PSYC 001 Midterm 1 – February 2nd, 2017 Class Notes 1. Intro & The Science of Psychology a. What is Psychology i. Psychology: describes and explains ii. What is behavior 1. Anything you do 2. Is empirical because you can observe, record, and measure it iii. What are mental processes 1. All conscious (you are aware of it) and unconscious (you don’t have access tDon't forget about the age old question of utd cover sheet
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o it) states b. Psychology is scientific? i. It is systematic, objective methods of observation help to learn about and explain phenomena c. What is Psychology actually investigating? i. Tries to describe and explain the entire human species ii. Diversity across the lifespan iii. Diversity of influences (family, culture, environment) iv. Diversity of content d. RESEARCH!!!! i. Basic research: research carried out primarily to test a theory or empirical issues ii. Applied research: research carried out to investigate a real world problem 2. Research Methodology a. What is knowledge and data? i. Can you observe and measure everything ii. What can we quantify iii. Can we create art from data? 1. When people are idle, they create art 2. Why do we value art? 48% of Americans want to see blue in their paintings 3. Shows limitations of data a. Least/most wanted songs by country b. Least/most wanted art by country c. “At Sony CSL Research Lab, we have created two entire pop songs composed with AI thanks to flow machines…” b. How do Psychologists Learn About Things? (Example: how do we understand aggression) i. Make accurate and consistent observations 1. Unsystematic observations are often skeweda. “The naked intellect is an extraordinarily inaccurate instrument” –Madeline L’Engle 2. The plural of anecdote is not statistic ii. Operational definitions (define something that you are observing so as to more easily measure it) 1. eg: are men more aggressive than women? depends on your definition of “more aggressive” 2. physical aggression – popular definition a. pushing, physical intimidation, punching, kicking, biting 3. social aggression – popular definition a. ignoring, gossiping, isolating someone from a group iii. Research designs 1. Descriptive: naturalistic observation (does not interfere with the environment, you are trying to control or manipulate the situation) 2. Correlational: correlating indicate relationship patterns, NOT CAUSES a. Directionality and third variable problems b. Used in early stages of research, relating 2 or more naturally occurring variables c. Positive: both variables increase at the same time d. Negative: both variables decrease at the same time e. Zero: no relationship between the variables 3. Experimental: a. Establishing cause and effect (independent variable) (dependent variable) Exposure to violent TV Aggression Populationsamplerandom assignment no exposure to violent TV Aggression iv. Type A behavior pattern (example) 1. Two cardiologists observed behavior pattern in coronary patients characterized by: a. Sense of time urgency b. Free-floating hostility c. Intense competitive striving for achievement 2. Case studies accumulated 3. Researchers developed operational definition…4. Correlational relationship between type A behavior and incidence of coronary heart disease established 5. Attempts made to rule out third variables (by statistical means) such as smoking, obesity, serum cholesterol levels, etc..) 6. Experimental studies attempt to demonstrate causal relationship between type A behavior and heart attacks a. Group 1: counseling to avoid risky behaviors such as smoking and eating fatty foods b. Group 2: counseling to reduce Type A behavior c. ….3 years later… i. a significantly fewer recurrent heart attacks among group 2 patients 3. Biology and Behavior a. IMPORTANT: everything psychological is simultaneously biological b. Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord) i. All about communication ii. Directs communication from brain to other part of the body c. Peripheral Nervous System i. Sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body Autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system - Controls glands and other muscles of our internal organs - ANS automatically regulates internal states: heartbeat, blood pressure, body temp., digestion - Sympathetic (fight-or-flight) “arouses” - Parasympathetic (rest + digest) ”calms” - Sensory info and motor control - Transmits signals (sights, sounds, smells, tastes, pain) from the sensory organs (+skin) to the CNS - Relays motor command from CNS to skeletal muscles of arms, legs, torso, head. This directs your body’s voluntary movement d. Neuron – a specialized cell in the nervous system that accumulates and transmits information i. The body’s information system is made up of millions of these cells ii. Different kinds of neurons 1. Spinal cord, cerebral cortex, cerebellum iii. Sensory/afferent neurons iv. Motor/efferent neurons v. Interneurons vi. Glial cells: supports neurons1. These cells have many functions, both during development 2. Forms a myelin sheath (cells wrap around axons of some neurons, providing insulation) 3. Eg: multiple sclerosis a. De-myelinated axons slow down neural impulses e. HOW do neurons communicate with each other? i. Dendrites receive messages from other cells, axon, terminal branches ii. Action Potential 1. An electrical impulse that surges along an axon, caused by an influx of positive ions in the neuron 2. The resting membrane potential is negatively charged a. Polarized: neuron has more negative ions inside it than outside 3. Depolarization 4. (neural impulse) membranes is stimulated, ion channel open leading to an action potential 5. ion movement (letting in sodium ions, potassium out) leads to an excess of positively charged ions 6. all-or-none Law a. once its launched, further increases in stimulus intensity have no effect on its magnitude b. intensity can result from: i. number of neurons firing ii. frequency of firing iii. Synapse 1. A junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the receiving neuron’s dendrite or cell body. