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CSU / Political Science / POLS 1101 / trdr 1101 class notes

trdr 1101 class notes

trdr 1101 class notes

Description

School: Columbus State University
Department: Political Science
Course: American Government
Professor: Troy vidal
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: Free
Name: American Government Course Notes
Description: These notes should help you out with the upcoming quizzes and tests. They cover topics gone over in class according to lectures.
Uploaded: 01/30/2017
50 Pages 147 Views 0 Unlocks
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What is an Interest Group?




What is the impact of political culture?




What is Political Culture?



A New Order of the Ages? American Political Culture Reexamined *They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve  neither liberty nor safety –Benjamin Franklin, Historical Review of Pennsylvania *God helps them that help themselves –Benjamin Franklin, Maxims prefixed to Poor  Richard’s Almanac, 1757 *Early to bed and early to rise,We also discuss several other topics like planful decision making
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Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise –Benjamin  Franklin, Maxims prefixed to Poor Richard’s Almanac, 1757 I. What is Political Culture? a. Political Culture: “The characteristic, deep-seated beliefs of a particular people about government and politics” (Patterson, 5). b. “Political culture can best be understood in terms of the framework it  sets for individual and group political behavior—in the political  thoughts, attitudes, assumptions, and values of individuals and groups  and in the range of permissible or acceptable action that flows from  them” (Daniel Elazar, The American Mosaic, Ch. 1). II. What is the impact of political culture? a. Its influence lies in its power to set reasonably fixed limits on political  behavior b. Provides subconscious direction for political action in a given political  system, political society, and so forth. c. Sources of political culture include such variables as ethnicity, religion,  language and particular environmental experiences. d. Manifestations of political culture include such variables as political  attitudes, symbols, rituals, and governing styles (e.g., authoritarian vs.  majoritarian, elitism vs. pluralism, unitary centralized government vs  federalism and so forth). e. Effects of political culture include such as phenomenon as political  actions, formation, development of social institutions (marriage, the  market, slavery, etc.) and particular policies. III. Root source of America’s political culture: a. Greco-Roman republican traditions (Civic virtue/Excellence). b. Western European thought and practice: an orthodoxy of a semi secularized Protestant Christianity (Calvinistic ethic). c. The Enlightenment: 18th century social, political and philosophic  movement that advocated the use of Reaason in the reappraisal of  accepted ideas and social institutions—and the development of new  institution (to replace “traditional” institutions) built on the foundation  of Reason. d. Liberalism (Self-interest) IV. America’s Core Values: a. Liberalism: A political theory founded on the natural goodness of  human beings (as opposed to “original sin”) and the autonomy of the  individual as opposed to a collective/communal/community orientation. i. Tenets of Liberalism: 1. The recognition of substantial realm of individual freedom  (i.e. civil and political liberties):a. Freedom of Conscience b. Freedom of Speech c. Freedom of Association d. Freedom of Occupation 2. The recognition of the fundamental value of tolerance: a. Secularism b. Rights of the minority c. (Contemporary experience: Lifestyle choice) 3. Has attempted to construct a neutral social, political and  legal framework: a. A condition in which no particular “way of life” is  favored over all others b. No particular conception of the “good” (life) is  favored c. Protection from arbitrary authority i. Government by consent of the governed ii. Rule of law iii. “Negative” role of the state d. A minimal state to provide security, protect rights,  and allow individuals to be free to pursue the  unlimited acquisition of wealth, “self-realization”,  etc. 4. Individualism: Belief that the individual (as opposed to the collective) is the salient political unit. a. Liberty: freedom from external coercion,  compulsion, or interference in engaging in the  pursuits or conduct of one’s choice to the extent  that they are lawful and not harmful to others. i. Early American conception of liberty is  distinguished from license, or the  irresponsible use of individual liberty. b. Equality: The belief that all individuals are equal in  moral worth and value and are entitled to equal  treatment under the law c. Self-government: The belief the aggregate of free  and equal individuals, can establish and sanction a  form of government reflecting the will of “the  people.” 5. Pluralism: the belief that power is broadly (though  unequally) distributed among many more or less  organized interest groups (or “factions” in Madison’s  words) in society. a. Moreover, the groups compete with one another to  influence or control public policy (with some groups tending to dominate in one or two issue areas or  arenas of struggle while other groups and interest  tend to dominate in other issue areas or arenas of  struggle).b. In short, politics resembles a market-place of  competing values, in which conflict and  compromise characterize the shaping of public  policy. V. Other Ideals: a. Self-reliance and personal success (“bootstrap theory”): The belief that the individual is responsible for his/her own lot in life. b. Capitalism and the Free market: An Economic System in which the  factors/Relations of Production are Privately Owned or Determined: i. Market Economy: 1. Supply and Demand Determine Production, Prices, Wages, etc. 2. Hidden HandAmerican Government in Context *Our government is now taking so steady a course as to sow by what road it will  pass to destruction; to wit: by consolidation first and then corruption, its necessary  consequence 1. The Context of American Government: Politics, Power and Authority a. Government: the political direction and control exercised over the  actions of the members, citizens, or inhabitants of communities,  societies, and states. i. ME < OF gouverner < L gubernare to steer (a ship) < Gk  kybernan to steer b. Power: i. As the ability to influence and control others. ii. As the ability to get others to do what they would not otherwise  do without some degree of coercion. c. Authority: “Justified Power” i. The power to enforce laws, exact obedience, command,  determine, or judge. ii. Max Weber’s Authority “Types”: 1. Traditional 2. Charismatic 3. Legal-Rational d. Politics: i. As “who gets what, when and how” [from government]. ii. As the “authoritative allocation of values.” 1. Control over society’s public institutions. 2. The use and allocation of resources. 3. Specific public policies. 4. The general direction society should move. 2. Theories of Power and Politics: Majoritarianism, Pluralism, Elitism, and  Technocracy a. Majoritarianism: the will of the majority is reflected in the identification  of social problems, setting the public agenda, and the formulation of  public policy. b. Pluralism: the belief that power is broadly (though unequally)  distributed among many more or less organized interest groups (or  “factions” in Madison’s words) in society (see Lecture 1). c. IDEAL: i. Policy Makers ii. Group A: 1. Political power and skill a. Pressures Policy Makers iii. Group B: 1. Political power and skill a. Pressures Policy Makers d. REALITY: i. Policy Makersii. Group A: 1. Political power and skill a. Pressures policy makers iii. Group B: 1. Group B: a. Nothing iv. Example: NRA, Arguably Capitalism because of monopolies and  oligopolies, which represent the corruption of capitalism e. Elitism: the will of a small number of well-placed, highly-influential  individuals (or groups) is reflected in the identification of social  problems, setting the public agenda, and the formulation of public  policy. i. Elites – “robber barons” like Carnegie, steel industry, coal  industry, railroad industry, standard oil (Rockefeller) ii. Posits the notion that policy-making/policy-executing elite  operates in a political environment characterized by apathy (or  perhaps diversion—TV) and information distortion. iii. Hence, elites govern a largely passive and uniformed mass. iv. Policy flows downward from elite to masses v. Society is divided according to those who have power and those  who do not. vi. Elites share common values that differentiate themselves from  the masses. f. Bureaucratic Rule (Technocracy): rule by a bureaucratic elite with  “expertise” within a given policy area. i. Bureaucratic expertise ii. Administrative discretion iii. Neutral competency iv. Politics/Administration DichotomyLecture 12 – The Presidency I. The Presidency: An Overview a. The presidency is more than just a single person, it is a complex office. b. It is the only office at any level of government in this country that is  elected nationally. c. The Founding Fathers, concerned with the concentration of a log of  power in a single office, intended to keep the executive branch weak  and place most of the authority of the new government in the  legislature (Congress). d. To be effective the president must rely on his powers to persuade  Congress to go along with his