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OK STATE / Business Management / MGMT 3013 / Why is historical perspective important?

Why is historical perspective important?

Why is historical perspective important?

Description

School: Oklahoma State University
Department: Business Management
Course: Fundamentals of Management
Professor: Ryan greenbaum
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Management
Cost: 25
Name: MGMT 3013, Week 2 Notes
Description: Ch. 2
Uploaded: 01/30/2017
6 Pages 37 Views 1 Unlocks
Reviews


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"}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-6 0}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-2}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-0}.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-7}.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-6}.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-3}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-4 0}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-0}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-2}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-1 0}.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-3 0}.lst-kix_78o255na737h-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-5 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-3 0}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-3}.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-7 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-2}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-2}.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-2 0}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-0 0}.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-1}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-3 0}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-5}.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-4}.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-1 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ul.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-3}ul.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-0,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-3 0}ul.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-5 0}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-6 0}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-1 0}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-1 0}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-5 0}.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-7}.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-4 0}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-4 0}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-0 0}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-3}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-6}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-7 0}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-4}.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-8}.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-6 0}.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-1 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-6 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-7 0}.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ul.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-5}ul.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-1,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-4,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-5 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-3}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-2 0}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-8}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-1}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-5 0}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-6 0}.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-1 0}ul.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-8}ul.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-6}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-4 0}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-1 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-6}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-7 0}ul.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-1}.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-8 0}ul.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-0,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-1,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_78o255na737h-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-5,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-6 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-8}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-4,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-8,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-5 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_78o255na737h-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-8 0}ul.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-1}.lst-kix_78o255na737h-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-6 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-5 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-6 0}.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-6}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-0 0}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-5 0}.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-1 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-8 0}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-5}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-3}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-4}.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-8 0}.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-6 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-4}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-7 0}ul.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-7 0}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-1}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-0}ul.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-5,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-3 0}ul.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-3,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-4,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-4}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-2 0}.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-7}.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-4 0}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-4}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-4 0}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-3 0}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-8 0}ul.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-8}ul.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-0 0}ul.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-8,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-2}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-4}.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-8}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-7 0}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-2}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-3}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-0}.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_9b52jgeu0e2m-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-5 0}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-6 0}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-1}.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-8 0}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-5 0}.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-6 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-2}.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-7}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-0}ol.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-2 0}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-6 0}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-5}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-6}ol.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-2 0}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-7}.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-1 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-5 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-5 0}ul.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-1}ul.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-7 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-1}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-4 0}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-4 0}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-0 0}ul.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-7 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_ubxrieh1c0id-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ul.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-1 0}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-3,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-8}.lst-kix_1v5n2k5p08f4-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-4,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-7 0}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-5,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_dwdo8wmwdscg-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-0 0}ul.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-2,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-1,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-0,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-7}ul.lst-kix_2ppehllfrain-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_78o255na737h-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_78o255na737h-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-8 0}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-2 0}ul.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_78o255na737h-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_78o255na737h-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-8}ul.lst-kix_78o255na737h-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_78o255na737h-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_78o255na737h-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-1 0}ul.lst-kix_78o255na737h-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_78o255na737h-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-5}.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_728r8gjghr3l-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-8 0}.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}ol.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-7 0}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-1 0}.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_is2uubd75so6-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-3,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-2 0}.lst-kix_78o255na737h-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-5}.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-7 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_adcb736rdf1j-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_adcb736rdf1j-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-6}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-2,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-7,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_78o255na737h-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_78o255na737h-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ul.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_78o255na737h-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-1 0}ul.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5a32vve5eg8t-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-6,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-6 0}.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-7 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_78o255na737h-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-3 0}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nt1it4mdijc1-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-5}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-0 0}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_728r8gjghr3l-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-2}.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-7}.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-2 0}ul.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ge6n35y629bq-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ul.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1lm7lb9o812z-3}ul.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b6owvkrze687-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-4}.lst-kix_asxwwbyvm663-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-0 0}ul.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4lubn38h5qjj-5,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_v35g02oukovx-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_jjpx1dfeph3u-8 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ibnl6ovegjn1-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_tp8s3uwfs3w8-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ucuzalgtyd2v-5}.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_1akd4laz8quv-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1akd4laz8quv-5 0}.lst-kix_33v9o6hpks42-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-0}ol.lst-kix_zi46jin1b6kh-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4h0sxzst2e8t-7}

Chapter 2We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between a fundamental and realized niche?

Reading NotesDon't forget about the age old question of How does culture affect early childhood education?

