behavior c. ….3 years later… i. a significantly fewer recurrent heart  attacks among group 2 patients 3. Biology and Behavior a. IMPORTANT: everything psychological is simultaneously biological b. Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord) i. All about communication ii. Directs communication from brain to other part of the body c. Peripheral Nervous System  i. Sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the  rest of the body Autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system  - Controls glands and other  muscles of our internal organs - ANS automatically regulates  internal states: heartbeat,  blood pressure, body temp.,  digestion - Sympathetic (fight-or-flight)  “arouses” - Parasympathetic (rest +  digest) ”calms” - Sensory info and motor control - Transmits signals (sights,  sounds, smells, tastes, pain)  from the sensory organs  (+skin) to the CNS - Relays motor command from  CNS to skeletal muscles of  arms, legs, torso, head. This  directs your body’s voluntary  movement d. Neuron – a specialized cell in the nervous system that  accumulates and transmits information i. The body’s information system is made up of millions of  these cells ii. Different kinds of neurons 1. Spinal cord, cerebral cortex, cerebellum iii. Sensory/afferent neurons  iv. Motor/efferent neurons v. Interneurons vi. Glial cells: supports neurons1. These cells have many functions, both during  development 2. Forms a myelin sheath (cells wrap around axons of  some neurons, providing insulation) 3. Eg: multiple sclerosis a. De-myelinated axons slow down neural  impulses e. HOW do neurons communicate with each other? i. Dendrites receive messages from other cells, axon,  terminal branches ii. Action Potential 1. An electrical impulse that surges along an axon,  caused by an influx of positive ions in the neuron 2. The resting membrane potential is negatively  charged a. Polarized: neuron has more negative ions  inside it than outside 3. Depolarization 4. (neural impulse) membranes is stimulated, ion  channel open leading to an action potential 5. ion movement (letting in sodium ions, potassium out) leads to an excess of positively charged ions 6. all-or-none Law a. once its launched, further increases in stimulus intensity have no effect on its magnitude b. intensity can result from: i. number of neurons firing ii. frequency of firing iii. Synapse  1. A junction between the axon tip of the sending  neuron and the receiving neuron’s dendrite or cell  body. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft iv. Neurotransmitters 1. Released from the axon of one neuron, cross the  synapse, and affect receptor molecules located on  the post-synaptic membrane of another neuron 2. Lock-and-key model a. Transmitter molecules will affect the  postsynaptic membrane only if the molecule’s  shape fits into certain synaptic receptor  molecules 3. eg: acetylcholine, epinephrine, serotonin, dopamine Key terms: Chapter 2 accuracy - degree to which an experimental measure is error freecase study - a descriptive research method that involves the intensive  examination of an unusual person or organization central tendency - measure that represents the typical response or the  behavior of a group as a whole  confound - anything that affects a dependent variable and that may  unintentionally vary between the experimental conditions of a study construct validity - the extent to which variables measure what they are  supposed to measure control group - participants in an experiment who receive no intervention or  who receive an intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable  being investigated correlation coefficient - descriptive statistic that indicates the strength of the  relationship between two variables correlational studies - a research method that describes and predicts how  variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the  researcher to alter them or assign causation between them culturally sensitive research - studies that take into account the role that  culture plays in determining thoughts, feelings, and actions  data - measurable outcomes of research studies dependent variable - the variable that gets measured in a research study descriptive research - research methods that involve observing behavior to  describe that behavior objectively and systematically descriptive statistics - statistics that summarize the data collected in a study directionality problem - a problem encountered in correlational studies; the  researchers find a relationship between two variables, but they cannot  determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable experiment - research method that tests causal hypothesis by manipulating  and measuring variables experimental group - the participants in an experiment who receive the  treatment experimenter expectancy effect - actual change in the behavior of the people or nonhuman animals being observed that is due to the expectations of the  observer external validity - the degree to which the findings of a study can be  generalized to other people, settings, or situations hypothesis - a specific, testable prediction, narrower than the theory it is  based on independent variable - the variable that gets manipulated in a research  study inferential statistics - a set of assumptions and procedures used to evaluate  the likelihood that an observed effect is present in the population from which the sample was drawn institutional review boards (IRBs) - groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science  and provides for the physical and emotional well-being of research  participantsinternal validity -the degree to which the effects observed in an experiment  are due to the independent variable and not confounds mean - measure of a central tendency that is the arithmetic average of a set  of numbers median - measure of a central tendency that is the value in a set of numbers  that falls exactly halfway between the lowest and highest values mode - measure of a central tendency that is the most frequent score or  value in a set of numbers meta-analysis - a "study of studies" that combines the findings of multiple  studies to arrive at a conclusion naturalistic observation - a type of descriptive study in which the researcher  is a passive observer, separated from the situation and making no attempt to change or alter ongoing behavior negative correlation - a relationship between two variables in which one  variable increases when the other decreases