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UA / Engineering / TCF 112 / What is the role of a costume designer?

What is the role of a costume designer?

What is the role of a costume designer?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Engineering
Course: Motion Picture History and Criticism
Professor: Jeremy butler
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: FilmProduction
Cost: 50
Name: TCF 112-320 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Exam 1 Study Guide (1/2) Covers Chapter 1
Uploaded: 01/30/2017
11 Pages 52 Views 3 Unlocks
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Study Guide 1 Part 1


What is the role of costume designer?



Motion Pict. Hy. Criticism  

Teddy Champion- (1/17-1/30)  

Exam 1- 2/7

Highlight = Example Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term

Chapter 1 Review

Key Terms

- Form- The ways a film’s parts work together.  

- Style- The film’s use of cinematic techniques.

- Frames- Still pictures  

- Critical Flicker Fusion- The process of doubling the number of flashes in a second to create the illusion  of motion.

- Apparent Motion- Creating the illusion of motion by changing a display rapidly enough.  - Positive- The film with correct colors after it has gone through a printer.  


What are the parts of a sheet of film?



- Negative- The film with reverse colors before it has gone through a printer.

- Printer- The machine that converts a film from a negative to a positive. We also discuss several other topics like What is the function of transmembrane proteins?

- Base- The shiny plastic side of the film.

- Emulsion- The gelatin layered side of the film containing light sensitive material.  - Sprockets- Small teeth in a projector, printer, and camera that seize the perforations in the film and feed  them through the machines.

- Gauge- The width of a film strip.

- Super 8 mm- 8 mm wide film strip, used in experimental and amateur films.

- 16 mm- 16 mm wide film strip, used mostly in amateur films to simulate documentary footage.  - 35 mm- 35 mm wide film strip, the standard in film.


What are the different sizes of production?



- 70 mm- 70 mm wide film strip, used in historical spectacle and epic action films. - Variable Area- The wavy contour of black and white along a film strip that encodes sound.  - Monophonic- Shown in optical tracks.

- Stereophonic- Registered as a pair of squiggles running down the left side.

- High Definition- Digital formats of 720p and 1080p.

- Digital Camera- Used to film digital video with each model including better and better resolution. - Production- When an individual, group, or company makes the film. Don't forget about the age old question of Darwin's theory stemmed from?

- Distribution- When a company rents copies to theater chains or theaters.

- Exhibition- When theater chains or theaters present a film, or it is shown in ancillary markets. - Scriptwriting and Funding- Where the idea for the film is developed and the screenplay is written. - Preparation for Filming- Where filmmakers plan the physical production.

- Shooting- Where the filmmakers create the film’s images and sounds.

- Assembly- The images and sounds are combined in their final forms.  

- Producer- Provides financial and organizational support for the film.

- Executive Producer- Arranges the financing of the project.

- Line Producer- Oversees the day-to-day activities of director, cast, and crew.

Study Guide 1 Part 1

- Associate Producer- The assistant to the line producer who acts as liaison with laboratories or technical  personnel. We also discuss several other topics like Prokaryotes reproduce asexually by?

- Screenwriter- Prepares the screenplay.  

- Screenplay- The script of the film. We also discuss several other topics like What is the irreconcilable contradiction?

- Pitch Session- Where writers propose ideas for scripts to producers.  

- Treatment- A synopsis of the action in a script.  

- Shooting Script- The final version of the screenplay.  

- Above-the-Line Costs- The cost of literary properties, scriptwriters, direcrtors, and the major cast. - Below-the-Line Costs- The cost of crew, secondary cast, the shooting and assembly phase, insurance,  and publicity. We also discuss several other topics like What is the figurational theory?

- Negative Cost- The sum of above and below the line costs.  

- Director- Coordinates the staff to create the film.  

- Production Design Unit (Set Unit)- The unit in charge of visualizing the film’s setting.  - Production Designer- The head of the production designer.  

- Art Director- Oversees the construction and painting of sets.

- Set Dresser- Modifies the sets for specific filming purposes and supervises workers finding props for  scenes.  

- Set Dresser- Arranges things on the set.

- Costume Designer- Plans and executes the wardrobe for production. We also discuss several other topics like What are the functions of the skin?

- Graphic Artist- Produces a storyboard for the film.  

- Animatics- The process of filming the storyboard beforehand to get an idea of what it should be like.  - Previsualization- Reworking the storyboard in into 3D animation.  

- Shooting Phase (Principal Photography)- The process of shooting a film.  

- Director’s Crew- Who the director is in charge of.  