Historical Perspectives

  • Classical (1911:1947)
  • Emphasis on ways to manage work more efficiently
  • Scientific and administrative

  • Behavioral (1913-1980s)
  • Importance of understanding human behavior and motivating and encouraging employees toward achievement
  • Early behaviorists, human relations movements and behavioral science

  • Quantitative (1940s-1980s)
  • Quantitative techniques applied to management
  • Management science & operations management

We also discuss several other topics like What is the language of the ashkenazi?

Contemporary Perspective

  • Systems
  • Organization: systems of interrelated parts that operate together  to achieve a common purpose
  • Contingency
  • Manager’s approach should depend on the individual and environment
  • Quality-management
  • Quality control: minimizing errors on managing each state of production
  • Quality assurance: performance of workers
  • Total quality management: continuous quality improvement training and customer satisfaction
  • Quality: total ability of a product/service to meet customer needs
  • Learning organization: actively creates, acquires and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior accordingly

If you want to learn more check out What role does the cia play in us fp?

How to:

  • Build a commitment to learning
  • Work to generate ideas with impact
  • Work to generalize ideas with impact

We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of a marketing plan in marketing?

Reasons for Studying Chapter Two

  1. Understanding of the present
  2. Guide to action
  3. Source of new ideas
  4. Clues to meaning of your manager’s decisions
  5. Meaning of outside events
  6. Producing positive results

We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of behavior in psychology?

Classical

Scientific Management

Studying work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers

Frank & Lillian Gilbreth (idea)

Frederick W. Taylor (one step further)

  • Eliminate “soldering” (not working as hard as you could)
  • Differential rate system

Administrative Management  *a step further

Managing total organization

Henri Fayol

  • French engineer and industrialist
  • First to identify functions of management

Max Weber

  • German industrial psychologist
  • Bureaucracy - ideal, rational, efficient organization

Positive features *logic*

  1. Well-defined hierarchy of authority
  2. Formal division of labor
  3. Impersonality
  4. Careers based on merit

Concern with Classical viewpoint: two mechanistic

Behavioral: Happy people are productive workers

Early Behaviorism

Hugo Munsterberg: Father of industrial psychology

  1. Study sobs & determine which people should do them
  2. Psychological conditions that lead to best work
  3. Management strategies to influence

Mary Parker Follett

Social worker and social philosopher

  1. Organizations should operate as communities
  2. Conflict resolution - satisfy both parties
  3. Workers with relevant knowledge control work processes

hawthorne effect: 

  • people worked harder when they knew they were being watched/paid attention to
  • Elton Mayo

Human Relations Movement

“The better you treat people, the better they work”

Abraham Maslow

Hierarchy of human needs

Douglas McGregor

  1. Theory X

        Pessimistic: workers only need bottom needs and lack ambition

  1. Theory Y

        Optimistic: people want respect and will take risks

Behavioral Science

What does each worker prefer and why?

Quantitative Management Science

  • Science-based techniques, mathematical models
  • Operations research
  • Linear programming

Operations Management

  • Managing the production and delivery of an organization’s production planning, facilities location and design
  • Execution is still key
  • FedEx guy throwing a computer over the fence

Systems

  • Organizations is regarded as a system of interrelated parts
  • Collections of subsystems
  • Part of the larger environment

Four parts of system

  1. Inputs
  1. people , money, information, equipment, materials
  1. Transformational processes
  1. Organization’s capabilities applied to inputs
  1. Outputs
  1. Produces, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction
  1. Feedback
  • Reaction of the environment to the outputs

Open Vs. Closed System

Continually interacts with its environment / little interaction with its environment

Feedback

Complexity Theory

  • The study of how order and pattern arise from very complicated, apparently, chaotic systems
  • Must be flexible and open to risk

Contingency

  • Manager’s approach should vary according to the individual and environmental situation

Evidence-based management

  • Avoiding guessing

Quality-management

  • Comprehensive approach: led by top management and supported throughout the organization

Deming

  • 85/15 rule (usually a fault in the process)
  • 14 points for management

Juran

  • Customers need come first
  1. Make continuous improvement a priority
  2. Get every employee involved
  3. Listen to learn from customers and employees.

*Perception is reality.

  1. Use accurate standards to identify and eliminate problem

-pay attention to your competitors

Learning organization

Peter Senge - MIT

Actively creates, acquires and transfers knowledge and then modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge

Three roles Managers Play

  1. Build a commitment to learning
  2. Work to generate ideas with impact.  * Stay away from things that are “just good enough.”
  3. Work to generalize ideas with impact

 

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