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft iv. Neurotransmitters 1. Released from the axon of one neuron, cross the synapse, and affect receptor molecules located on the post-synaptic membrane of another neuron 2. Lock-and-key model a. Transmitter molecules will affect the postsynaptic membrane only if the molecule’s shape fits into certain synaptic receptor molecules 3. eg: acetylcholine, epinephrine, serotonin, dopamine Key terms: Chapter 2 accuracy - degree to which an experimental measure is error freecase study - a descriptive research method that involves the intensive examination of an unusual person or organization central tendency - measure that represents the typical response or the behavior of a group as a whole confound - anything that affects a dependent variable and that may unintentionally vary between the experimental conditions of a study construct validity - the extent to which variables measure what they are supposed to measure control group - participants in an experiment who receive no intervention or who receive an intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable being investigated correlation coefficient - descriptive statistic that indicates the strength of the relationship between two variables correlational studies - a research method that describes and predicts how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them culturally sensitive research - studies that take into account the role that culture plays in determining thoughts, feelings, and actions data - measurable outcomes of research studies dependent variable - the variable that gets measured in a research study descriptive research - research methods that involve observing behavior to describe that behavior objectively and systematically descriptive statistics - statistics that summarize the data collected in a study directionality problem - a problem encountered in correlational studies; the researchers find a relationship between two variables, but they cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable experiment - research method that tests causal hypothesis by manipulating and measuring variables experimental group - the participants in an experiment who receive the treatment experimenter expectancy effect - actual change in the behavior of the people or nonhuman animals being observed that is due to the expectations of the observer external validity - the degree to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other people, settings, or situations hypothesis - a specific, testable prediction, narrower than the theory it is based on independent variable - the variable that gets manipulated in a research study inferential statistics - a set of assumptions and procedures used to evaluate the likelihood that an observed effect is present in the population from which the sample was drawn institutional review boards (IRBs) - groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well-being of research participantsinternal validity -the degree to which the effects observed in an experiment are due to the independent variable and not confounds mean - measure of a central tendency that is the arithmetic average of a set of numbers median - measure of a central tendency that is the value in a set of numbers that falls exactly halfway between the lowest and highest values mode - measure of a central tendency that is the most frequent score or value in a set of numbers meta-analysis - a "study of studies" that combines the findings of multiple studies to arrive at a conclusion naturalistic observation - a type of descriptive study in which the researcher is a passive observer, separated from the situation and making no attempt to change or alter ongoing behavior negative correlation - a relationship between two variables in which one variable increases when the other decreases observer bias - systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer's expectations operational definition - definition that qualifies (describes) and quantifies (measures) a variable so the variable can be understood objectively participant observation - a type of descriptive study in which the researcher is involved in the situation population - everyone in the group the experimenter is interested in positive correlation - a relationship between two variables in which both variables either increase or decrease together random assignment - placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in such a way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable reactivity - the phenomenon that occurs when knowledge that one is being observed alters the behavior being observed reliability - degree to which a measure is stable and consistent over time replication - repetition of a research study to confirm the results research - scientific process that involves the careful collection of data sample - a subset of a population scatterplot - a graphical depiction of the relationship between two variables scientific method - systematic and dynamic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena, used to achieve the goals of description, prediction, control, and explanation; it involves an interaction among research, theories, and