- Script Supervisor- Details the shot-to-shot continuity.  

- Continuity- Making sure things are as they were in the shot beforehand.  

- First Assistant Director- Plans the shooting schedule and sets up shots while keeping track of actors. - Second Assistant Director- Liaison among the first AD, the camera crew, and the electricians’ crew. - Third Assistant Director- Serves as the messenger for director and staff.  

- Dialogue Coach- Feeds performers their lines and speaks the lines offscreen during shots of other  performers.

- Second Unit Director- Films stunts, location footage, action scenes, and the like at a distance from  where principal shooting is taking place.

- Cast- The most visible group of workers.  

- Stars- Well known players assigned to major roles.

- Supporting Player- Performers in secondary roles.

- Minor Players (Extras)- Basically take up space.  

- Stunt Artists- Group in charge of stunts.

- Stunt Coordinator- In charge of the stunt artists.

- Choreographer- In charge of dancers on a film.

- Wrangler- In charge of animals on the set.  

- Photography Unit- In charge of filming the shots.  

- Cinematographer (Director of Photography)- The head of the photography unit.  - Camera Operator- Runs the camera.

- Key Grip- Supervises the grips, who carry and arrange equipment and props.

- Gaffer- Supervises the placement and rigging of lights.  

- Sound Unit- Group in charge of sound.

Study Guide 1 Part 1

- Production Recordist (Sound Mixer)- Head of the sound unit.  

- Boom Operator- Manipulates the boom microphone and conceal microphones on actors. - Third Man- Places other microphones, lays sound cables, and is in charge of controlling ambient sound. - Sound Designer- Plans a sonic style appropriate for the film.  

- Visual-Effects Unit- Group in charge of preparing and executing technical shots. - Visual Effects Supervisor- In charge of the visual-effects unit.  

- Makeup Staff- Oversee makeup.

- Costume Staff- Oversee costumes.

- Hairdressers- Dress hair.

- Drivers- Transports cast and crew.  

- Producer’s Crew- Group that the producer is in charge of.  

- Production Accountant- Monitors expenditures.  

- Production Secretary- Coordinates telephone communications among units and with the producer.  - Production Assistants- Run errands.  

- Takes- Versions of a shot.

- Clapperboard- A board holding information like the production, scene, shot, and take.  - Master Shot- Records the entire action and dialogue of the scene.  

- Coverage- The shots that are taken from different angles or have closer views from the master shot.  - Motion Capture- Used to capture movement for a computer generated creature or person.  - Postproduction- Begins near the end of shooting, the assembly phase of the film. - Editor- Catalogues and assembles

- Dailies- Filmed material from a day of shooting.  

- Assistant Editor- Synchronizes image and sound and sorts through scenes.  

- Rough Cut- Loosely strung in sequence and tend to run very long.  

- Outtakes- Unused shots.

- Final Cut- The shot shown in theaters.

- Second Unit- Shoots insert footage for use in certain places.

- Inserts- Footage to fill In certain places.  

- Pickups- Retakes and additional footage not made during principal photography.  - Work Print- Footage printed from the camera negative.  

- Digital Intermediate- Manipulated to change light levels and alter colors.  

- Digital Color Grading- Alters colors of a digital shot.  

- Colorist- Performs digital color grading.  

- Sound Editor- Builds up the sound track.  

- Spotting- Placing music and sound effects.

- Automated Dialogue Replacement- Where dialogue is rerecorded in postproduction. - Guide Track- How the editor syncs ADR and the scene.

- Dubbing- Actors in the studio speaking their lines for ADR.

- Composer- Compiles cue sheets that mark exactly where the music will go and how long it should run. - Temp Dub- Accompaniment pulled from recorded songs or classical pieces.  

- Click Track- A taped series of metronome beats synchronized with the final cut.  - Rerecording Mixer- Ensures the image and the sound are synchronize.

- Camera Negative- The source of the dailies.

- Interpositive- Drawn from the negative footage.

- Internegative- Drawn from the interpositive.  

- Answer Print- The first positive print complete with picture and sound.  

- Release Print- Made from the answer print for distribution.

Study Guide 1 Part 1

- Exploitation- Products tailored to a particular market.  

- Independent- Made for a theatrical release but with a smaller distribution.

- Collective Production- A small scale production in which several film workers participate equally.  - Fiction Film- Film with more control over preparation and shooting.

- Documentary- Film with less control over preparation and shooting.  

- Compilation Film- Uses existing images and sounds that provide historical evidence on a topic.  - Animated Film- Created frame by frame.  

