CLP 4143 Exam 1 Study Guide Questions What is Abnormality? 1. Define abnormal psychology. 2. Describe the continuum model of abnormality. 3. Describe the “four Ds” of abnormality. 4. Apply the “four Ds” to determine whether you think a given behavior is abnormal. Ex. Give the 4 D’s of the following sceWe also discuss several other topics like which of the following statements regarding the amdrs is false
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nario: ∙ Mark is what you might call a heavy drinker. Although he is only 18, he has ready access to alcohol, and most nights he typically drinks at least five or six beers. He rarely feels drunk after that much alcohol, though, so he might also throw back a few shots, especially when he is out partying on Saturday nights. He’s gotten caught a few times and received rickets fro underage drinking, but he proudly displays them on his dorm wall as badges of honor. Mark’s grades are not what they could be, but he finds his classes boring and has a hard time doing the work. 5. Discuss how social norms influence what is determined to be “abnormal.” Theories of Abnormality 6. Vocabulary: ∙ Biological approach ∙ Amygdala ∙ Limbic system ∙ Neurotransmitters ∙ Reuptake∙ Endocrine system ∙ Behavior genetics ∙ Polygenic ∙ Epigenetics ∙ Psychological approach ∙ Behavioral approaches ∙ Classical conditioning ∙ Operant conditioning ∙ Modeling ∙ Systematic desensitization therapy ∙ Cognitive theories ∙ Cognitions ∙ Psychodynamic theories ∙ Causal attribution ∙ Global assumption ∙ Humanistic approaches ∙ Self-actualization ∙ Family systems theories ∙ Sociocultural approach ∙ Diathesis-stress model7. Describe the biopsychosocial approach to abnormal behavior. 8. Biological theories for abnormality: Describe how structural abnormalities, biochemical imbalances, and genetic abnormalities may lead to abnormal behavior. 9. Describe how family history studies, twin studies, and adoption studies may be used to examine the role of genetic and environmental influences on abnormal behavior (some information will come from class). 10. Psychological theories for abnormality: Describe how behavioral approaches, cognitive approaches, psychodynamic approaches, and humanistic approaches attempt to explain the origins of abnormal behavior. 11. Interpersonal/social theories for abnormality: Describe how interpersonal approaches (CLASS), family systems approaches, and social structural approaches attempt to explain the origins of abnormal behavior. 12. What is a diathesis-stress model? Does it assume a single cause or multiple causes for abnormal behaviors? Assessment and Diagnosis 13. What is assessment? When and why does assessment occur in clinical settings? 14. What is a symptom, what is a syndrome, and how are they related? 15. Why is it important to assess a person’s current symptoms, past symptoms, and family history of psychological problems? (CLASS) 16. Define validity. Why is it important that psychological assessments be valid?17. Define reliability. Why is it important that psychological assessments be reliable? 18. What are the pros and cons of structured and unstructured clinical interviews? 19. What do intelligence tests measure? What are some criticisms of intelligence tests? 20. Why are symptom questionnaires advantageous? 21. What are some uses for personality inventories? 22. What are projective tests and what are some criticisms of them? 23. What are behavior observations? How might a clinician avoid biased observations? 24. How is self-monitoring used to identify and change behavior? 25. What makes child assessment more difficult than adult assessment? 26. In what ways can assessment be culturally biased? Transdiagnostic Approaches 27. What is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)? How has the DSM changed over the years? 28. What are some controversies with the DSM? 29. Describe how multiple levels of analysis can be used to study a psychological phenomenon. 30. Discuss what can be gained by using multiple levels of analysis to study psychopathology. 31. Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of studying symptoms versus syndromes. 32. Discuss how the National Institute of Mental Health’s Research Domain Criteria, or RDoC initiative, differs from other approaches of looking at mental disorders. Clinical Research 33. Define the following: ∙ Scientific method ∙ Hypothesis ∙ Null hypothesis ∙ Independent variable ∙ Dependent variable ∙ Operationalization34. What are case studies? Correlational studies? Experimental studies? Compare and contrast these three types of study designs in terms of: ∙ The methods used ∙ The appropriate interpretations of information that they can provide. 