programs. II. Constitutional Provisions a. Article II establishes the office and states that the “executive Power  shall be vested in a President of the United States of America,” and  establishes that the term of the president shall be four years. b. It did not initially set any term limits on how long a person may  continue to serve as president. i. George Washington established precedent when he stepped  down as president after two terms in office. ii. No president ever served more than two terms until Franklin  Roosevelt was elected to four terms from the 1930s to the  1940s. iii. As a result of President Roosevelt serving for more than two  terms, a constitutional amendment (the 22nd Amendment) was  adopted in 1951. c. The Constitution lays out the basic requirements that on must have in  order to become president: i. Must be 35 years of age ii. A natural born U.S. citizen iii. A resident of the United States for at least 14 years d. The Constitution then lays out specific powers that are granted to the  president: i. Commander in Chief of armed forces (remember, this does not  give him the ability to declare war, only Congress can do that; it  does allow him to commit troops to military actions) ii. Negotiate treaties with other nations-subject to confirmation by  a 2/3’s vote of the U.S. Senate iii. Nominate foreign ambassadors, subject to confirmation by a  simple majority of the Senate iv. Nominate federal judges, subject to confirm by a simple majority of the Senate v. Receive ambassadors of other nations (important because it  confers diplomatic recognition of other governments) vi. May grant g=pardons for federal crimes (excepts  impeachments) vii. Present to Congress “from time to time” information on the  States of the Union viii. Convene both Houses of Congress on extraordinary occasionsix. Adjourn Congress if both the House and the Senate cannot agree on adjournment x. Nominate officials as provided for by Congress (when new posts  are created because Congress creates a new department or  agency, the president is allowed to name the head of that post)  subject to confirmation by a simple majority of the Senate xi. Fill administrative vacancies during Congressional recesses III. Foundations of the Contemporary Presidency a. U.S. Constitution: i. Vests “executive power” in the president – i.e., to faithfully  execute the laws enacted by Congress, ii. To appoint administrative officials. iii. Provisions the president with limited legislative authority – e.g.,  veto power and executive orders. iv. Empowers the president to act as diplomatic leader – e.g.,  appoint ambassadors and negotiate treaties. b. The office of the president, however, has gained considerable power  and authority. c. Over the course of American history, the president’s powers have been extended in practice beyond the intentions of the Founding Fathers. i. Though only Congress can declare war, presidents have made  war by sending troops into military actions. ii. U.S. diplomacy and using executive agreements as a device to  bypass the Senate’s formal treaty making authority – e.g., use of the State Dept. and the Secretary of State to negotiate peace  international agreements, negotiations, etc. iii. The power to execute laws enables presidents to determine how  laws will be interpreted and applied – e.g.; “signing statements.” iv. Executive Orders v. Presidents possess legislative authority not only to use the veto  but also to recommend proposals to Congress. vi. For all these reasons, a more activist presidency has evolved  during IV. K V. Staffing the Presidency a. PRESIDENTIAL APPOINTEES i. The Executive Office of the President is the nucleus of the  president’s command center and includes: 1. White House Office 2. National Security Council (NSC) 3. Council of Economic Advisers 4. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 5. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. 6. (See below) ii. The Vice-President has no separate constitutional authority and  is assigned duties by the president. iii. The White House Office offers the most direct and personal  assistance to the president. It consists of the president’s  personal assistants, including1. Close personal advisers (e.g., Karl Rove) 2. Press agents, legislative and group liaison aides. 3. Special assistants for domestic and international policy –  policy experts in the Executive Office of the President  include economists, legal analysts and national VI. Factors in Presidential Leadership a. Honeymoon period: A period in which newly elected presidents  experience more support and are more likely to submit new policy  initiatives. b. Rally Effect c. Divided Government a situation in which one party controls the White  House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress. d. K e. K f. K g. Impeachment: Congress has the authority to impeach and remove a  president from office. i. In this process the House decides through hearing if the  president should be tried for stated offenses (i.e., a grand jury  role). ii. The Senate conducts the trial and votes on the president’s guilt  and possible removal from office. h. Congressional Oversight: The ability to curb presidential power  including: i. Holding hearings on alleged abuses of power. ii. Passing legislation designed to curb an objectionable practice  indulged in by the president. i. Positive public support: presidential approval ratings in the polls  improve a president’s ability to exercise leadership and achieve policy  goals. Factors that affect public support for the president include: i. National and international events and issues, ii. Health of the economy, iii. Skillful use of the media, especially television, and an ability to  deflect media criticism.Lecture 10 – Interest Groups *It is by the goodness of God that in our country we have those three unspeakably  precious things: freedom of speech, freedom of conscience, and the prudence never to practice either of them. – Mark Twain I. Context of Interest group Politics a. Pluralist theory of American politics holds that society’s interests (i.e.,  the “common good”) are best represented through the efforts of  groups. b. Nevertheless, “special interests” can wield too much power, wrongly  prevailing over the common good. II. What is an Interest Group? a. Interest Group: A group of people who share common traits, attitudes,  beliefs, and/or objectives who have formed a formal organization to  serve specific common interest of the membership. b. A group of people who organize to promote a shared political interest. i. AKA: “faction” or “pressure group” or “special interest” ii. “Vested interest”: is indicative of a group benefiting from the  status quo and seeks to maintain such a benefit. c. An interest group is characterized by its formalized organization and by its pursuit of policy goals that stem from its members’ shared interest. d. Goals of interest groups: i. Promote public policies. ii. Encourage the political participation of their members, iii. Support candidates for public office iv. Work to influence lawmakers and policymakers – lobbying. III. Political Interest Groups a. Groups that try to influence public officials in order to gain favorable  policy outcomes. b. Interest groups differ from political parties in the following respects: i. The focus of parties is broad, encompassing many interests,  while the focus of a groups is narrow, generally comprising just  one interest. ii. Parties attempt to gain power by running candidates in elections while groups merely try to influence officeholders-i.e. gain  access. iii. Parties must appeal to voters for support while groups may work entirely behind the scenes. IV. Types of Interest Groups a. Interest groups are usually classified into two distinct types of groups: i. Economic groups-promotion of “private goods” and “material  incentives”: 1. Business groups 2. Labor groups 3. Agricultural groups 4. Professional groups ii. Citizens’ groups-promotion of collective or public goods: 1. Public interest groups 2. Single-Issue Groups3. Ideological groups b. Four general rules of interest-group formation: i. Economic groups are more likely to be better organized than  citizen’s groups ii. People with more education and income are more likely to join  than are people with less income and education iii. Individuals who join Citizens groups out of personal involvement  (as opposed to economic stake) tend to feel very strongly about  the particular issue that is the group’s reason for existence. iv. “Free-rider” problem with collective or public goods. V. Impact on the Political Process a. Interest groups attempt to persuade both the general public and  individual government officials to take a particular point of view on  specific policy issues. In doing so they perform important functions in  the political process: i. They furnish information to officeholders in all branches of  government ii. They politicize and inform members of their groups as well as  the general public. iii. They mediate conflict within their groups iv. They engage in “electioneering,” especially in the form of raising and the distribution of campaign contributions to political  candidates. v. They help to form public opinion by disseminating information  supporting their own policy stands to citizens VI. Functions of Interest Groups a. Interest groups are involved in a broad range of activities: i. Interest groups enhance democratic government, such as 1. Providing information. 