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UGA - HIST 2112 - Drake HIST 2112 Study Guide Exam 1 - Study Guide

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UGA - HIST 2112 - Drake HIST 2112 Study Guide Exam 1 - Study Guide

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background image Included  in this Study Guide: Important notes about the test 1. What's covered 2. Chapter/Triangle Highlights 3. Key Terms with definitions 4. Important Amendments Typed 5. Master lecture notes from all the lectures thus far 6.
7. Additional  detail on certain terms
Happy  Studying! Important notes about the test Sorry this is late, I'm not sure I'll continue  doing study soup, but a few  people have
emailed  me  asking for the  study guide and notes, so here's stuff I used for my own
personal studying (no guarantee  on its relevance  to the test  or correctness)
Need  a blue book for the test Documents  seem  to be very important  to know; be able to know them  in their context Major highlights from lecture  are also very important Ex. Know what  populists believe/who  they  are/etc.  but don’t have to know names Drake said he might  have us compare  quotes from different viewpoints Everything  relates  to a big issue
• If you have literally done nothing for this class,  I'd start by reading the master  lecture
notes down below (since  that’s  encompasses  things he emphasized  in class,  and all the
things I have before it on this study guide  are kind of complemental  to the actual  lecture
notes),  and then go through and read some  of the documents  he mentions.  In my
opinion, the importance  of the things in this guide would be:
Master  Lecture  Notes  > Read Documents  (not in guide) > Highlights > Key
Terms/Amendments/Add.Detail
Some advice  from my TA: I really do not know the exact  details  of what  Dr. Drake will do. He changes  things
up from semester  to semester.  So, please  consider the following as suggestions,
not actually  what will or will not be on the test.  Try to think about the following
questions,  and see  if you can answer them  in three  or four sentences:
—What was industrialism?  How was it a change  from what  Americans  lived with
before?
—Who benefitted  most from industrialism?  What arguments  did they give to
support it?
—Who hated industrialism?  Why did they  say it harmed the United  States?
—What was city life like? Who came  to live in the cities,  and how did this affect  the
nation's culture?
—Who were the Populists?  What were  they for, and what were they  against?
—What was Reconstruction?
—What happened to slaves freed after  the Civil War? Why did southern states
bring about Jim Crow?
The first four apply mostly to Triangle, but the others will probably relate  to the
test  in some way.  I would see if you can answer  these  questions,  but not simply
give the most basic  definitions.  What you want to do is expand on your answer
some—why  are these  questions important?  How did they  affect  our nation's
history?
1. So, what's covered? Ch. 14: Emancipation  and Reconstruction  1863-1877
The Union Restored  or Renewed?  Presidential  vs. Radical  Reconstruction
Reconstruction  and the  Fate of the Freedmen
Ch. 15: The West 1865-1896
Westward  Expansion and the Fate  of Native  America
Ch. 16: Industrial America  1877-1900
The Ingredients  of Industrialization
Eight Hours for What We Will: Unionization  and the Labor Movement
Farmer Brown Fights Back:  The Populist Revolt  against  Industrialism
Ch. 17: Workers and Farmers  in the age of Organization  1877-1900
Triangle  pp. 0 - 170
2. Chapter/Triangle Highlights 3. These  were taken  from the book, at the end of each chapter  where  the important  documents
start (so they  pertain mostly to the important  documents  in each  chapter  that Drake has
mentioned  10000 times).  If you don’t know the important  highlights from his lectures,  take  a
look at the master  notes below  (there's obviously some overlap,  but I didn’t have time  to
compile  them  together  like I had hoped to).
Chapter 14 Highlights Black codes  passed by white  southern leaders  aimed  to prevent  freed people from
improving their social and economic  status
Johnson didn't support them,  but didn’t overturn them.  He clashed  with  congress over
reconstruction  - vetoing renewal  of freedmen's  bureau and opposing ratification  of the
14th amendment.