observer bias - systematic errors in observation that occur because of an  observer's expectations operational definition - definition that qualifies (describes) and quantifies  (measures) a variable so the variable can be understood objectively participant observation - a type of descriptive study in which the researcher  is involved in the situation population - everyone in the group the experimenter is interested in positive correlation - a relationship between two variables in which both  variables either increase or decrease together random assignment - placing research participants into the conditions of an  experiment in such a way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable reactivity - the phenomenon that occurs when knowledge that one is being  observed alters the behavior being observed reliability - degree to which a measure is stable and consistent over time replication - repetition of a research study to confirm the results research - scientific process that involves the careful collection of data sample - a subset of a population scatterplot - a graphical depiction of the relationship between two variables scientific method - systematic and dynamic procedure of observing and  measuring phenomena, used to achieve the goals of description, prediction,  control, and explanation; it involves an interaction among research, theories, and hypotheses selection bias - in an experiment, unintended differences between the  participants in different groups; it could be caused by nonrandom  assignment to groups self-report methods - methods of data collection in which people are asked to provide information about themselves, such as in surveys or questionnaires standard deviation - statistical measure of how far away each value is, on  average, from the meantheory - a model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is  observed and makes predictions about future events. Theories are based on  empirical evidence. third variable problem - a problem that occurs when the researcher cannot  directly manipulate variables; as a result, the researcher cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in  the variables of interest variability - in a set of numbers, how widely dispersed the values are from  each other and from the mean variable - something in the world that can vary and that a researcher can  manipulate (change), measure (evaluate), or both zero correlation - a relationship between two variables in which one variable  is not predictably related to the other Chapter 3 acetylcholine (ACh) - the neurotransmitter responsible for motor control at  the junction between nerves and muscles; it is also involved in mental  processes such as learning, memory, sleeping, and dreaming action potential - the electrical signal that passes along the axon and  subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons all-or-none principle - the principle that when a neuron fires, it fires with the  same potency each time; a neuron either fires or not - it cannot partially fire,  although the frequency of firing can vary amygdala - a brain structure that serves a vital role in learning to associate  things with emotional responses and in processing emotional information autonomic nervous system (ANS) - a component of the peripheral nervous  system; it transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central  nervous system and the body's glands and internal organs axon - a long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is  transmitted to other neurons basal ganglia - a system of subcortical structures that are important for the  planning and production of movement brain stem - an extension of the spinal cord; it houses structures that control  functions associated with survival, such as heart rate, breathing, swallowing,  vomiting, urination, and orgasm Broca's area - a small portion of the left frontal region of the brain, crucial for the production of language cell body - the site in the neuron where information from thousands of other  neurons is collected and integrated central nervous system (CNS) - the brain and the spinal cord cerebellum - a large, convoluted protuberance at the back of the brain stem;  it is essential for coordinated movement and balance cerebral cortex - the outer layer of brain tissue, which forms the convoluted  surface of the brain; the site of all thoughts, perceptions, and complex  behaviorschromosomes - structures within the cell body that are made up of DNA,  segments of which comprise individual genes corpus callosum - a massive bridge of millions of axons that connects the  hemispheres and allows information to flow between them dendrites - branchlike extensions of the neurons that detect information from other neurons dizygotic twins - also called fraternal twins; twin siblings that result from two separately fertilized eggs and therefore are no more similar genetically than  nontwin siblings dominant gene - a gene that is expressed in the offspring whenever it is  present dopamine - a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in motivation, reward,  and motor control over voluntary movement electroencephalograph (EEG) - a device that measures electrical activity in  the brain endocrine system - a communication system that uses hormones to  influence thoughts, behaviors, and actions endorphins - neurotransmitters involved in natural pain reduction and reward epinephrine - a monoamine neurotransmitter responsible for bursts of energy after an event that is exciting or threatening frontal lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex - at the front of the brain -  important for movement and higher-level psychological processes associated with the prefrontal cortex functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) - an imaging technique used  to examine changes in the activity of the working human brain by measuring changes in the blood's oxygen levels GABA - Gamma-aminobutyric acid; the primary inhibitory transmitter in the  nervous system gene expression - whether a particular gene is turned on or off genes - the units of heredity that help determine the characteristics of an  organism genotype - the genetic constitution of an organism, determined at the  moment of conception glutamate - the primary excitatory transmitter in the nervous system gonads - the main endocrine glands involved in sexual behavior: in males,  the testes; in females, the ovaries heritability - a statistical estimate of the extent to which