2. Get people involved in politics 3. Contribute to the debate about issues. ii. Electioneering through supporting candidates for public office. iii. Political Action Committees (PAC) – a committee formed by an  interest group for the purpose of collecting and distributing  contributions to selected political candidates and causes. iv. Lobbying – an attempt to influence policy makers face-to-face. 1. Lobbyists are individuals who are hired by specific interest groups to directly work with policy makers (inside  lobbying) in order to gain favorable legislation or policy  outcomes. 2. Making direct contact with legislators is the best lobbying  technique-i.e. gaining access. 3. Generate public support to pressure policymakers  (outside lobbying).Lecture 5 Lecture: Capitalism and American Public Policy I. Capitalism an essential element of the American political culture. II. Capitalism and the Free market: An Economic System in which the Factors of  production are Privately Owned: a. “Modern” Market Economy—Key Assumptions: i. Supply and Demand Determine Production, Prices, Wages, etc. ii. “Hidden hand” of the market (as opposed to the “visible hand”  of the state, Church, etc.) iii. The market always knows best. b. Decentralized Decision-making i. Individual choice ii. Means of Production Privately Owned iii. Relations of production are privately determined iv. Limited government regulation III. Karl Polanyi’s The Great Transformation (1944) IV. Review of Key Assumptions (Polanyi): a. Liberal theorist posits a self-regulated economic system: i. All transactions, including political and social interactions, are  subject to the natural workings of the market. b. Market-economy developed organically due to man’s natural  propensity to “barter and truck” (i.e., for personal material “gain”) c. Organizes the whole of economic life without outside interference d. Older conceptions posited that economic relations were subordinate to  the prevailing social order (i.e., society determined what the economy  would be like). i. The liberal order: Market relations subordinate social relations to the workings of the market (i.e., the market economy  determines what society will be like). e. Unprecedented nature i. Western world (bourgeois society) ii. Recent phenomenon iii. Restructures all of society: i.e., it tends to “subordinate the  substance of society itself to the laws of the market.” 1. People (e.g., “social Darwinism”) 2. Land 3. Social relations/dislocations f. Critique—a highly ethnocentric and academically flaws analysis of  human economies. i. The state was essential in pushing free-market policies through —at the resistance of society, hence not a free or natural as its  proponents claim. ii. “Market-economy” as the prevailing economic paradigm has  resulted in severe social disruptions, the lowering of the sights of politics and the value of the human individual, and opened the  door nihilism and moral relativism. iii. A highly utopian vision of human progress: “Born as a mere  penchant for non-bureaucratic methods” the market economy “evolved into a veritable faith in man’s secular salvation through a self-regulating market” (135)— V. FDR’s “Commonwealth Club Address” VI. Modernization Theory (a la Rostow): a. Posits that a number of key variables (determinants) are responsible  for economic development and sustained economic, social and political growth. b. Distinguishes between “modern” and “traditional” societies. i. Traditional -> Pre-conditions -> take-off -> Maturity -> Mass consumption. c. Key variables: i. Structural adjustments (“Shock Therapy”) and the “product  cycle” ii. Industrialization iii. Social mobilization-more complex and diverse occupational  structures. iv. Urbanization v. Education/literacy vi. Wealth creation d. The Western Model of Development e. Role of State: i. National Defense ii. Public Works iii. Legal and Police System f. Benefits: i. Use of Knowledge in Society ii. Innovation (Schumpeter’s “Creative Destruction”) iii. Efficiency iv. Individual Liberty/Freedom g. Problems: i. The Business Cycle—“Boom and Bust” ii. Social Costs VII. Friedman   Lecture: Capitalism and American Politics I. Capitalism an essential element of the American political culture. II. Capitalism and the Free market: An Economic System in which the Factors of Production are Privately Owned : ∙ “Modern” Market Economy—Key Assumptions: o Supply and Demand Determine Production, Prices, Wages, etc.  o “Hidden hand” of the market (as opposed to the “visible hand” of the state,  Church, etc.) o The market always knows best. ∙ Decentralized Decision­making o Individual choice o Means of Production Privately Owned o Relations of production are privately determined o Limited government regulation  III. Karl Polanyi’s The Great Transformation (1944) ∙ Review of Key Assumptions (Polanyi):  o Liberal theorist posits a self­regulated economic system : o All transactions, including political and social interactions, are subject to  the natural workings of the market. o Market­economy developed organically due to man’s natural propensity to  “barter and truck” (i.e., for personal material “gain”) o Organizes the whole of economic life without outside interference  o Older conceptions posited that economic relations were subordinate to  the prevailing social order (i.e., society determined what the economy  would be like). o The liberal order: Market relations subordinate social relations to the  workings of the market (i.e., the market economy determines what  society will be like). o Unprecedented nature o Western world (bourgeois society) o Restructures all of society: i.e., it tends to “subordinate the substance of  society itself to the laws of the market.” 1∙ people (e.g., “Social Darwinism”) ∙ land ∙ social relations/dislocations ∙ Critique—A highly ethnocentric and academically flawed analysis of human  economies. o The state was essential in pushing free­market policies through—at the  resistance` of society, hence not a free or natural as its proponents claim. o “Market­economy” as the prevailing economic paradigm has resulted in severe  social disruptions, the lowering of the sights of politics and the value of the  human individual, and opened the door nihilism and moral relativism. o A highly utopian vision of human progress: "Born as a mere penchant for non bureaucratic methods” the market economy “evolved into a veritable faith in  man's secular salvation through a self­regulating market" (135)— IV. FDR’s “Commonwealth Club Address” V. Modernization Theory (a la Rostow): ∙ Posits that a number of key variables (determinants) are responsible for economic  development and sustained economic, social, and political growth. ∙ Distinguishes between “modern” and “traditional” societies. o Traditional  Pre­conditions  Take­off  Maturity  Mass consumption. o Key variables:  Structural adjustments and the “product cycle”  Industrialization  Social mobilization—more complex and diverse occupational structures.  Urbanization  Education/literacy  Wealth creation ∙ The Western Model of Development ∙ Role of State:  o National Defense  o Public Works  o Legal and Police System 2∙ Benefits:  o Use of Knowledge in Society  o Innovation (Schumpeter’s “Creative Destruction”) o Efficiency  o Individual Liberty/Freedom  ∙ Problems:  o The Business Cycle—“Boom and Bust”  o Social Costs VI. Friedman 3U.S. Judiciary I. Introduction a. Three key points about court decisions. i. First, the judiciary is an extremely important policymaking body: 1. Some of its ulings are as consequential as nearly any law  passed by Congress or any executive action taken by the  president. 2. Second, federal courts have considerable discretion in  their rulings: a. Such discretion can go beyond the literal reading of the law and include the justices’ own interpretation  of the Constitution. 3. Third, the udiciary is a political as well as a legal  institution (as illustrated by conflicts surrounding recent  Supreme Court nominations). a. Once a law is established, it is expected to be  administered in an evenhanded way; b. However, the law itself is a product of contending  political forces, is developed through a political  process, has political content and is applied by  political appointees II. Federal Judicial System a. Article II of the Constitution of the United States. i. Federal judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate to serve terms of life or good behavior. ii. The Constitution places no age, residency or citizenship  qualifications on federal justices. iii. The primary function of the judiciary is to interpret the law in  such a way that rues made in the past can be applied  reasonably in the present. b. Judicial Review i. Marbury vs. Madison (1803) III. Federal Court Appointees a. Supreme Court justices and federal judges are nominated by the  president and confirmed by the Senate. b. Presidents prefer to nominate justices who share their own political and ideological beliefs. c. Nearly 80 percent of presidential nominees are approved by the  Senate. d. Partisan backgrounds of judges are a significant influence on their  decisions, but all judicial decision-making may not reflect partisan  differences. e. Prior judicial experience has become an important criterion for recent  judicial appointments. IV. The Supreme Court’s Jurisdiction a. Original jurisdiction: exclusive jurisdiction over cases involving  diplomats and other foreign officials and an ability to hear cases  involving disputes between states.b. Appellate jurisdiction reviewing most decisions of the federal courts as  well as the decisions of state courts involving