35. What are the three requirements for determining causation? Answers 1. Abnormal Psychology- Study of people who suffer from mental, emotional, and physical pain; Often referred to as psychopathology 2. Continuum Model: ∙ Very normal, somewhere in the middle, or very abnormal behavior; no dividing line ∙ Normal Behavior o Behavior, thoughts, and feelings that are typical for the social context, not distressing to the individual, not interfering with social life or work/school, not dangerous ∙ Halfway Down the Continuum o Behaviors, thoughts, and feelings are one or more of the following: Somewhat unusual for the social context Distressing to the individual Interfering with social or occupational functioning Dangerous ∙ Abnormal Behavioro Behavior, thoughts, and feelings are one or more of the following: Highly unusual for the social context The source of significant individual distress Significantly interfering with social or occupational functioning Highly dangerous to yourself or others 3. Four D’s of Abnormality (Each on its own continuum) ∙ Deviance from the norm o Unusual, unexpected, different from what other people do o Influenced by cultural norms o Normal curve (bell curve) represents many human characteristics and or behaviors o Problems with Deviance: We cannot assume that something is abnormal just because they are different There is no cut off that says “Oh that’s abnormal” o Apply with the most caution ∙ Dysfunctionality o Interferes with your ability to function In daily life At work or school Forming relationships ∙ Distress to self or otherso Causes physical or emotional pain o Advantage: Disregards societal norms o Problems: Poor insight Distress to others ∙ Dangerousness to self or others o Very dangerous to themselves or others 4. Deviance: He drinks an excessive amount and still isn’t drunk Dysfunction: His drinking habits are affecting his grades and he is making excuses for it by saying his classes are boring Distress: His drinking habits could be causing stress in his family or friends (gray area) Dangerous: His drinking habits could cause him to get hurt, blackout, or get in more trouble with authority 5. Cultural Norms: Things to look out for when diagnosing abnormal behavior ∙ Ex. Woman refusing to eat for several days o A man driving a nail through his hand o A woman building a shrine to her dead husband in her living room and leaving food and gifts for him at the altar ∙ These things are all cultural norms for certain religions and places in the world ∙ Cultural Relativism- the view that there are no universal standards or rules for labeling a behavior abnormal o Instead behaviors can be labeled abnormal only relative to cultural norms 6. Vocabulary: ∙ Biological approach- Structural Theories (Abnormalities in the structure of the brain cause mental disorders); Biochemical Theories (Imbalances in levels of neurotransmitters, hormones, or poor functioning of receptors for neurotransmitters causes mental disorders) ∙ Amygdala- Part of the brain that deals with emotions, such as fear ∙ Limbic system- Regulates intrinsic behavior, ex. Reactions to stressful events, eating, and sexual behavior ∙ Neurotransmitters- Biochemical that act as messengers carrying impulses from one neuron, or nerve cell, to another in the brain and in other parts of the nervous system ∙ Reuptake- A process that occurs when the initial neuron releasing the neurotransmitter into the synapse reabsorbs the neurotransmitter, decreasing the amount left in the synapse ∙ Endocrine system- System of glands that produces chemical called hormones, which are released directly into the blood ∙ Behavior genetics- The study of the genetics of personality and abnormality ∙ Polygenic- “multiple gene” process that takes multiple genetic abnormalities coming together in one individual to create a specific disorder ∙ Epigenetics- Line of research that indicates that environmental conditions can affect the expression of genes ∙ Psychological approach- Behavioral, cognitive, psychodynamic, humanistic, family system, and third wave approaches ∙ Behavioral approaches- Focuses on the influence of reinforcement and punishments in producing behavior ∙ Classical conditioning- Pairing previously neutral stimulus with a stimulus that naturally leads to a certain response and eventually the neutral stimulus is able to elicit that response ∙ Operant conditioning- Shaping of behaviors by providing rewards for desired behaviors and providing punishment for undesired behaviors ∙ Modeling- Behaviors learned by imitating others ∙ Systematic desensitization therapy- Gradual method for extinguishing anxiety responses to stimuli and the maladaptive behavior that often accompanies this anxiety ∙ Cognitive theories- Argue that it’s not simply reward and punishments that motivate human behavior, instead our cognitions shape our behaviors and the emotions we experience ∙ Cognitions- Thoughts or beliefs; The way we think determines