- Auteur- French for author.  

- Blind Booking- Exhibitors rent a film without viewing it.  

- Block Booking- Exhibitors rent a package of films in order to get a few desirable items. - Grosses- Total box office receipts.  

- House Nut- The expenses of running a theater.

- Rentals- The distribution company’s share of the grosses.  

- Profit Participants- Any players of a film who have negotiated a share of the rental returns.  - Synergy- Focusing the film, music, television, and publishing sectors of the company on promoting a  piece of branded content.  

- Platforming- A film opening in a few cities then gradually releasing across the country if it successful.  - Wide Release- The movie is released at the same time throughout a region.  

- Tentpole- Projects that generate a large amount of hype.  

- Day and Date- Used to promote tentpole movies.

- Trailer- A short preview of an upcoming film.  

- Merchandising- A form of promotion that pays back its investment directly.  

- Brand Partnering (Cross Promotion)- A tactic that allows a film and a product line to be advertised  simultaneously.  

- Theatrical Exhibition- Screening to the public that pays admission.  

- Nontheatrical Exhibition- All other exhibitions like art centers, museums, film festivals, and cinema clubs.  - Film Festival- The most important theatrical alternative to commercial movie houses.  - Windows- The times of release for movies in ancillary markets.  

- Puzzle Films- Films in which fans scrutinize for clues to plot enigmas.  

- Dolby Digital 5.1- Surround system model (5.1) 5 refers to the number of channels used and (.1) refers  to the use of a large subwoofer to reproduce low-frequency effects.  

- Letterboxing- Display with black bars on the top and bottom of the screen.  

- Pan-and-Scan- Basically cropping.  

- Windowboxing- Display with black bars on the sides of the screen.  

- Key Concepts

- 1.1 Films communicate information and ideas, offer us ways of seeing and feeling that we find  deeply gratifying, take us through experiences, and show us places and ways of life we might  not otherwise know. 

- 1.1 Filmmakers cannot avoid creative decisions that affect how the viewer reacts to the film. - 1.2 Usually the art/entertainment split of a film rests on a value judgement. Art is serious,  whereas entertainment is superficial. However, sometimes art can be entertaining and foster  new traditions and techniques (Shakespeare and Dickens). 

- 1.2 Sometimes people consider art to be opposed to business. As films are entertainment,  they are generally sold to a mass audience in hopes that they will be seen and bought.  - 1.2 The crucial point is that considerations of business don’t necessarily make the artist less  creative or the project less worthwhile. 

Study Guide 1 Part 1

- 1.3 Making a film can be seen as a long process of decision making, not just by the director  but by all the specialists who work on the production team. These decisions affect what we see  and hear on the screen. 

- 1.3 Form of a film is influenced by mise-en-scene, cinematography, editing, and sound (See  Collateral decisions). 

- Collateral- HD cameras to capture the distinct light of LA, custom made LED lighting,  editing multiple crash shots together, and composing a dynamic score.  

- 1.4 First and foremost, filmmakers need fairly complicated machines, including elaborate  cameras, lighting equipment, multitrack sound-mixing studios, sophisticated laboratories, and  computer generated special effects. This reliance on technology involves companies who  manufacture equipment, provide the funding for the film, and to distribute the film. - 1.4 The illusion of motion is created through projecting a frame a second time while the next  frame is moved into place, pushing the number of flashes per second to 48 (critical flicker  fusion). This change occurs rapidly creating apparent motion. 

- 1.4 A photographically based film is a ribbon of still images. This ribbon starts out as an  unexposed film stock in a camera and ends up as another strip of film in a projector. It emerges  from the camera as a negative, goes into a printer to become a positive,  - 1.4 A camera gathers light from a scene (shot in 24 frames per second), while a projector uses  a light source (projected in 24 frames per second) to project the scene on a screen. - 1.4 A film strip is perforated along both edges, so that small teeth (called sprockets) in the  projector can seize the perforations (sprocket holes) and pull the film at a uniform rate and  smoothness. The strip also reserves space for a sound track. 

- 1.4 During production, electrical impulses from a microphone are translated into pulsations of  light, which are photographically inscribed on the moving film strip. When the film is projected,  the optical track produces varying intensities of light that are translated back into electrical  impulses and then into sound waves. This is encoded as variable area. 