questions of federal  constitutional or statutory law V. Judicial “opinions” include the reasons behind the decision: a. Majority opinion (a majority of justices agree; their opinion is binding); b. Concurring opinion (a separate view written by a justice who agrees  with the majority but for different reasons); c. Dissenting opinion (disagrees with the majority opinion). VI. A key element of the Supreme Court’s influence is its ability to set legal  precedents that guide lower courts. a. A precedent is a judicial decision that serves as a rule for settling  subsequent cases of a similar nature. i. Stare decisis: legal principle by which judges are obliged to  respect the precedents established by prior decisions. ii. Common law tradition–judge-made law. b. The court hears cases involving violates of the U.S. Constitution,  federal  VII. U.S. Judicial District a. The United States district courts are the trial courts of the federal court system. b. Within limits set by Congress and the Constitution, the district courts  have jurisdiction to hear nearly all categories of federal cases,  including both civil and and criminal matters. c. There are 94 federal judicial districts, including at least one district in  each state, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Three territories  of the United States – the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern  Mariana Islands – have district courts that hear federal cases, including bankruptcy cases. VIII. U.S. Courts of Appeals a. Cases are appealed from the district courts to the federal courts of  appeals that make up the second level of the federal court system. b. They review trial-court decisions and correct what they consider to be  legal errors c. “…”…..its circuit, as well as appeals from decisions of federal  administrative agencies. IX. Jurisprudence a. There are two schools of thought regarding how far the judiciary should go in asserting its authority over that of state legislatures, Congress  and the presidency. i. Judicial restraint holds that the judiciary should respect  precedent and defer to the judgement of legislatures. 1. The judges’ role is to discover the application of  legislation and precedent to specific cases rather than to  search for new principles that alter the meaning of a law. 2. Advocates of judicial restraint contend that when the  judiciary assumes policy functions that traditionally  belong to elected institutions, it undermines the  fundamental premise of self-government.3. Secondly, judicial self-restraint is supported because it  preserves the public support that is essential to the long term authority of the courts. It often upholds the status  quo. ii. Judicial activism suggests that the courts take a generous view  of judicial power and involve themselves extensively in  interpreting and enlarging upon the law. 1. Liberal activists make decisions that attempt to further  social justice while conservative activists restrict  governmental intervention in the economy and restrict  application of due process to protect the accused. iii. The proper role of the judiciary often hinges on value judgments  regarding the conflicting concepts of majority rule and  protecting individual rights and minority interests. iv.The U.S. Congress *”The government you elect is government you deserve.” – Thomas Jefferson I. Article I. II. The First Rule of Congress-Get Reelected? a. Catering to the constituency-i.e., the body of voters or the residents of  a district represented by an elected legislator or official. i. Park-barrel projects: is a disparaging term describing  government spending that is intended to benefit the  constituents of an incumbent in return for their political support,  either in the form of campaign contributions or votes. ii. Service strategy: the use of personal staff by members of  Congress to perform services for constituents in order to their  gain political support. iii. Franking privilege: privilege granted to certain elected officials  to send mail for free. III. Reelection Rates: a. U.S. House of Representatives: 97% b. U.S. Senate: 89% IV. Congressional Campaign Expenditures – (pg. 370) a. Open-seat election – engenders a highly contested between candidates from both parties and involves heavy spending. V. Pitfalls of Incumbency a. Personal Misconduct i. Corruption (e.g. Tom Delay, “Duke” Cunningham, etc.) ii. Mark Foley, Larry Craig. iii. George Allen iv. Monica Lewinski et. al. v. Anthony Wiener, Elliott Spitzer…. b. Troublesome Issues i. Iraq ii. Katrina iii. Illegal immigration iv. The economy c. Turnout Variation: The midterm Election Problem d. Strong Challenger: A Problem for Senators e. Redistricting: A Problem for House Members i. Reapportionment ii. Redistricting iii. Gerrymandering VI. Congressional Leadership a. Party caucus: Group of party members (i.e., Democrat or Republican)  in the House and Senate that elects party leaders, establishes policy  goals b. Party leaders: “represent the party’s interests in the chamber and give  direction to the party’s goals.” c. Congressional Committees—“Little Legislatures”: d. Most legislative and oversight work is done in committees. e. Types of committees:i. Standing committees—a permanent committee charged with  developing legislation and practicing oversight in a particular  policy area. 1. House: 19 standing committees 2. Senate: 16 standing committees 3. Standing committees have legislative authority in that  they draft and revise proposed legislation. 4. Staff-help draft legislation, research, organize hearings,  etc. 5. Exercise oversight ii. Select committees-are created to perform specific tasks. iii. Joint committee-comprised of members of both chambers of  Congress in order to reach a compromise on their differences  concerning a particular issue. iv. Conference Committee-a joint committee that is appointed to  hold a conference on differing versions of a bill. VII. Functions of Congress a. Representation function- the responsibility of Congress to represent the various constituents and interests comprising the United States (a  balance of national and local interests). b. Lawmaking function—U.S. Constitution’s (Article I) prescribes the  necessary authority to make laws vital for the functioning of the  national government. c. Oversight function-the supervisory function of Congress established on  its constitutional obligation to ensure that the executive branch  faithfully implements legislation and spends public funds properly. d.Lecture 13: Bureaucracy I. KEY TERMS: a. Bureaucratic/Administrative/Managerial Expertise b. Delegated Authority c. Administrative Discretion d. Politics-Administration Dichotomy e. Neutral Competence f. Political Accountability? g. Constitutionality h. Markets or Government? i. Reinventing Government (Row or Steer?) j. Agency Capture k. Iron Law of Oligarchy l. Technocracy m. The “Revolving Door” II. WHAT IS BUREAUCRACY? a. Max Weber: an “ideal type” of social system that legitimizes legal rational authority, typified by rational and effective organization. b. Essential for complex society III. ELEMENTS OF BUREAUCRACY: a. Rules and Regulations (determine internal and external behavior) b. Hierarchy (determines superior-subordinate relations) i. Chain of Command ii. Unity of Command (subordinates report to one supervisor) iii. Span of Control (extent to which a supervisor can exercise  control over individuals or administrative units in an effective  manner) iv. Division of Labor/Specialization c. Merit-based hiring and promotion (e.g. bureaucratic expertise) d. Goal Orientation e. Filing systems and Institutional memoryChapter 8 – Political Parties, Candidates, and Campaigns “If I could not go to heaven but with a [political] part, I would not go there at all – Thomas Jefferson I. What is a Political Party? a. Political party: An organized group that has as its fundamental aim the  attainment of political power and public office for its designated  leaders. b. Political parties advance a common commitment by its leaders and its  membership to a set of political, economic and/or socio-cultural values  that distinguish it from other political parties. c. Moreover, a party’s agenda or platform ostensibly provides the basis  for the policies the party proposes to implement or maintain through  its members who obtain public office. i. Party platform: the statement of beliefs and program of action  that a political party proposes to pursue. ii. Typically issued at the party’s national convention. d. A political party differs from an “interest group” in that an interest  group is primarily interested in influencing whatever government  officials actually happen to be in office rather than in attaining office  for its own leaders. i. Accordingly, interest groups do not normally put forward  candidates for public office under their own name-although they  may sometimes endorse particular candidates put forward by  party organizations. e. A political party is the one institution that aims to develop broad policy  and leadership choices and then present them to the electorate to  accept or reject. f. Because our political system is dominated by two political parties, they must appeal to a wide range of people across many interest in order to place their candidates in office. II. Party Competition and Majority Rule a. Party politics (party competition): In electing a party, voters choose its  candidates, its values and its policies over those of the opposing party. b. Party competition in American today takes place primarily between the