hypotheses selection bias - in an experiment, unintended differences between the participants in different groups; it could be caused by nonrandom assignment to groups self-report methods - methods of data collection in which people are asked to provide information about themselves, such as in surveys or questionnaires standard deviation - statistical measure of how far away each value is, on average, from the meantheory - a model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events. Theories are based on empirical evidence. third variable problem - a problem that occurs when the researcher cannot directly manipulate variables; as a result, the researcher cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the variables of interest variability - in a set of numbers, how widely dispersed the values are from each other and from the mean variable - something in the world that can vary and that a researcher can manipulate (change), measure (evaluate), or both zero correlation - a relationship between two variables in which one variable is not predictably related to the other Chapter 3 acetylcholine (ACh) - the neurotransmitter responsible for motor control at the junction between nerves and muscles; it is also involved in mental processes such as learning, memory, sleeping, and dreaming action potential - the electrical signal that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons all-or-none principle - the principle that when a neuron fires, it fires with the same potency each time; a neuron either fires or not - it cannot partially fire, although the frequency of firing can vary amygdala - a brain structure that serves a vital role in learning to associate things with emotional responses and in processing emotional information autonomic nervous system (ANS) - a component of the peripheral nervous system; it transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the body's glands and internal organs axon - a long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons basal ganglia - a system of subcortical structures that are important for the planning and production of movement brain stem - an extension of the spinal cord; it houses structures that control functions associated with survival, such as heart rate, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination, and orgasm Broca's area - a small portion of the left frontal region of the brain, crucial for the production of language cell body - the site in the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated central nervous system (CNS) - the brain and the spinal cord cerebellum - a large, convoluted protuberance at the back of the brain stem; it is essential for coordinated movement and balance cerebral cortex - the outer layer of brain tissue, which forms the convoluted surface of the brain; the site of all thoughts, perceptions, and complex behaviorschromosomes - structures within the cell body that are made up of DNA, segments of which comprise individual genes corpus callosum - a massive bridge of millions of axons that connects the hemispheres and allows information to flow between them dendrites - branchlike extensions of the neurons that detect information from other neurons dizygotic twins - also called fraternal twins; twin siblings that result from two separately fertilized eggs and therefore are no more similar genetically than nontwin siblings dominant gene - a gene that is expressed in the offspring whenever it is present dopamine - a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in motivation, reward, and motor control over voluntary movement electroencephalograph (EEG) - a device that measures electrical activity in the brain endocrine system - a communication system that uses hormones to influence thoughts, behaviors, and actions endorphins - neurotransmitters involved in natural pain reduction and reward epinephrine - a monoamine neurotransmitter responsible for bursts of energy after an event that is exciting or threatening frontal lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex - at the front of the brain - important for movement and higher-level psychological processes associated with the prefrontal cortex functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) - an imaging technique used to examine changes in the activity of the working human brain by measuring changes in the blood's oxygen levels GABA - Gamma-aminobutyric acid; the primary inhibitory transmitter in the nervous system gene expression - whether a particular gene is turned on or off genes - the units of heredity that help determine the characteristics of an organism genotype - the genetic constitution of an organism, determined at the moment of conception glutamate - the primary excitatory transmitter in the nervous system gonads - the main endocrine glands involved in sexual behavior: in males, the testes; in females, the ovaries heritability - a statistical estimate of the extent to which variation in a trait within a population is due to genetics hippocampus - a brain structure that is associated with the formation of memories hormones - chemical substances, released from endocrine glands, that travel through the bloodstream to targeted tissues; the tissues are subsequently influenced by the hormones hypothalamus - a brain structure that is involved in the regulation of bodily functions, including body temperature, body rhythms, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels; it also influences our basic motivated behaviorsinterneurons - one of the three types of neurons; these neurons communicate within the local or short-distance circuits magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - a method of brain imaging that uses a powerful magnetic field to produce high-quality images of the brain monozygotic twins - also called identical twins; twin siblings that result from one zygote splitting in two and therefore share the same genes motor neurons - one of the three types of neurons; these neurons direct muscles to contract or relax, thereby producing movement myelin sheath - a fatty material, made up of glial cells, that insulates some axons to allow for faster movement of electrical impulses along the axon neurons - the basic units of the nervous system; cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information in the nervous system. They operate through electrical impulses, communicate with other neurons through chemical signals, and form neural networks. Neurotransmitters - chemical substances that transmit signals from one neuron to another nodes of Ranvier - small gaps of exposed axon, between the segments of myelin sheath, where action potentials take place norepinephrine - a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in states of arousal and attention occipital lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex - at the back of the brain - important for vision parasympathetic division - a division of the autonomic nervous system; it returns the body to its resting state parietal lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex - in front of the occipital lobes and behind the frontal lobes - important for the sense of touch and for attention to the environment peripheral nervous system (PNS) - all nerve cells in the body that are not part of the central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system includes the somatic and autonomic nervous systems phenotype - observable physical characteristics, which result from both genetic and environmental influences pituitary gland - a gland located at the base of the hypothalamus; it sends hormonal signals to other endocrine glands, controlling their release of hormones plasticity - a property of the brain that allows it to change as a result of experience or injury positron emission tomography - a method of brain imaging that assesses metabolic activity by using a radioactive substance injected into the bloodstream prefrontal cortex - the frontmost portion of the frontal lobes, especially prominent in humans; important for attention, working memory, decision making, appropriate social behavior, and personality receptors - in neurons, specialized protein molecules on the postsynaptic membrane; neurotransmitters bind to these molecules after passing across the synapserecessive gene - a gene that is expressed only when it is matched with a similar gene from the other parent resting membrane potential - the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active reuptake - the process whereby a neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons, thereby stopping its activity sensory neurons - one of the three types of neurons; these neurons detect information from the physical world and pass that information to the brain. serotonin - a monoamine neurotransmitter important for a wide range of psychological activity, including emotional states, impulse control, and dreaming somatic nervous system (SNS) - a component of the peripheral nervous system; it transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the skin, muscles, and joints split brain - a condition that occurs when the corpus callosum is surgically cut and the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive information directly from each other sympathetic division - a division of the autonomic nervous system; it prepares the body for action synapse - the gap between the axon of a "sending" neuron and the dendrites of a "receiving" neuron; the site at which chemical communication occurs between neurons temporal lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex - below the parietal lobes and in front of the occipital lobes - important for processing auditory information, for memory, and for object and face perception terminal buttons - at the ends of axons, small nodules that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse thalamus - the gateway to the brain; it receives almost all incoming sensory information before that information reaches the cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) - the use of strong magnets to briefly interrupt normal brain activity as a way to study brain regions Chapter 4 consciousness - one's subjective experience of the world, resulting from brain activity change blindness - a failure to notice large changes in one's environment subliminal perception - the processing of information by sensory systems without conscious awareness circadian rhythms - biological patterns that occur at regular intervals as a function of time of day REM sleep - the stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, dreaming, and paralysis of motor systems insomnia - a disorder characterized by an inability to sleep obstructive sleep apnea - a disorder in which a person, while asleep, stops breathing because his or her throat closes; the condition results in frequent awakenings during the nightnarcolepsy - a sleep disorder in which people experience excessive sleepiness during normal waking hours, sometimes going limp and collapsing dreams - products of an altered state of consciousness in which images and fantasies are confused with reality activation-synthesis theory - a theory of dreaming; this theory proposes that the brain tries to make sense of random brain activity that occurs during sleep by synthesizing the activity with stored memorie