- 1.4 Digital cameras are similar to 35 mm cameras, which is a reflection of trying to make new  technology feel similar to cinematographers. However, it includes sensors covered with a grid of  millions of microscopic diodes, or photosites. Each of these diodes measures a tiny portion of  the light. The diodes create pixels (short for “picture elements”) in the final image. The sensor  converts these patterns of light into electrical impulses that are sent to a recording medium and  registered as files of ones and zeroes. The number of pixels on across an image is the  resolution which can be measured in thousands of pixel (2k: 2000 pixels across the film, 4k:  4000 pixel across the screen). The images are downloaded backed up on memory cards, while  the capture memory on the camera is wiped clean for reuse. 

- 1.4 Digital projection technology allows for 3D films and many other technical tools.  - 1.5 A film goes through 3 different phase of production starting with actual production which  includes scriptwriting and funding, preparation for filming, shooting, and assembly. These  phases have the ability to overlap. 

- 1.5 Phases of production include many different specialized jobs (See below in concepts). - 1.5 In every production, each film is a compromise made with constraints, which can  sometimes result in pushing the boundaries of what is possible in film. 

- 1.6 There are different sizes of production (See production types below).

Study Guide 1 Part 1

- 1.6 We can distinguish a fiction film from a documentary on the basis of production phases. - Fiction- Control over preparation and shooting phases. 

- Documentary- Control only certain portions of preparation, shooting, and assembly.  - 1.6 While every person working on a film can leave their own unique mark on it, the director  has the most control over how a movie looks and sounds. Therefore, ones with distinct styles  are called auteurs. 

- 1.7 The next phase of production after production is distribution. The major distributors include  Warner Bros, Paramount, Walt Disney/Buena Vista, Universal, Sony/Columbia, and Twentieth  Century Fox. Distributors generally have control because they endure the risks of theatrical  moviemaking. 

- 1.7 The final phase of production is exhibition. Exhibitors bid for each film from distributors, but  they must be allowed to see the film before bidding on it. The exhibitors gain very little from the  box office, but they earn most of their revenue from the concession stands. - 1.7 Key players in the films must demand “first dollar participation” if they want to gain money  before movies enter the ancillary markets. 

- 1.7 Major distributors also own many other companies that specialize in different part of media,  thus exerting their influence over the entertainment industry. They can often determine the  success of low-budget independent films by whether or not they choose to distribute them. They  can often maximize their profits through synergizing their properties. 

- 1.7 Films can either be released in select theaters and grow gradually, or they may have a  wide release. 

- 1.7 Trailers, audience participation, marketing, and cross promotion are all ways of selling a  film to a mass audience. 

- 1.7 Studios have developed a careful window of scheduling (See window of scheduling below).  These are statistically determined to maximize income. However, the success of the theatrical  run will generally determine how successful a movie will be in ancillary markets. - 1.7 Digital media has affected how much exposure films can gain. 

- 1.7 New narrative possibility have led to the incentive to rewatch films, either in ancillary  markets or the theaters. 

- 1.8 Distributors can have an effect on how films are seen and heard (See aspect ratios below). - Identify the levels of organization of film 

- Frame????Shot????Scene????Sequence????Act????Film

- Identify parts of a sheet of film. 

- Base- The shiny side of the film.

- Emulsion- Layers of gelatin containing light sensitive material.

- In black and white films, it contains silver halide.  

- In color films, it contains chemical dyes that react with silver halide.

- The sound track runs along side the strip.

- Identify gauges of film (The higher the gauge, the better the detail and definition). - Super 8mm- Used by amateurs and experimental filmmakers. Simulates home movies or  television images.

- 16 mm- Includes a soundtrack that runs down the right side, used by mostly amateurs and some  professionals. Achieves a documentary look.

Study Guide 1 Part 1

- 35 mm- Includes a stereoscopic soundtrack down the left side, the standard theatrical film  gauge.  

- 70 mm- Includes a magnetic stereoscopic soundtrack that runs down both sides (registered in  dots and dashes), used for historical spectacles and epics.  

- IMAX- Printed on 70 mm, but runs horizontally along the strip, tripling the size of the 70 mm.  Used in mainly action/fiction films.  

- Identify specialized roles in film production. 

FILM CREW POSITIONS

PRODUCER

DIRECTOR

PhotographyKey Grip Audio Mixer Production Designer Production Manager Director of  

Gaffer

Best Boy Electrics PAs

Camera Operator 1st Asst. Camera 2nd Asst. Camera Loader

PAs

Grips

PAsBoom Operator Art Director

Set Designer

Wardrobe Designer

Set Costumer

Hair

Make-up

Props

1st A.D.

2nd A.D.

2nd 2nd A.D.

