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UA / OTHER / GEO 101 / What is big bang theory?

What is big bang theory?

What is big bang theory?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: OTHER
Course: Dynamic Earth
Professor: Deborah keene
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Geology and Chemistry
Cost: 50
Name: Test 1 Studyguide
Description: Studyguide for the first exam. Chapter 1-3, interlude A
Uploaded: 01/30/2017
7 Pages 4 Views 7 Unlocks
Reviews


Chapter 1


What is big bang theory?



Learning Objectives:

What is the Big Bang Theory and its key concepts? 

What evidence is used to support the big bang? 

When was the big bang? 

Big bang theory: all matter and energy was initially packed into an infinitely small  point. When the point exploded, the universe began

Key concepts:

Universe has a beginning

Started infinitely small/hot

Early universe was mainly hydrogen/helium

Universe is about 13.8 billion years old

Where do the elements come from? 

Where are they created? 

Why are we considered star dust? We also discuss several other topics like Who is Diego De Landa?

92 elements are naturally occurring  

Protostar, massive star (elements with atomic mass up to Fe), supernova  (elements heavier than Fe). Supernova explodes and the cycle repeats. We are  made of elements that originally come from the stars.

What is the age of our solar system and what is the nebular theory? About 9 billion years after the Big Bang-4.8 billion years.  


What nebular theory?



Nebular Theory: gravitation between materials in the nebula pulled mass inward.  when pulled inward, the spin increased in accord with the conservation of angular  momentum. The spinning cloud conformed to the shape of the disk, at the center is  a protosun. Away from the center, planetesimals formed. They accreted more  matter and became planets. 99.98% of the matter in the universe is the sun Don't forget about the age old question of What is diatomic?

What is a planet (and how do they evolve) and why is Pluto no longer  considered one?

Planet: must orbit a star, be roughly spherical in shape, and clear its neighborhood  of other objects. Pluto is no longer a planet because it never cleared its  neighborhood of other objects

Compare and contrast the terrestrial planets with the gas/ice giants? 

Terrestrial planets: shell of rock around a metallic iron alloy core. Gas giants are  mostly gas or ice and are very large


What is paleomagnetism?



How is it thought our moon formed? 

A collision into Earth produced a ring of debris that eventually stuck together to  become the moon

What are the systems that make the earth system? 

Hydrosphere: all of the water on Earth, no matter the state

Geosphere: the solid part of the earth (land and rock)

Atmosphere: the layer of gas around the earth

Biosphere: all living things on earth and their environment

How and why is earth subdivided into layers (and what are they) and how can  we probe the inner depths of our planet? 

Crust: (oceanic and continental) the rock that makes up the outermost layer of the  earth

Mantle: (upper and lower) the largest layer, covers the core (2885 km thick) Outer Core: (between 2900 and 5155 km deep) liquid iron alloy

Inner core: (depth of 5155 km to earth’s center at 6371 km) solid iron alloy

Separated since the compositions differ from one another. Probe the inner depths  due to seismic waves If you want to learn more check out what is exotoxins?

Major Concepts

Helio vs geocentric model

Heliocentric: the sun lies at the center of the universe while the earth and other  planets orbit around it  

Geocentric: earth sits motionless at the center of the universe while the moon and  the planets whirl around it, and everything lies in a revolving globe of stars  

Nebular theory: 

Big bang 

Expanding universe: 

Sound and light travel in waves. Movement causes the frequency or wavelength to  change, which in turn changes the sound or color. Red=moving away, blue=moving  towards. Everything is red, therefore everything in moving away and the universe is  expanding  Don't forget about the age old question of what are the Phases of matter?

Age of earth and the universe: 

Universe: 13.8 billion, Earth: 65 million

Planets 

Differentiation of earth into layers  

Earth's magnetic field:  

Dipole (north and south pole), produced by Earth’s geodynamo, melted iron moves  within outer core, so the magnetic field is always changing, it protects us from most  solar wind (cosmic rays)

Moon formation 

Earth's spheres (bio,geo,etc) 

Earth's interior 

Chapter 2  

Learning Objectives:

What is the plate tectonics theory and what evidence helped develop the  theory?

Earth’s surface consists of about 20 plates that move about one another.  Continental drift, interactions at the plate’s boundaries cause volcanos,  earthquakes, etc We also discuss several other topics like what is Chromatophilic substance (Nissl Bodies)?