the way we feel and act∙ Psychodynamic theories- Suggest that all behaviors, thoughts, and emotions, whether normal or abnormal, are influenced to a large extent by unconscious processes ∙ Causal attribution- When we ask ourselves “why” when something happens to us ∙ Global assumption- Broad beliefs about ourselves, our relationships, and the world ∙ Humanistic approaches- Based on the assumptions that humans have an innate capacity for goodness and for living a full life ∙ Self-actualization- The fulfillment of their potential for love creativity and meaning. ∙ Family systems theories- Based on the beliefs that an individual’s problems are always rooted in interpersonal systems, particularly family systems ∙ Sociocultural approach- Suggest that we need to look beyond the individual or even the family to the larger society in order to understand people’s problems ∙ Diathesis-stress model- Says that it takes both an existing diathesis to a disorder and a trigger, or stress, to create the disorder; Vulnerability + Stress = Abnormal Behavior 7. Biopsychosocial Model ∙ Research suggests combination à mental disorder ∙ Psychological o Psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, humanistic ∙ Social o Interpersonal, family, culture ∙ Biological o Structural, biochemical, genetic 8. Biological Theories ∙ Structural Theories: Abnormalities in the structure of the brain cause mental disorders. o Frontal Lobe Effects self control, planning, executive functioning, and self regulating Lesions cause problems in self-control Phineas Gage- railroad foreman who survived a railroad spike going straight through his skull His friends said he was rude and more aggressive after the accident Led to abnormal behavior for him o Hippocampus Effects emotions, memories Lesions cause problems forming new memories Clive Wearing Has less than 30 seconds memory Only remembers his Wife, has no short term memory ∙ Biochemical Theories: Imbalances in levels of neurotransmitters, hormones, or poor functioning of receptors for neurotransmitters causes mental disorders. o Brain needs chemicals to operate properly Include neurotransmitters and hormones Neurotransmitters: Biochemical “messengers” Serotonin goes from Presynaptic neuron to synaptic cleft to post synaptic neuron o Endocrine System Produces hormones à released into blood Influences mood, energy level, & stress response o Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPA Axis) Dysregulation à difficulty managing stress Linked to stress response, depression, anxiety, & other psychological dxs ∙ Genetic Theories: An accumulation of Disordered genes leads to mental disorders. o What are Genes? Chromosomes are made up of individual genes Alterations in structure/number can cause major defects (e.g., Down Syndrome) Multiple genes can combine to create one disorder (polygenic process) 9. Studies: ∙ Family History Studies o Identify Probands Probands- people who have the disorder that you are going to study o Identify Controls Controls- people who do not have the disorder that you’re studying o Examine Relative Trace a disorder back through lineage to identify who else in their family had this disorder ∙ Twin Studies o Differences between MZ (Identical) vs. DZ (fraternal) twins o Can separate genetic and environmental factors o More rigorous than family studies o MZ twins reared together share 100% of their genes and their environment. MZ twins reared apart (bc of adoption) only share 100% of their genes, but none of their environment. o Concordance rate: the probability that both twins have a disorder if one twin has it 10. Behavioral approaches- Focuses on the influence of reinforcement and punishments in producing behaviorCognitive approaches- Argue that it’s not simply reward and punishments that motivate human behavior, instead our cognitions shape our behaviors and the emotions we experience Psychodynamic approaches- Suggest that all behaviors, thoughts, and emotions, whether normal or abnormal, are influenced to a large extent by unconscious processes Humanistic approaches- Based on the assumptions that humans have an innate capacity for goodness and for living a full life 11. Long-standing patterns of negative relationships: ∙ Roots in early caregiving ∙ Three Sub Levels o Inferiority complex (Adler) o Stages of psychosocial development (Erikson) At different stages in our lives we learn different lessons which will impact the later development o Attachment theory (Bowlby) What type of attachment do you develop when you’re an infant can influence the types of relationships you have in the future Family System Theories: ∙ Families create and maintain mental disorders in individuals to maintain homeostasis o The family is a complex system that works to maintain the status quo o Roots of disorder are within the family o