Office PA

PAs

Catering

Craft Service

Location Manager

and most everything else

- Director- Basically the head of the film in charge of multiple things.  

- Producer- Provides financial and organizational support for the film.

- Executive Producer- Arranges the financing of the project.

- Line Producer- Oversees the day-to-day activities of director, cast, and crew. - Associate Producer- The assistant to the line producer who acts as liaison with laboratories or  technical personnel.

- Screenwriter- Writes the screenplay.  

- Production Design Unit (Set Unit)- The unit in charge of visualizing the film’s setting.  - Production Designer- The head of the production designer.  

- Art Director- Oversees the construction and painting of sets.

- Set Dresser- Modifies the sets for specific filming purposes and supervises workers finding  props for scenes.  

Study Guide 1 Part 1

- Set Dresser- Arranges things on the set.

- Costume Designer- Plans and executes the wardrobe for production.

- Graphic Artist- Produces a storyboard for the film.

- Director’s Crew- Who the director is in charge of.  

- Script Supervisor- Details the shot-to-shot continuity.  

- First Assistant Director- Plans the shooting schedule and sets up shots while keeping  track of actors.

- Second Assistant Director- Liaison among the first AD, the camera crew, and the  electricians’ crew.

- Third Assistant Director- Serves as the messenger for director and staff.  

- Dialogue Coach- Feeds performers their lines and speaks the lines offscreen during  shots of other performers.

- Second Unit Director- Films stunts, location footage, action scenes, and the like at a  distance from where principal shooting is taking place.

- Cast- The most visible group of workers.  

- Stars- Well known players assigned to major roles.

- Supporting Player- Performers in secondary roles.

- Minor Players (Extras)- Basically take up space.  

- Stunt Artists- Group in charge of stunts.

- Stunt Coordinator- In charge of the stunt artists.

- Choreographer- In charge of dancers on a film.

- Wrangler- In charge of animals on the set.  

- Photography Unit- In charge of filming the shots.  

- Cinematographer (Director of Photography)- The head of the photography unit.  - Camera Operator- Runs the camera.

- Key Grip- Supervises the grips, who carry and arrange equipment and props.

- Gaffer- Supervises the placement and rigging of lights.  

- Sound Unit- Group in charge of sound.

- Production Recordist (Sound Mixer)- Head of the sound unit.  

- Boom Operator- Manipulates the boom microphone and conceal microphones on  actors.

- Third Man- Places other microphones, lays sound cables, and is in charge of controlling  ambient sound.

- Sound Designer- Plans a sonic style appropriate for the film.  

- Visual-Effects Unit- Group in charge of preparing and executing technical shots. - Visual Effects Supervisor- In charge of the visual-effects unit.  

- Makeup Staff- Oversee makeup.

- Costume Staff- Oversee costumes.

- Hairdressers- Dress hair.

- Drivers- Transports cast and crew.  

- Producer’s Crew- Group that the producer is in charge of.  

- Production Accountant- Monitors expenditures.  

- Production Secretary- Coordinates telephone communications among units and with the  producer.  

- Production Assistants- Run errands.

-Identify different types of production. 

- Large Scale (Studio Filmmaking)

Study Guide 1 Part 1

- Own equipment, production plants, long-term workers, have a central management,  carefully managed, written reports, logs of shots catalogued in editing,  

- Although it appears to be a factory, there is room for creativity.

- Companies of the Golden Age are now mainly distribution. They bring together talent for  the project rather than have them under contract.  

- Exploitation  

- Low-budget productions tailored for a particular market.

- Still holds a semblance division of labor.

- Although some of the people must double up on jobs to cut costs.

- Most don’t enter the theatrical market, they rely on a DVD/drive-in/fringe theater  market.

- Independent Films

- Low budget productions made for the theatrical markets but without major distributor  finance.  

- The director initiates the project by partnering with producers to get it realized.

- Due to the reduced production costs, there is very little creative control by studios. - Film festivals are important for gaining a larger distribution market.

- Small-Scale Productions

- An independent film is generally run by very few people, that results in those few people  or the one in charge having full creative control over the contents.

- Know the Window of Scheduling  

- Hotel pay-per-view????Pay-per-view cable????DVD????Pay cable outlets????Network broadcast - Identify the different types of aspect ratios

Study Guide 1 Part 1

- Corrections and Adjustments to Aspect Ratios

- Letterboxing

- Windowboxing

- Cropping (Notice the missing person in the corner of the picture on the left)

Study Guide 1 Part 1

- Anamorphic (Ball is distorted based on the different aspect ratios)

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