Democratic and Republic parties. c. Durability of the two parties is due not to the ideological consistency  but to their remarkable utility to adapt during periods of crisis and  remake themselves with new bases of support, new policies and new  public philosophies. d. Party coalition: The various groups and interests that support a political party. i. Democrats: minorities (esp. Hispanics and African-Americans),  Catholics, urban areas, working class, labor unions,  environmental groups, etc.ii. Republicans: business interests, upper-class, wealthy, moral  values voters, rural areas, etc. III. Political Realignment and De-alignment a. Political Realignment: A significant change in the party affiliation of the electorate particularly within a geographic region (e.g., the South),  groups (e.g., African-Americans), etc. i. Realignment results in an enduring change in party coalitions  that forces the government to take new policy directions. b. De-alignment: rather than undergoing a realignment favorable to one  party, has been in the process of moving a partial but enduring  number of voters away from partisan loyalties-toward an  “independent” orientation. IV. Campaigns a. Campaign – the period of time before voting day begins when  candidates attempt to influence potential voters to support them. i. Successful candidates follow two simple rules of campaigning: 1. Get your name recognized in a popular way 2. Keep your arguments simple and emotional ii. Campaign resources – two primary resources: people and  money. iii. People are comprised of professionals and volunteers. 1. Professionals plan, organize, manage, write speeches, and raise money. 2. Volunteers distribute literature, register and canvass  voters, and get supporters to the polls. iv. Publicly funded campaigns – financing comes from a central pool that is share equally by all candidates. The U.S. is one of few  democracies that does not use this method of campaign  funding. b. Primary – an election held within a party to nominate candidates to the general election or to choose delegates to a presidential nominating  convention. States hold their primaries in the spring of general election years. i. Types of Primaries: 1. Open primary – any registered voter may participates in  any party’s primary. 2. Closed primary – only registered members of a party may  participate in that party’s primary. In the past most states  had this type of primary. ii.Extra Credit Assignment: OPTION 2 (Note: You May Only Do ONE Extra­credit) Note: This assignment in OPTIONAL. READ INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLLY: Length should be between 5­7 pages (worth up to 5 pts toward your final grade).   Be sure to: (1) answer all parts of the assignment; (2) If it is clear to me that you did not read the articles,  essays or view the video or if you merely engaged in a “cutting and pasting” project, you will not receive  credit. Due: Last week of class. Papers should be double­spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), on white paper with  standard margins.  Papers should include an introduction, a body and a conclusion.   Academic integrity will be strictly enforced.  Students are expected to produce their own work,  synthesizing the material into a logical and coherent argument.  Please keep quotations to a minimum.   Remember, plagiarism is the presentation of another’s work as ones own.  Plagiarism includes the failure to indicate that written material is quoted from a published source and also the failure to indicate the source of paraphrased material, as well as submitting unpublished work written by another as ones own. Any  academic misconduct will result in an failing grade (F) for the course.  Assignment: 1. In the two assigned essays by Robert Bellah, what does he mean by the “crisis of civic membership”?  What is his (and Tocqueville’s) concern when individualism and it’s “tendency grows”? What is his  concern of “thinking about individuals as sovereign states”? 2. In “It’s a Flat World, After All,” Thomas L. Friedman posits that the world is undergoing a profound  transformation involving a number of significant factors—a transformation that is in fact leveling the  “playing field” in economic terms, or “flattening” the world in geo­political terms.  Globalization is the phenomena driving much of this change. What are the various “versions” of globalization that Friedman refers to? ∙ Who are the key “actors” in each version? ∙ What are the touted “goals” of each version? ∙ What are the world flatteners that Friedman refers to? What is the “quiet crisis” that Friedman addresses and how does this affect American political society? ∙ What is the ambition gap? ∙ What is the numbers gap? ∙ What is the education gap? 3. Watch and read the Frontline video “Digital Nation” and Chronicle of Higher Education article  “Taking  Notes by Hand Benefits Recall” (links below): Most would argue that technology represent progress and  making our lives better. Others have a  different view. Is multitasking making our lives more efficient or is it “dumbing down” the American  mind? What is the digital transformation of modern life doing to the human mind and society? Give  some specific examples, good or bad, of the effects this transformation is having on our society today. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/digitalnation/view/ http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/taking­notes­by­hand­benefits­recall­researchers­find/514114. What might your generation, the future leaders of our political community, do to address some of the  concerns expressed by Bellah, Friedman the producers of the videos and the Chronicle?Federalist 10 and the U.S. Constitution: Madison’s Bridging of Classical and Modern  Political Thought. *What is government itself but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If  men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern  men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. --James Madison, Federalist 47 I. America’s Political Heritage: Classical Republicanism and Liberalism a. Two Regime Types: The Classical Republic and the Modern, Liberal  State b. Classical Republicanism: i. The Salient political unit: The political community (e.g., the  polis). 1. Ideally, just large enough so as to allow the full  participation in public decision by its qualified citizens. ii. A politics of excellence: summum bonnum. iii. Classical Anthropology: teleological-spiritual 1. Life has intrinsic meaning and purpose. iv. Imperative that citizens share in self-government 1. Deliberating over the “common good” and the destiny of  the political community (i.g., articulating “first  principles”). v. Requires Citizen’s Knowledge of Public Affairs (i.g., an “alert and  knowledgeable citizenry”). vi. Attempts to engenders a sense of belonging to a community  larger than one’s self: 1. Concern for the whole political community (no simply  one’s private affairs). 2. A moral bond within the community, a fate in which all  have a stake. 3. Self-government requires that citizen possess or come to  acquire certain qualities of character, or “civic virtue.” vii. Freedom: requires a formative politics or the “positive” role of  the state—that is, a political culture that cultivates in its citizens  certain qualities or a requisite character conducive to self government. c. The Modern, Liberal State: i. The salient political unit: the autonomous individual. ii. Attempts the construction of a neutral social economic, political,  and legal framework: 1. Neutral toward the religious or moral values of its citizens. 2. Engenders a condition in which no particular “way of life”  is favored over any others. 3. No particular conception of the “good” (life) is favored. 4. Protection from arbitrary authority: a. Government by consent of the governedb. Rule of law iii. A politics of self-interest (e.g., Hobbe’s summum malum) iv. Modern Anthropology: mechanistic-materialist 1. Life has no intrinsic meaning or purpose apart from the  unfolding of the physical laws governing the universe. v. “Negative” role of the state—state exists merely to protect  fundamental rights. vi. Freedom: Negatively conceived – i.e., the absence of coercion in  the individual’s “private sphere” of thought and action. vii. Limited Government: to provide security protect rights, and  allow individuals to be free to pursue the unlimited acquisition of wealth, self-realization,” etc., all within a minimum framework of law. II. Madison’s Federalist 10: Bridging the Pre-Modern and the Modern a. Madison’s Modern Scientific Approach: Concern is with the social basis  of American Politics (e.g., beyond “first principles” of government,  towards a more pragmatic understanding of human behavior-all the  while attempting to secure the benefits of republicanism). b. Focus is on “factions”—i.e., special interest which are generally  opposed to, or out of sync with the public good. c. Factions detrimental to the “animating spirit” of a republic. d. How do we limit the negative consequences of factions while at the  same time maintaining limited government, while at the same time  enjoying a republican for of government? III. Construction of the American Political System: One System Two Regimes a. Pluralism (or interest-group politics): Containing Factionalism i. Federalist 10: A republic so diverse and the number of factions  so large that it is impossible for one faction to dominate the rest. b. Federalism-a system of government in which sovereignty and power is  divided between a central