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USC / Geography / GEOG 103 / What are the types of diffusion?

What are the types of diffusion?

What are the types of diffusion?


School: University of South Carolina
Department: Geography
Course: Introduction to Geography
Professor: Larianne collins
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: geography
Cost: 50
Name: GEOG 103 exam 1
Description: these notes cover everything that will be on the first exam.
Uploaded: 01/30/2017
7 Pages 74 Views 4 Unlocks

Geography 103

What are the types of diffusion?

Exam 1 material


∙ Natural landscape: may shape how people live, but does not dictate

∙ Cultural landscape: the visible imprint of human activity

∙ Absolute location­ exact spot where something exists

∙ Relative location­ where is it in relation to another location

∙ Site­ refers to physical/cultural characteristics of a place

∙ Situation­ refers to the location of something in relation to a larger region ∙ Absolute direction­ based on cardinal points, north, south, east and west ∙ Relative direction­ references a “direction” that is culturally based, and varies by location ∙ Absolute distance­ measure distance: miles, kilometers, feet, meters

What is geo information science?

If you want to learn more check out How will you define the cell theory?

∙ Relative distance­ transforms linear measurement into more meaningful units ∙ Space­ the physical gap between 2 objects

∙ Relocation diffusion­ the spread of a feature through physical movement of people from 

one place to another

∙ Contagious diffusion­ the spread of a characteristic throughout the population by contact ∙ Hierarchical diffusion­ the spread of an idea from the most connected people or places to 

other people or places If you want to learn more check out What is pan ethnic identity?

∙ Globalization­ expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes increasing 

interconnectedness across borders

What is the global positioning system and how does it work?

∙ Map scale­ the ratio of map distance to ground distance

∙ Map projection­ the science of transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a flat map Basic Concepts: 

Site vs. Situation: 

∙ Site:

o An absolute location concept

o Humans can modify site characteristics

∙ Situation:

o A relative location concept

o Accessibility and connections with other places The Global Grid: 

∙ Systems of reference for locating points on earth’s surface ∙ Based on angular distance If you want to learn more check out What are the three assumptions of science?

∙ Uses key points to determine location:

o N/S poles

o Equator

o Prime meridian 

o International date line


∙ Relative direction ex:

o “up North”

o “the west”

o “across the horseshoe”

Scale: what is the level of detail?  

∙ describes the level of analysis

o local, global, national, regional

o areal extent

Thinking Geographically:

Types of diffusion: 

∙ relocation diffusion

∙ contagious diffusion

∙ hierarchical diffusion

Spatial interaction: 

∙ 1st law of geography

o Things that are near are more related than things that are far ∙ Distance decay Don't forget about the age old question of What is ribosomes?

∙ Space­time compression

o Accessibility

o Connectivity


∙ Takes place within networks

∙ Economy promotes globalization

∙ Transnational corporation:

o Vertical integration

o Horizontal integration

∙ Pros:

o Convenience 

o Wealth

∙ Cons:

o Digital divide

o Uneven development If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between operant and respondent behavior?

o Intolerance

o Human trafficking 

o Uniform landscape


What is a map? 

∙ Maps are a means of communication

o Contains an element of location (spatial)

o Reduction of a visual reality (element of scale)

∙ One component of Geographic literacy is map literacy Cartography: Don't forget about the age old question of What is absolutism?

∙ The art, science, and technology of mapmaking

∙ All maps are distorted (shape, area, distance, or direction) ∙ Symbology­ points, lines, and polygons represent real­world features 

Scale = affects generalization: 

∙ Rivers:  line feature

∙ Cities:  point feature

Map scale: 

∙ What is the level of detail?

o Small scale = small detail (large area) 

o Large scale = large detail (small area) 


∙    Pattern comparison

∙    Location analysis

∙    Display of changing data

∙    Political statements

∙    Travel routes

Types of maps: 

∙ Mental maps

∙ Virtual and interactive maps

∙ Reference/general purpose maps 

o Physical map

o Political map

o Topographic map

∙ Thematic maps 

o Special purpose maps­ represent 1 or 2 variable

o The “language” uses color, shape, size, shadows, etc.

o 2 main purposes:

 Presentation of data

 Analysis of data

o Types

 Dot maps 

 Proportional symbols map 

 Flow line maps 

∙ Show movement

 Area class 

∙ Uses color to shade in a region with similar characteristics 

 cartogram map 

∙ Uses size to predict data­ usually the country size

 *Choropleth map 

∙ Uses the same color in various shades

∙ Data has been processed

Mapping issues: 

∙ Bad maps

∙ Color

∙ Deceit

∙ Representation choice

∙ Errors

∙ Projections

Map projection: 

∙ “flattening” the Earth is a geometry problem

∙ All maps are distorted in different ways and to different degrees

Geospatial Technologies: 

Global positioning system (GPS): 

∙ Satellite­based navigation system that determines precise location of something on earth 

in 3D

∙ Atomic clocks broadcast info to receivers which analyze time signals to determine  location

Remote sensing: 

∙ Science of obtaining and recording images of earth’s surface from a sensing device not in direct contact with the surface

Geographic information systems/science (GIS): 

∙ A GIS is a computer system for:

o Capturing

o Storing

o Querying

o Analyzing

o Displaying

∙ GIS applications

o Public safety

o Commercial 

o Coastal management

o Health care

Geospatial data: 

∙ A tool that allows us to understand spatial information and solve real world problems ∙ Helps calculate whether relationships b/t objects are significant or coincidental

Vector representation:

Raster representation:

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