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UT / Government / GOV 312L / What is the president’s role in fp decision-making?

What is the president’s role in fp decision-making?

What is the president’s role in fp decision-making?


School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: Government
Course: Issues and Policies in American Government
Professor: Giorleny altamirano rayo
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Government, Foreign, Policy, american, and us
Cost: 25
Name: GOV 312L American Foreign Policy Module 4 Notes
Description: These notes cover all of module 4, including the reading and all the recorded videos.
Uploaded: 01/30/2017
4 Pages 123 Views 11 Unlocks

Module 4: A Tale of Two AUMFs Reading (Golan-Vilella)

What is the president’s role in fp decision-making?

∙ Islamic State took a large amount of ground in Iraq, and US responded by sending resources like  military advisers and other units

∙ AUMF: Authorization for Use of Military Force

∙ The two AUMFs created by the US gov’t have drifted from their main purpose, essentially letting  the President use military force at will in Iraq

∙ 1st AUMF used to justify many violent actions and wars in the war on terror ∙ Lots of confusion regarding what the Pres. Can do within the scope of the AUMFs ∙ Gov’t wouldn’t tell its citizens who it was at war with

∙ Even after US pulled out of Iraq in 2011, the AUMF was still active so Obama used it to defend  against ISIS

What are the constitutional foundations of the presidential leadership in fp making?

∙ Congress has tried to repeal the AUMFs but failed several times

∙ Even Obama said he would repeal the AUMF, while he was putting it into full use ∙ Second AUMF, which authorizes war in Iraq, should be repealed since it’s an outdated call to  war 

∙ 1st AUMF should be clarified by the executive branch

o Actions it takes against terrorists

o No more secrecy about who we’re at war with

∙ Even without AUMFs, Pres. Already has plenty of power to authorize military action ∙ AUMFs let Pres. Act without contsraints

Module 4 Overview

what role does the cia play in us fp?

∙ President’s role in FP decision-making

∙ Questions to consider:

o What are the constitutional foundations of the presidential leadership in FP making? o Politics in the US foreign policy bureaucracy: how does interagency political competition  shape US foreign policy? If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of a marketing plan in marketing?

▪ What is the Presidential daily brief? What role does the CIA play in US FP? o Does war expand presidential authority? How? We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of behavior in psychology?

o What are some of the controversies associated with using executive orders in the  implementation of FP, esp. over immigration? What political challenges encourage the  President to pursue such a policy strategy? Ow does the battle over immigration policy  illustrate tensions b/w the executive and legislative branches?

4.1 Constitutional Foundations of the Presidential Leadership in Foreign Policy ∙ President is Commander and Chief of the Army and Navy (Clause of Constitution) o Presidents use this as justification to engage in military intervention without a  Congressional hearing If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of metabolism in the cell?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the main principles that the structure and function of government is based on?

∙ Constitution lets Pres. Make treaties with consent of Congress and to appoint ambassadors ∙ Any powers not explicitly given to another branch lie with the President

∙ Strong case for expansive presidential power over FP

∙ US political system intentionally has checks and balances and separation of power to keep  power from becoming concentrated If you want to learn more check out What does it mean if a function is continuous?

∙ Specifically designed for gridlock in the absence of broad political consensus ∙ Pres. Must have a 2/3 majority vote in Senate to ratify a treaty

∙ Congress has the power to declare war and raise/support armies

o Some ambiguity since Congress hasn’t started a war since WWII

o Can use power of purse to defund certain policies

▪ Pres. Can veto this but it can be overturned with 2/3 vote

4.2 Politics in the US Foreign Policy Bureaucracy, I

∙ Key function of executive branch: implement FP decisions

o Can lead to some organizational conflicts between bureaus

∙ Bureaucratic politics with FP If you want to learn more check out What is the purpose of sociological research?

o Pres. & National security council staff (management over FP)

▪ Office within the White House; created by Truman to fight Cold War

▪ Play central coordinating role among all FP decisions

▪ Set the basic rules for bureaucracies to follow and coordinate in accomplishing  an FP ruling