Especially applicable to treatment of children Social Structural Theories: ∙ Societies put individuals under stress and sanction abnormal behavior o Society increases stress on individuals à disorders o Greater the stress, greater the risko Psychopathology influenced by societal rules ∙ Whenever you live in a particular society you have certain stressors that are placed on you 12. Diathesis-stress model- Says that it takes both an existing diathesis to a disorder and a trigger, or stress, to create the disorder; Vulnerability + Stress = Abnormal Behavior ∙ Assumes multiple causes for abnormal behaviors 13. Assessment- Gathering information about symptoms and causes ∙ We use assessment whenever diagnosis and treatment is the goal, to find out what, if anything, is wrong, and to see whether a treatment is working 14. Symptoms: ∙ When your asking a client “hey what’s going on” o Ex. Anxious, trouble getting out of bed ∙ We collect info about symptoms; we try to cluster these into syndromes Syndrome: ∙ Disorder or diagnosis; cluster of symptoms ∙ Symptoms occur together to form syndromes 15. A persons current symptoms let the physician know how the patient has been feeling recently. Past symptoms and family history of psychological disorders could give clues and reasons to certain problems that the patients is currently having. 16. Validity- The accuracy of a test in assessing what it is supposed to measure ∙ If you administer a test to determine a persons behaviors and feelings, you want to be sure that the test us an accurate measure17. Reliability- indicates the consistency in measuring what the test is supposed to measure ∙ It is important that the test provides consistent information about a person 18. Unstructured: ∙ Open ended (“tell me why you’re here today) o Pros: Might gather important information otherwise not asked; client might feel this approach is more sensitive to their needs o Cons: Client might forget or not know to mention certain details; course and outcome of the interview is more subjective Structured: ∙ Series of questions about symptoms o Pros: Targeted info about presence/severity of specific symptoms; more objective and consistent across interviews o Cons: Client might not have insight, or might not be truthful 19. Intelligence tests are used to get a sense of an individuals intellectual strengths and weaknesses, particularly when mental retardation or brain damage is suspected ∙ Also used in schools to identify “gifted” children and children with intellectual difficulties ∙ Designed to measure basic intellectual abilities such as the ability for abstract reasoning, verbal fluency, and spatial memory Criticisms of intelligence tests: ∙ Little consensus as to what is meant by intelligence ∙ Time consuming to the administrator ∙ They are biased in favor of middle- and upper-class, educated individuals because such people are more familiar with the kinds of reasoning assessed on the tests 20. Symptom Questionnaires cover a wide variety of symptoms representing several different disorders, whereas other questionnaires focus on the symptoms of specific disorders ∙ Usually get at a specific syndrome ∙ Good for a specific “slice” of problems ∙ Can get a lot of information quickly 21. Meant to assess people’s typical ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving ∙ Used as part of an assessment procedure to obtain information on peoples well being, self concept, attitudes and beliefs, ways of coping, perceptions of their environment, and social resources, and vulnerabilities 22. Projective Tests- based on the assumption that when people are presented with an ambiguous stimulus, such as an oddly shaped inkblot or a caption-less picture, they will interpret the stimulus inline with their current concerns and feelings, relationships with others, and conflicts or desires. ∙ Criticisms: o The validity and reliability of the tests have not proven strong in research o Because these tests rely so much on subjective interpretations by clinicians, they are open to a number of biases o The criteria for interpreting the tests do not take into account an individuals cultural background 23. Behavior Observation ∙ Clinician collects information by observing client∙ Very useful with people with poor introspection (children, people with lower intellectual functioning) ∙ Observer effects (may change behaviors) ∙ Reliability (consistency) can be a problem ∙ Clinician 24. Self Monitoring is used by keeping track of the number of times per day a client engages in a specific behavior and the conditions under which the behavior occurs ∙ Individuals can discover the triggers of unwanted behaviors though self-monitoring, which in turn can lead them to change these behaviors 25. It is very difficult to engage a child in a discussion about emotions or behaviors. Even when