authority and constituent political units. i. Diluting the detriment effects of factions: spread factions across  the national, regional, state and local levels. c. The crucial argument of the Federalist Papers: the need for a federal  republic comprised of the separate sovereignties of the individual state so that the United State could be extensive in territory and enjoy the  good fortunes of republican institutions as well. IV. Madisonian Federalism’s Enlightenment Roots: Self-Regulated Society a. Self-Regulated Balance of Society (e.g., Lockean “natural harmony”) i. Correlates with Newtonian Laws (popular at the time for  understanding all aspects of physical and social phenomenon) ii. Mechanistic-materialist worldview iii. Self-interest the organizing principle—of both individuals and  groups. b. Self-regulated government i. Separation of powers: Institutional balance-e.g., legislative,  executive and judicial ii. Pluralism: pluralistic balance of values-interest groups, factions,  etc. iii. Federalism: Jurisdictional balance-e.g., federal vs. statec. Self-regulated Economy i. The free-market 1. Can make or break governments V. Federalism Rightly Understood: a. Federalism: a system of government in which sovereignty and power is divided between a “national” government and various sub-national  governments. i. Sovereignty: supreme and independent authority in government  as possessed or claimed by a state or political community. b. Unitary System: a system of government in which sovereignty is  vested in a national government. c. Why Federalism? i. Laboratory of democracy ii. Protection of individual rights iii. Moderating the power of government iv. Effective government VI. Powers of the National Government-“in Order to form a more perfect  Union, establish justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for he  common defense, promote the general Welfare, and Secure the Blessings  of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity… (Article I, sect 8): a. Enumerated (Expressed) Powers: i. National defense (exhaustive list) ii. To declare war iii. Regulate commerce iv. Create national currency and regulate its value v. Establish weights and measure vi. To borrow money vii. Power to tax, impose duties, tariffs, etc. viii. Rules of naturalization ix. Rules of bankruptcy x. Establish Post Offices xi. Promote the “Progress of Science and useful Arts” via patents xii. Establish lesser courts xiii. Punish violations on the high seas b. “Supremacy Clause” (Article VI): U.S. Constitution as supreme law of  the land. c. Implied Powers i. “Necessary and Proper Clause” (Article I sect. 8): the power to  make all laws which are deemed “Necessary and proper for  carrying into execution the forgoing [i.e., enumerated) powers.” VII. Concurrent powers a. National powers i. National defense ii. Currency iii. Post office iv. Foreign affairs v. Interstate commerce b. State powers i. Charter ___ goodsii. Education iii. Public safety iv. Registration & voting v. Interstate commerce vi. 1. National Industrial Recovery act (NIRA) 2. Works Project Administration (WPA) 3. Civilian Conservation Corps 4. National Labor Relations Act (1935) 5. Social Security Act (1935) 6. Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) 7. Keynesian Economic” – Demand-Side Economics vii. Constitutional crisis viii. In-between socialism and corporatism/fascism (balancing labor  and industry) ix. Federal (national) government takes on greater role x. Increase in Executive Office power in relation to the legislature c. Creative Federalism (“Great Society” to Nixon) i. He Golden Era of the American Middle Class ii. More active role of govt. to achieve social objectives iii. Grants-In-Aid to states to achieve goals iv. Funded mandates (“strings attached”) v. Continued growth in bureaucracy vi. Monarchy or republic? Republic, if you can keep it. Supreme court justice nominated by president and confirmed by senateFrontline - The Persuaders “Clutter Crisis” Notes Consumers are like roaches – you spray them over and over and eventually they get used to it. Brand Managers try to create a meaning for consumers. They have reshaped  society to be highly materialistic. Advertisers try to fill a “spiritual void” for people with consumption. Advertisers try  to make consumers feel like buying their product brings moral value. Clotaire Rapaille [Ruh-PAI] believes that consumers think they have a want and  need for products.“It’s a Flat World, After All”—Thomas L. Friedman I. What is Globalization? a. Globalization is the process of “globalism.” b. A multifaceted unfolding of economic, social, technological, cultural  and political changes taking place across the globe, c. Globalism, it is argued, results in the increasing interdependence,  integration and interaction between peoples, governments and private  firms in disparate locations. d. Globalization is predicated in great part on economic, trade and  financial “liberalization.” i. Liberalization: The process of reducing government controls and  regulation of trade, finance, and so forth, and the movement  towards a market economy. II. Quiet Crisis a. Education gap b. Numbers gap c. Ambition gap0Lecture 1: A New Order of the Ages? American Political Culture Reexamined They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety          ­­Benjamin Franklin, Historical Review of Pennsylvania God helps them that help themselves        ­­Benjamin Franklin, Maxims prefixed to Poor Richard’s Almanac, 1757 Early to bed and early to rise, Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise ­­Benjamin Franklin, Maxims prefixed to Poor Richard’s Almanac, 1757 I. What is Political Culture? ∙ Political culture: “the characteristic, deep­seated beliefs of a particular people about  government and politics” (Patterson, 5). ∙ “Political culture can best be understood in terms of the framework it sets for  individual and group political behavior—in the political thoughts, attitudes,  assumptions, and values of individuals and groups and in the range of permissible or  acceptable action that flows from them” (Daniel Elazar, The American Mosaic, ch.  1). II. What is the impact of political culture?1 ∙ Its influence lies in its power to set reasonably fixed limits on political behavior  ∙ Provides subconscious direction for political action in a given political system,  political society, and so forth. ∙ Sources of political culture include such variables as ethnicity, religion, language and particular environmental experiences. ∙ Manifestations of political culture include such variables as political attitudes,  symbols, rituals, and governing styles (e.g., authoritarian vs. majoritarian, elitism vs.  pluralism, unitary, centralized government vs. federalism, and so forth).  ∙ Effects of political culture include such as phenomenon as political actions,  formation, development of social institutions (marriage, the market, slavery, etc.) and particular policies. 1 Source: Daniel Elazar, The American Mosaic, ch. 1. 1III. Root source of America’s political culture: ∙ Greco­Roman republican traditions (Civic virtue). ∙ Western European thought and practice: an orthodoxy of a semi­secularized  Protestant Christianity (Calvinistic ethic).  ∙ The Enlightenment: 18th century social, political and philosophic movement  that advocated the use of Reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and  social institutions—and the development of new institution (to replace  “traditional” institutions) built on the foundation of Reason. ∙ Liberalism (Self­interest)  IV. America’s Core Values: 1. Liberalism: A political theory founded on the natural goodness of human beings (as  opposed to “original sin”) and the autonomy of the individual as opposed to a  collective/communal/community orientation.  ∙ Tenets of Liberalism: ∙ The recognition of substantial realm of individual freedom (i.e., civil and  political liberties): o Freedom of Conscience o Freedom of Speech o Freedom of Association o Freedom of Occupation ∙ The recognition of the fundamental value of tolerance: o Secularism o Rights of the minority o (Contemporary experience: Lifestyle choice) ∙ Has attempted to construct a neutral social, political and legal framework: o A condition in which no particular “way of life” is favored over all  others o No particular conception of the “good” (life) is favored o Protection from arbitrary authority ∙ Government by consent of the governed ∙ Rule of law 2∙ “Negative” role of the state ∙ A minimal state to provide security, protect rights, and allow individuals to be free to pursue the unlimited acquisition of wealth, “self­realization,” etc. 2. Individualism: Belief that the individual (as opposed to the collective) is the salient  political unit. ∙ Liberty: freedom from external coercion, compulsion, or interference in  engaging in the pursuits or conduct of one's choice to the extent that they are  lawful and not harmful to others. o Early American conception of liberty is distinguished from license, or  the irresponsible use of individual liberty. ∙ Equality: The belief that all individuals are equal in moral worth and value  and are entitled to equal treatment under the law. ∙ Self­government: The belief the aggregate of free and equal individuals, can  establish and sanction a form of government reflecting the will of “the  people.” 3. Pluralism: the belief that power is broadly (though unequally) distributed among  many more or less organized interest groups (or “factions” in Madison’s words) in  society.  ∙ Normative vs. Empirical ∙ Moreover, the groups compete with one another to influence or control public  policy (with some groups tending to dominate in one or two issue areas or  arenas of struggle while other groups and interests tend to dominate in other  issue areas or arenas of struggle). ∙ In short, politics resembles a market­place of competing values, in which  conflict and compromise characterize the shaping of public policy. 3V. Other Ideals:  ∙ Self­reliance and personal success (“bootstrap theory”): The belief that the  individual is responsible for his/her own lot in life. ∙ Capitalism and the Free market: An Economic System in which the  Factors/Relations of Production are Privately Owned or Determined: o Market Economy: ∙ Supply and Demand Determine Production, Prices, Wages, etc. ∙ Hidden Hand o Role of State: ∙ National Defense ∙ Public Works/Public Goods ∙ Legal, Police, and Public Health System o Problems: ∙ The Business Cycle—“Boom and Bust” ∙ Market Failures/Public Goods ∙ Social Costs o Benefits: ∙ Use of Knowledge in Society  Innovation  Efficiency ∙ Individual Liberty/Freedom ∙ Material Wealth 4Lecture 2: American Government in Context  Our government is now taking so steady a course as to show by what road it will pass to destruction; to wit: by consolidation first and then corruption, its necessary consequence.. ­­Thomas Jefferson to Nathaniel Macon, 1821 I. The Context of American Government: Politics, Power and Authority ∙ Government: the political direction and control exercised over the actions of  the members, citizens, or inhabitants of communities, societies, and states. oME < OF gouverner < L gubernāre to steer (a ship) < Gk kybernân to steer ∙ Power:  o As the ability to influence and control others.  o As the ability to get others to do what they would not otherwise do  without some degree of coercion. ∙ Authority: o The power to enforce laws, exact obedience, command, determine, or judge. o Max Weber’s Authority “Types”: ∙ Traditional ∙ Charismatic ∙ Legal­Rational ∙ Politics: o As “who gets what, when and how” [from government]. o As the “authoritative allocation of values.” ∙ Control over society’s public institutions. ∙ The use and allocation of resources. ∙ Specific public policies. ∙ The general direction society should move.II. Theories of Power and Politics: Majoritarianism, Pluralism, Elitism, and  Technocracy 1. Majoritarianism: the will of the majority is reflected in the identification of  social problems, setting the public agenda, and the formulation of public  policy. 2. Pluralism: the belief that power is broadly (though unequally) distributed  among many more or less organized interest groups (or “factions” in  Madison’s words) in society (see Lecture 1).  IDEAL:  Policy             Makers GROUP A: Political  Power And Skill       Pressure        Pressure GROUP  B: Political  Power And Skill                                      FAVORABLE POLICY OUTCOMES REALITY:  Policy             Makers GROUP A: Political  Power       Pressure      Pressure And Skill GROUP  B:                                            Favorable Policy Outcomes  3. Elitism: the will of a small number of well­placed, highly­influential  individuals (or groups) is reflected in the identification of social problems,  setting the public agenda, and the formulation of public policy. ELITES                 Policy             Output THE “MASSES”o Posits the notion that a policy­making/policy­executing elite operates  in a political environment characterized by apathy (or perhaps,  diversion­­TV) and information distortion.  o Hence, elites govern a largely passive and uniformed mass. o Policy flows downward from elite to masses o Society is divided according to those who have power and those who  do not. o Elites share common values that differentiate themselves from the  masses. o Factor’s shaping elite values: (1) higher education levels; (2) greater  socio­economic status; (3) greater status; (4) greater access to the  state’s decision­making apparatus.     o Prevailing public policies reflect the values of the elite and translate  into the preservation of the status quo. 4. Bureaucratic Rule (Technocracy): rule by a bureaucratic elite with  “expertise” within a given policy area. o Bureaucratic expertise o Administrative discretion o Neutral competency o Politics/Administration Dichotomy III. Who Does Govern? IV. The American Political System ∙ David Easton’s Conceptual Model (“Systems Theory”):                                                                                 POLICY                Demands                                    MAKERS        Decisions & & THE      Inputs                           Outputs POLICY                                 Supports                                        Actions APPARATFive Stage Model of the Policy Process: 1. 2.             3.      4. 5. Agenda  Setting Policy                                    Formulation Policy Implementation (6) Policy Evaluation Policy  Change/Termination?                                                               Feedback                                                          Loop Lecture 3 – America’s Constitutional Framework I believe there are more instances of the abridgement of freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachments by those in power than by violent and sudden usurpations. ­­James Madison I. Protecting Natural Rights as the Basis of Government ∙ “Rights of Englishmen” ∙ Inalienable Rights (“the laws of nature and natures God”—Jefferson) II. John Locke: o “Natural reason” provides the basis for social harmony ∙ All individuals have the same natural rights as all others. ∙ All rights have corresponding duties. ∙ Natural rights are thus universal o Locke’s Civil Government ∙ Government (i.e., the state) is not absolutely necessary for  social harmony. ∙ The state is not part of the given order of things—it is a human  contrivance best understood in mechanistic terms. ∙ The state as a mechanism has a specific function—it is  contrived merely to protect Natural Rights. ∙ Consent of the Governed and Popular Legitimacy. ∙ Society’s priority over the state. o Society will determine what the state will be like, not  vice­versa. ∙ What the state is like is a matter of rational reflection and  choice o Locke’s Model of Society ∙ Justifies a competitive, capitalist model. ∙ Men are free to acquire and are encourage to do so—as with  Calvinism.∙ Mechanistic­materialistic world­view (as opposed to the  teleological­spiritual worldview of the ancient, classical and  medieval eras). ∙ Bastard Offspring of Liberal Thought II.  The Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution in Context ∙ Declaration: the most concise and thorough statement of the fundamental  American political philosophy. ∙ Pronounces the “ends” of government—while the Constitution  outlines the “means” to achieve the ends. ∙ Natural Rights (“Self­Evident Truths”): o Liberty/Freedom  o Equality o Pursuit of Happiness/Property ∙ Articles of Confederation o Federalist vs. Anti­Federalist o Public Virtue?  Where does virtue reside?  Federalist: Well­educate elite  Jefferson: General public ∙ U. S. Constitution: Means to Secure the “Truths” o Limited Government o Separation of Powers o Checks and Balances o Government by Consent o Mixed Government (The One , the Few, the Many) o The Rule of Law o Federalism (“Home Rule”) o Pluralism o Secularism (e.g., “Establishment Clause”) o Tolerance (e.g., “Free Exercise Clause”) o Privacy?Lecture 3 – America’s Constitutional Framework *I believe there are more instances of the abridgement of freedom of the people by  gradual and silent encroachments by those in power than by violent and sudden  usurpations. – James Madison I. Protecting Natural Rights as the Basis of Government a. “Rights of Englishmen” b. Inalienable Rights (“the laws of nature and natures God” – Jefferson) II. John Locke: a. “Natural reason” provides the basis for social harmony i. All individuals have the same natural rights as all others. ii. All rights have corresponding duties. b. Locke’s Civil Government – aka the Modern Liberal State. i. Government (i.e., the state) is not absolutely necessary for  social harmony. ii. The state is not part of the given order of things – it is a human  contrivance best understood in mechanistic terms. iii. The state as a mechanism has a specific function – it is contrived merely to protect Natural Rights. iv. Consent of the Governed and Popular Legitimacy. v. Society’s priority over the state. 1. Society will determine what the state will be like, not vice versa. vi. What the state is like is a matter of rational reflection and choice c. Locke’s Model of Society i. Justifies a competitive, capitalist model. ii. Men are free t acquire and are encouraged to do so – as with  Calvinism. iii. Mechanistic-materialistic world-view (as opposed to the  teleological-spiritual worldview of the ancient, classical and  medieval eras). iv. Bastard Offspring of Liberal Thought III. The Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution in Context a. Declaration: the most concise and thorough statement of the  fundamental American political philosophy. i. Pronounces the “ends” of government-while the Constitution  outlines the “means” to achieve the ends. ii. Natural Rights(“Self-Evident Truths”): 1. Liberty/Freedom 2. Equality 3. Pursuit of Happiness/Property b. Articles of Confederation i. Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist ii. Public Virtue? Where does virtue reside? 