What do the plates in the theory consist of and in what way and how fast do  they move? 

Lithosphere: portion of the earth that behaves rock like. They “float” on the  asthenosphere. Move about 10-15 cm a year

What are the different plate boundaries and what are the key features of each? Divergent: 2 plates move away from one another

Convergent: plates move towards each other

Transform: plates slide past each other

What natural hazards (earthquakes, volcanos) are associated with what type of boundary? 

Divergent: earthquakes, small volcanic eruptions

Convergent: earthquakes, large volcanic eruptions

Transform: earthquakes  

What rock types are associated with continental and oceanic crust and how  does this effect their interaction at plate boundaries? 

Oceanic: Basalt  

Continental: Granite

Oceanic is less dense, consumed by the continental and melts  

How did sea-floor spreading and paleo magnetism help support the theory of  plate tectonics? Don't forget about the age old question of What are the concepts in the muslim tradition?

Sea floor spreading occurs when volcanic activity occurs and creates new crust at  the ridge, and the older crust moves away from the ridge. It helps explain  continental drift. Paleo magnetism occurs when rocks form and their crystals align  with the magnetic north at the time. When the new crust is formed, the crystals  align with magnetic north. Then they move away, and eventually new crust is  formed with a new magnetic north.

Major Concepts:

Wegener's hypothesis:  

Made 4 observations:

 1. Continents fit like puzzle pieces, Pangea

2. paleoclimate data, suggested land masses were moved

3. fossils distributed in uniform patterns from land animals (south America and  Africa)

4. rocks on coasts matched other coasts

Paleomagnetism 

Sea-floor spreading 

Magnetic reversals 

Paleomagnetism shows that the Earth’s polarity has reversed multiple times in the  last few million years. When reversed, the Earth is left with no magnetic shield

Plate tectonics 

Lithosphere vs asthenosphere 

Lithosphere: crust and upper portion of mantle (tectonic plates) Asthenosphere: lower mantle that allows the plates to move

Continental crust vs oceanic crust 

Plate boundary interaction 

Hot spots: 

A location at the base of the lithosphere, at the top of the mantle plume, where  temperatures can cause melting. Stays in the same place while the lithosphere  moves across it. (Hawaii, Yellowstone)

Ridge push and slab pull: 

Ridge Push: force that drives plates away from a mid ocean ridge

Slab pull: the force down going plates apply to oceanic lithosphere at a convergent  margin

Chapter 3

Learning Objectives:

What is a mineral and why are they important to understanding earth? 

Mineral: naturally occurring solid formed by geological processes, has a crystalline  structure, and a definable chemical composition. Must be inorganic. Minerals make  up all rocks and sediment on earth

What are the common physical properties used to identify minerals? 

Color, streak, hardness, cleavage, crystalline structure, amount of transparency  (diaphaneity), tenacity, magnetism, luster, odor, taste, specific gravity

How are minerals formed? 

Solidification of a melt, precipitation of a solution, solid-state diffusion,  Biomineralization, precipitation directly from a gas

The vast majority of rock forming minerals belong to what class? silicates

What are framework silicates and why are they important? 

Have a 3D framework of silicate tetrahedral with a 1:2 ratios. Comprises 75% of the  Earth’s crust

What are some of the most common silicates? 

Mafic, felsic, (light: feldspar group, quartz, muscovite, clay minerals) (dark: olivine,  pyroxene, amphibole, biotite)

Major Concepts:

Definition of a mineral 

Atomic structure and bonding types: 

Structure of atoms (protons and neutrons in nucleus, electrons orbit)

Bonding types:  

Ionic: loan electrons, fairly weak, metal and nonmetal

Covalent: nonmetals share electrons, strong attraction

Metallic: metal and metal, electrons move freely

Van der waals: very weak, neutral atoms and molecules arise due to  polarization  

Formation of minerals 

Physical properties used to identify minerals 

Mineral classes (focus on silicates): 

Mafic (simpler structure, dark colored, more Fe and Mg) Felsic (complex structure,  light colored)

Interlude A

Major Concepts:

Definition of a rock 

Coherent naturally occurring solid that consists of an aggregate of minerals or a  body of glass

Rock types 

Igneous: forms from molten material

Sedimentary: form from cementation or precipitation

Metamorphic: pre-existing rocks who have gone through extreme heat/pressure Tools to investigate rocks 

Rock hammer, hand lens, thin sections (thin slices of rock, polarized light)

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