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GSU / Biology / BIOL 3880 / What is the definition of metabolism in the cell?

What is the definition of metabolism in the cell?

What is the definition of metabolism in the cell?

Description

School: Georgia State University
Department: Biology
Course: Microbiology
Professor: Crow
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Test 1 Study Guide
Description: Chapters 1-3, & 5.
Uploaded: 01/31/2017
18 Pages 122 Views 1 Unlocks
Reviews


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Chapter 1 Don't forget about the age old question of What are the main principles that the structure and function of government is based on?

Leeuwenhoek and Hooke: early microscope development

⊳ protist 11674) and selenomonas (1676) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the formula for finding a rectangle?

Microbes: can be harmful or helpful; ubiquitous

⊳ ex: prokaryotes, eukaryotes, viruses : angle

Prokaryotes ⊳ bacteria and archaea If you want to learn more check out What is the basic research concept?

Eukaryotes ⊳ fungi If you want to learn more check out What is the prohibition in congress?

                                        Properties of Cells

MetabolismWe also discuss several other topics like Who is the primal mother earth goddess in greek mythology?

Take up nutrients

     ⤷ Transform them

            ⤷ Expel

  • Genetic:
  • Transcription
  • Translation
  • Catalytic
  • biosynthesis

GrowthWe also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of sales orientation in marketing?

Nutrients converted into new cell materials used to make new cells

Evolution

Evolving cells display new characteristics

Phylogenetic trees: Show relationship of evolution

           

Some Cell Properties

  • Differentiation
  • Form new cell structures
  • Ex: spore
  • Motility
  • Some are capable of self propulsion
  • Communication
  • Using chemical messengers to interact
  • Genetic Exchange
  • Exchange genes by different mechanisms

◻ Generation of phylogenetic tree:

1) isolate DNA from each organism

2) rRNA copies using PCR

3) Sequence

4) analyze sequence

5) Generate phylogenetic tree

◻ Most microbes habitat is the marine subsurface (66%.) and terrestrial (26%)

◻ Humans are no longer dying from bacterial infection because of vaccines and antibiotics. No gastroenteritis because meat is cooked better and handwashing.

⊳ 1900s Top 3: Influenza and pneumonia;Tuberculosis; Gastroenteritis

⊳ Today's Top 3: Heart disease; cancer; stroke

◻ Bacteria in the gut breakdown food to gain nutrients → produce gas

◻ Pasteur: disproved spontaneous generation theory through exps

 

⊳ heat non sterile liquid to sterilize liquid in S-neck glassware

Glass upright       →

Flask Tipped        →

Microbes and dust trapped in bend while the liquid cooled

Microbes and dust have access to the liquid

→ liquid remains sterile

→ liquid contaminated

◻ Koch's Postulate

   ⊳ Isolate blood and pathogen from sick animal. Grow pathogens in pure culture. Infect healthy

   animal with pathogen. Reisolate pathogen from previously healthy animal and it must be 

   shown to be the same pathogen from the original sick animal.

   ⊳ Causative Agent Identification by Koch: Anthrax and TB

◻ Beijerinck: formulated the enrichment culture technique → microbes are isolated from

    natural samples using selective nutrient and incubation conditions to favor a particular  

    metabolic group of organisms.

    ⊳ He isolated Azotobacter (aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium)

◻ Winogradsky: studied nitrifying bacteria and sulfur bacteria, showing that they catalyze

    specific transformations

    ⊳ Chemolithotrophs: oxidation of inorganic compounds to yield energy "earth eaters" that get

    carbon from

    ⊳ Winogradsky isolated clostridium pasteurianum (anaerobic nitrogen fixing bacteria).

Chapter 2 and 3

◻ Light Microscopy: brightfield, clarkfield, phase contrast, fluorescence

    ⊳ Phase Contrast - light passes through cells & surroundings at different rates

    ⊳ Clarkfield - light approaches to from the side &  is scattered by the specimen

    ⊳ Fluorescence  visualization based on light emission Inatural or staining)

◻ Staining steps:

  1. Smear sample on slide → air dry 
  2. Pass Slide (using tongs & gloves) over flame (fanning motion)
  3. Stain Slide wi crystal violet for 1 min
  4. Add iodine (1 min) to lock in violet color
  5. Decolorize using alcohol (20s)
  6. Counterstain using safranın (1-2 min) and visualize using microscope

→ gram(+): purple thick peptidoglycans

→ gram(-): pink to red thin peptidoglycan

◻ Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) Microscopy (3D Visualization): polarized light passes through a prism that generates 2 different beams. The beams pass through the specimen and recombine into 1 When they enter the objective lens. 

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