▪ Sometimes, Executive departments can contradict each other in what they say  and do

4.3 Politics in the US Foreign Policy Bureaucracy, II

∙ Bureaucratic politics with FP

o Different agency heads can have different ideas about implementing FP

▪ Compete for influence over President ???? convince him on how to proceed ▪ Depends on who gets invited to certain meetings

▪ Happened with Iraq as well

o Bureaucratic interests driven by which policy would maximize the influence/resources of  that bureau

▪ EX: When bureaucratic agencies try to spend all their resources at the end of  the year ???? will get more funding next year

4.4 CIA Director John O. Brennan Discusses the CIA’s Relationship with the Executive Branch  and Congress

∙ Main responsibilities:

o Make sure CIA is uncovering and stopping threats around the world against the US ▪ Global responsibility

o Make sure President & senior policymakers receive best info on developments  worldwide

▪ Keep President informed on breaking developments in the world

o CEO of a large corporation (CIA): going through a tech evolution

▪ Must adapt to new threats and their means of damage

∙ Differences between presidents

o Brief given to diff. presidents in diff. ways

o Bush & Obama want the brief to be more interactive with Director of CIA o Have to respond based on the evolution of threats

o 9/11 during Bush and Arab Spring during Obama Admin.

∙ Do partisan differences matter in terms of how info is delivered?

o New presidents put their partisan biases behind them when it comes to National  security issues

o Obligation to advance national security interests regardless of partisan agendas ∙ Role of Congressional oversight in intelligence

o Importance of congressional oversight: vital that they know what the CIA does o Congress appropriates funds to executive branch, so they should know what the  executive branch does

∙ Relationships between agencies

o Agencies must work together to put forward policy proposals

▪ Starts with Interagency policy committees

▪ Proposals for policies go up from there and are refined

▪ Can be lethargic and slow but must also work quickly at times

o CIA’s role is to tell policymakers important info and possible advice or consequences of  certain courses of action

o Presidents want to elicit different points of view

4.5 War and the Expansion of Presidential Authority

∙ How war influences presidential authority

o How larger international system shapes the US

∙ 9/11 has a powerful effect in reshaping American politics and FP

∙ War enables an executive to expand his authority at home

o May limit congressional powers or allow President to pass more policies that he wants  rather than Congress

o Presidents get more of what they want on the home front

∙ Constitution gives Congress power to declare war and supply armies

∙ President and members of congress represent different constituencies

o President represents more people ???? more balanced constituency

o Congress members have both national and local/district interests

▪ Local and national interests may conflict ???? focus more on local interests since  those are the people who elect Congressmen

∙ Congress cares more about national interest outcomes in wartime ???? align themselves more  with the President

∙ President has a whole FP bureaucracy, giving him better intelligence and info o Congress have to trust President, and he gets more of what he wants

∙ War and its crises creates opportunities for President to expand his authority 4.6 Discussion of the Golan-Vilella and the AUMF Debate on ISIS/Syria

∙ Congress authorized President to use military force against attackers on 9/11 (very broad, used  to later expand the war on terror indefinitely) [2001]

∙ Congress authorized force against Iraq in 2002, a year later

o War ended in 2011; 2nd AUMF is no longer valid ???? it should be repealed ∙ Obama said 2001 AUMF authorized him to use force against ISIS

∙ Congress should revisit 2001 AUMF because it’s too vague ???? Gives exec branch too much  independence and power

o Undermines the democratic process since President doesn’t have to say who he’s  attacking

o Congress can’t constrain President’s power

∙ Congress hasn’t declared war in decades ???? AUMFs give President some Congressional  authorization for war

∙ Congress wants to play a check on Presidential power BUT it is reluctant because congressmen don’t know how these conflicts will turn out

o Creates uncertainty and fear

o Individual interest of congressmen not wanting a bad mark on their record o Congressmen complain and blame Obama but don’t want to take responsibility for any  decisions made in regards to war

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