a child talks readily, his or her understanding of the causes of his or her behavior or emotions may not be very well developed ∙ These problems with children’s self-reporting of emotional and behavioral concerns have led clinicians and researchers to rely on other people, usually adults in the children’s lives, to provide information about the child’s functioning 26. Challenges arise with assessment when there is a significant cultural difference between the assessor and the patient ∙ May speak different languages o Patient could be both under or over diagnosed when there is language barrier o Interpreters may not accurately reflect the persons answer ∙ Miscommunication may also occur when people speak the same language but have unique cultural backgrounds 27. Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): ∙ DSM has evolved (we now use DSM-5) o More behaviorally based o More specific symptoms∙ How might this affect reliability? Validity? o Why is this important? ∙ The DSM is updated regularly (every 10 years or so) as researchers gain new insights into the nature and causes of certain disorders. ∙ More recent revisions have added behaviorally based symptoms (i.e. trouble sleeping and eating, rather than just feeling sad) ∙ Developers are working to replace vague descriptions of disorders with specific and concrete criteria for each disorder. As such, the number of symptoms for each disorder increased. 28. It assumes that people don’t lie on some sort of continuum; DSM is categorical ∙ Categories: o Don’t capture the complexity of the individual. o Assume we can define what is “normal” o Many individuals with one disorder also have another (comorbidity) And Symptoms overlap ∙ Culturally sensitive ∙ Developed through opinions of committees rather than evidence 29. Typically, people are recruited based on meeting criteria for a syndrome (like depression) and then studied as a group. That way we get lots of information about the syndrome, hopefully across multiple levels of analysis. 30. Diagnosis’s can be figured out faster if there are multiple approaches being assessed. 31. Symptoms vs. Syndromes o Symptom: Sleep Problem All “blind-men” studying the same thing Could have cross-disorder implications o Syndrome: Depression May be closer to the actual persons experience, symptoms in clusters 32. NIMH’s Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)* ∙ Initiative to study symptoms instead of syndromes across multiple levels of analysis ∙ Emphasizes dimensional nature of symptoms ∙ May lead to “redrawing the boundaries” of mental disorders in the future. ∙ Why is this important? o If I have a research idea which involves studying depression and I need financial support to do the research, then I need to employ the RDoC approach, that is studying specific symptoms and not just “depression” in order to get funding from NIMH. 33. Scientific method: The basic series of steps designed to obtain and evaluate information relevant to a problem in a systematic way Hypothesis: Testable statement of what we predict will happen in our study, must be formulated Null hypothesis: The prediction that there is no relationship between the phenomena we are studying Independent variable: The factor we believe will affect the dependent variable Dependent variable: The factor that we are trying to predict in our study Operationalization: The way we measure or manipulate the variables in a study 34. Case studies: Used as a way to understand the experiences of individuals and to make more general inferences about the sources of psychopathology ∙ Captures the uniqueness of the individual better than any other method ∙ Detailed description/histories of individuals ∙ Usually focus on ONE individual ∙ What can you do with case studies? o Learn details of what took place o Generate ideas about why it occurred o Disprove an “always” or “never” o Prove a general law (generalize to other people, times, or circumstances) Correlational studies: Examine the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable without manipulating either variable ∙ Most common type of study in psychology and medicine ∙ Correlation ≠ Causation ∙ Outcomes & Conclusions o If positive correlation between cortisol (salivary levels) and depression (BDI-II score), THEN hypothesis is supported. Otherwise, canNOT reject the null Experimental studies: Researcher attempt to control the independent variable and any problematic third variables rather than simply observing them as they naturally occur ∙ Have a control group ∙ Manipulate the independent variable ∙ Able to make causal claims ∙ Disadvantages? o Feasibility o Generalizability o Ethics 35. Three requirements for determining causation: ∙ Requirement #1: Correlational ∙ Requirement #2: Proper Temporal Relationship ∙ Requirement #3: Rule out third variables