1. Alexander Hamilton a. Responsible for Supreme Court b. Had a pH D.2. Federalist: Well-educated elite 3. Jefferson: General public a. Anti-Federalist b. c. U.S. Constitution: Means to Secure the “Truths” i. Limited Government ii. Separation of Powers iii. Checks and Balances iv. Government by Consent v. Mixed Government(The One, the Few, the Many) 1. From Spartans, adopted by Romans vi. The Rule of Law vii. Federalism(“Home Rule”) viii. Pluralism ix. Secularism(e.g., “Non-Establishment Clause”) x. Tolerance(e.g., “Free Exercise Clause”) xi. Privacy? 1. 1965-created by Supreme Court d.Federalist 10 and the U.S. Constitution: Madison's Bridging of Classical and Modern Political Thought. What is government itself but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. ­­James Madison, Federalist 47 I. Understanding the Founders: The Thesis of Timeless Wisdom vs. Thesis of  Particular Wisdom?1 ∙ Timeless Wisdom: Attributes almost superhuman mental powers both to the  Framers and to the Federalist Papers and the timelessness of their political  creation.  ∙ Particular Wisdom: The writers of the Federalists Papers merely reflect the  wisdom of their particular time and place (e.g., Enlightenment thought). ∙ In either case, what is put forward is the contrivance of a unique “political  system.”  ∙ This political system embodies elements of both classical Greco­Roman and  modern political thought. II.  America’s Political Heritage: Classical Republicanism and Liberalism ∙ Two Regime Types: The Classical Republic and the Modern, L0iberal State ∙ Classical Republicanism: o The salient political unit: the political community (e.g., the polis).  Ideally, just large enough so as to allow the full participation in  public decisions by its qualified citizens. o A politics of excellence.  Excellence is objective (set by community standards).  Hence, self­interest is limited by institutional factors. o Classical Anthropology: teleological­spiritual o Citizens share in self­government: 1See J.S. McClelland A History of Western Political Thought, (Routledge: 1996) 1 Deliberating over the “common good” and the destiny of the  political community (i.e., articulating “first principles”). o Requires Citizen’s Knowledge of Public Affairs (i.e., an “alert and  knowledgeable citizenry”). o Attempts to engenders a sense of belonging to a community larger than  one’s self:  Concern for the whole political community (not simply one’s  private affairs).  A moral bond within the community, a fate in which all have a  stake.  Self­government requires that citizens possess or come to acquire  certain qualities of character, or “civic virtue.” o Freedom: requires a formative politics or the “positive” role of the state— that is, a political culture that cultivates in its citizens certain qualities or a  requisite character conducive to self­government. ∙ The Modern, Liberal State: o The salient political unit: the autonomous individual.  o Attempts the construction of a neutral social, economic, political, and  legal framework:  Neutral toward the religious or moral values of its citizens.  Engenders a condition in which no particular “way of life” is  favored over any others.  No particular conception of the “good” (life) is favored.  Protection from arbitrary authority: ∙ Government by consent of the governed ∙ Rule of law o A politics of self interest.  Hence, virtue/excellence becomes largely subjective. o Modern Anthropology: mechanistic­materialist o “Negative” role of the state—state exists merely to protect fundamental  rights. o Freedom: Negatively conceived—i.e., the absence of coercion in the  individual’s “private sphere” of thought and action. 2o Limited Government: to provide security, protect rights, and allow  individuals to be free to pursue the unlimited acquisition of wealth, “self realization,” etc., all within a minimum framework of law. III. Madison’s Federalist 10: Bridging the Pre­modern and the Modern ∙ Madison’s Modern Scientific Approach: Concern is with the social basis of  American Politics (e.g., beyond “first principles” of government, towards a more  pragmatic understanding of human behavior—all the while attempting to secure the benefits of republicanism). ∙ Focus is on “factions”—i.e, special interests which are generally opposed to, or out  of sync with the public good. ∙ Factions detrimental to the “animating spirit” of a republic.  ∙ How do we limit the negative consequences of factions while at the same time  maintaining limited government, while at the same time enjoying a republican form of government? IV. Construction of the American Political System: One System Two Regimes ∙ Pluralism (or interest­group politics): Containing Factionalism o Federalist 10: A republic so diverse and the number of factions so large  that it is impossible for one faction to dominate the rest. ∙ Federalism—A system of government in which power is divided between a central  authority and constituent political units. o Diluting the detrimental effects of factions: spread factions across the  national, regional, state, and local levels. ∙ Combined with popular representation, federalism meant that all these factions will  have to bargain and compromise with the rest at the local, state and, eventually, the  national level. ∙ The crucial argument of the Federalist Papers: the need for a federal republic  comprised of the separate sovereignties of the individual states so that the United  States could be extensive in territory and enjoy the good fortunes of republican  institutions as well. e. Federalism’s Enlightenment Roots: Self­Regulated  Society 1. Self­Regulated Balance of Society (e.g., Lockean “natural harmony’) ∙ Correlates with Newtonian Laws (popular at the time for understanding all  aspects of physical and social phenomenon) ∙ Mechanistic­materialist worldview 3∙ Self­interest the organizing principle—of both individual’s and groups. 2.  Self­regulated government ∙ Separation of powers: Institutional balance—e.g., legislative, executive and  judicial ∙  Pluralism: pluralistic balance of values—interest groups, factions, etc. ∙ Federalism: Jurisdictional balance—e.g., federal vs. state 3. Self­regulated Economy ∙ The Free­market f. Federalism Rightly Understood: ∙ Federalism: a system of government in which sovereignty and power is  divided between a “national” government and various sub­national  governments. o Sovereignty: supreme and independent authority in government as  possessed or claimed by a state or political community. ∙ Unitary System: a system of government in which sovereignty is vested in a  national government. ∙ Why Federalism? o Protection of individual rights o Moderating the power of government o Effective government g. Powers of the National Govt—“in Order to form a  more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the  common defense, promote the general Welfare, and Secure the Blessings of  Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity…” ∙ Enumerated  (Expressed) Powers:  o National defense (exhaustive list) o To declare war o Regulate commerce o Create national currency and regulate its value o Establish weights and measures o To borrow money o Power to tax, impose duties, tariffs, etc. 4o Rules of naturalization o Rules on bankruptcy o Establish Post Offices o Promote the “Progress of Science and useful Arts” via patents o Establish lesser courts o Punish violations on the high seas  ∙ “Supremacy Clause” (Article VI): U.S.  Constitution as supreme law of the  land. ∙ Implied Powers o “Necessary and Proper Clause” (Article I sect. 8): the power to make  all laws which are deemed “Necessary and proper for carrying into  execution the forgoing [i.e., enumerated) powers.” ∙ Amendment 10: Reserved Powers h. Concurrent Powers: 5vi. Types of Federalism in the United States 1. Dual Federalism 2. Cooperative Federalism 3. Creative Federalism 4. New Federalism ∙ Dual Federalism  (1790’s­1930’s) o Failure of the Articles of Confederation. o The Federalist Papers justified the Constitution of the United States of  America. o Distinct Spheres of Authority and Sovereignty—Federal (National)  and State.  National vs. State  Concurrent powers o Laissez­faire capitalism (The Golden Age of American Capitalism)  14th Amendment ∙ Cooperative Federalism (“New Deal” era) o Great Depression ∙ National authority prevails  ∙ “Super government” o Increasingly complex society o Industrial­Financial o Urban ∙ “New Deal” o National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) o Works Project Administration (WPA) o Civilian Conservation Corps o National Labor Relations Act (1935) o Social Security Act (1935) o Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) ∙ Constitutional crisis ∙ In­between socialism and corporatism/fascism (balancing labor and industry) ∙ Federal (national) government takes on greater role 6∙ Increase in Executive Office power in relation to the legislature ∙ Creative Federalism (“Great Society” to Nixon) o More active role of govt. to achieve social objectives o Grants­In­Aid to states to achieve goals o Funded mandates (“strings attached”) o Continued growth in bureaucracy o More power to federal government (economic dependency?) ∙ New Federalism (Nixon and Reagan) ∙ Nixon: o Devolution (returning power to the states) o Revenue Sharing (restores power to states to spend federal  money as the state sees fit) ∙ Reagan: o Continued devolution o Cuts in federal funding  o Un­funded mandates ∙ Clinton: o More revenue to states (economic prosperity) o 1994 Republican Revolution ∙ Post­ 9­11? Coercive Federalism 7

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