variation in a trait  within a population is due to genetics hippocampus - a brain structure that is associated with the formation of  memories hormones - chemical substances, released from endocrine glands, that travel through the bloodstream to targeted tissues; the tissues are subsequently  influenced by the hormones hypothalamus - a brain structure that is involved in the regulation of bodily  functions, including body temperature, body rhythms, blood pressure, and  blood glucose levels; it also influences our basic motivated behaviorsinterneurons - one of the three types of neurons; these neurons  communicate within the local or short-distance circuits magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - a method of brain imaging that uses a  powerful magnetic field to produce high-quality images of the brain monozygotic twins - also called identical twins; twin siblings that result from  one zygote splitting in two and therefore share the same genes motor neurons - one of the three types of neurons; these neurons direct  muscles to contract or relax, thereby producing movement myelin sheath - a fatty material, made up of glial cells, that insulates some  axons to allow for faster movement of electrical impulses along the axon neurons - the basic units of the nervous system; cells that receive, integrate,  and transmit information in the nervous system. They operate through  electrical impulses, communicate with other neurons through chemical  signals, and form neural networks. Neurotransmitters - chemical substances that transmit signals from one  neuron to another nodes of Ranvier - small gaps of exposed axon, between the segments of  myelin sheath, where action potentials take place norepinephrine - a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in states of arousal and attention occipital lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex - at the back of the brain -  important for vision parasympathetic division - a division of the autonomic nervous system; it  returns the body to its resting state parietal lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex - in front of the occipital lobes  and behind the frontal lobes - important for the sense of touch and for  attention to the environment peripheral nervous system (PNS) - all nerve cells in the body that are not part of the central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system includes the  somatic and autonomic nervous systems phenotype - observable physical characteristics, which result from both  genetic and environmental influences pituitary gland - a gland located at the base of the hypothalamus; it sends  hormonal signals to other endocrine glands, controlling their release of  hormones plasticity - a property of the brain that allows it to change as a result of  experience or injury positron emission tomography - a method of brain imaging that assesses  metabolic activity by using a radioactive substance injected into the  bloodstream prefrontal cortex - the frontmost portion of the frontal lobes, especially  prominent in humans; important for attention, working memory, decision  making, appropriate social behavior, and personality receptors - in neurons, specialized protein molecules on the postsynaptic  membrane; neurotransmitters bind to these molecules after passing across  the synapserecessive gene - a gene that is expressed only when it is matched with a  similar gene from the other parent resting membrane potential - the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not  active reuptake - the process whereby a neurotransmitter is taken back into the  presynaptic terminal buttons, thereby stopping its activity sensory neurons - one of the three types of neurons; these neurons detect  information from the physical world and pass that information to the brain. serotonin - a monoamine neurotransmitter important for a wide range of  psychological activity, including emotional states, impulse control, and  dreaming somatic nervous system (SNS) - a component of the peripheral nervous  system; it transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central  nervous system and the skin, muscles, and joints split brain - a condition that occurs when the corpus callosum is surgically  cut and the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive information directly  from each other sympathetic division - a division of the autonomic nervous system; it  prepares the body for action synapse - the gap between the axon of a "sending" neuron and the dendrites of a "receiving" neuron; the site at which chemical communication occurs  between neurons temporal lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex - below the parietal lobes and  in front of the occipital lobes - important for processing auditory information,  for memory, and for object and face perception terminal buttons - at the ends of axons, small nodules that release chemical  signals from the neuron into the synapse thalamus - the gateway to the brain; it receives almost all incoming sensory  information before that information reaches the cortex  transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) - the use of strong magnets to  briefly interrupt normal brain activity as a way to study brain regions Chapter 4 consciousness - one's subjective experience of the world, resulting from  brain activity change blindness - a failure to notice large changes in one's environment subliminal perception - the processing of information by sensory systems  without conscious awareness circadian rhythms - biological patterns that occur at regular intervals as a  function of time of day REM sleep - the stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, dreaming,  and paralysis of motor systems insomnia - a disorder characterized by an inability to sleep obstructive sleep apnea - a disorder in which a person, while asleep, stops  breathing because his or her throat closes; the condition results in frequent  awakenings during the nightnarcolepsy - a sleep disorder in which people experience excessive  sleepiness during normal waking hours, sometimes going limp and collapsing dreams - products of an altered state of consciousness in which images and  fantasies are confused with reality activation-synthesis theory - a theory of dreaming; this theory proposes that  the brain tries to make sense of random brain activity that occurs during  sleep by synthesizing the activity with stored memorie

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