1867 republican congress  passed  military construction  acts  which put the south under
military rule and forced whites  to extend  equal political  and civil rights to AA
1870 - ratification  of 15th amendment  extended  suffrage to black men.  Allied with
republicans,  blacks won election  to a variety  of public offices
Interracial  legislatures  improved conditions  for blacks  and whites,  funding for education,
hospitals,  and other services
Opponents tarred the interracial  legislatures  with claims  of fraud, corruption, wasteful
spending,  and "black rule" (14.8)
By mid 1870s, many white northerners sought reconciliation  rather than continued
conflict  while white  southerners created  vigilante  groups like the KKK to use violence  to
intimated  black and white  republicans  (14.7 and 14.9)
By 1877, attacks  on black political  access  crushed southern republicanism,  leaving AA
struggling to retain the freedoms  they had gained during reconstruction
How did blacks and whites view freedom? How essential  was it for the federal  government to supervise  the movement  from
slavery to freedom?
Why didn't southern whites accept  the extension of civil rights for blacks,  if only
in a limited  way?
How did views about reconstruction change over time? How much  did Reconstruction  Transform the South and the Nation? What were the greatest limitations of federal Reconstruction  policies  and the
greatest challenges  to implementing  them?
Chapter 15 Highlights Views  on relationship  between  whites  and American  Indians varied widely  in late 19th
century west
Some whites  wanted  to exterminate  the Indians Some wants  to assimilate  them (15.5 and 15.6) Whites who encountered  Indians were  the least  sympathetic  (15.7) Civilians in the Interior Department  favored peace People in war Department  used military force to resolve conflicts White reformers did not understand Indian culture  and developed  policies  that led to the
decline  of Indian tribal societies
Indian attitudes  ranged from fierce resistance  to accommodation  and rarely, assimilation
(15.9)
Indians who adapted to white  society  still held pride in their Indian traditions (15.8) How do white Americans  and their leaders  deal with differences  among people
rooted in race and nationality?
How do those considered  minorities  forge strategies to gain political  and
economic  access  while maintaining their own identity and heritage?
How well did the U.S.  government in the late 19th century balance its
commitment  to the competing values  of continental expansion  and equal justice
under the law?
Chapter 16 Highlights Laissez-Faire Individual opportunity was a central  American  value Late  19th century - big business and giant trusts came  to dominate  whole industries Owners and those  in control of big businesses  argues that  individual effort and initiative
were still the central  engine  of the American  economy
This is seen  In Adam Smith's idea of laissez-faire  (the marketplace  should be left to
regulate  itself  and government  should do nothing to constrain  the development  of
industry (16.5)
Poverty expanded and a small number industrialists  and financiers accumulated  great
wealth
Reformers  questioned  whether  individualism undermined  community  and believed  the
government  should regulate  the free market  to promote  the greater  public welfare  (16.6
& 16.8)
Big gap between  poor and rich Industrialists  realized  they should help the poor or they would rise up against  them
(16.7), but they still resisted government  interference
Defenders  of industrialism  argued that individualism  must be preserved as the natural
order of society
Critics believed  that  cooperation rather than individual competition  made  social progress
possible,  and that government  should protect  ordinary people from the harm done by
greedy capitalists
Big Question: What is the meaning of success?  (This differed depending on who you
were)
How does each author define success? How do these authors intend to promote success? What can be done to relieve  the plight of those who do not succeed? Chapter 17 Highlights Industrialism  exercises  massive  power over workers and the conditions  of labor Workers organized into unions to secure  higher wages,  shorter hours, improved safety,
and a fairer measure  of control of the  labor process
Corporate owners who were sympathetic  (George Pullman) to workers still assumed  the
right to manage  their businesses  (17.5)
Pullman constructed  a model  tow with clean housing and parks, but didn’t address
economic  complaints  after the depression  of 1893
The American  Railway  Union ARU launched  a nationwide  strike against  the Pullman
company  to imporve economic  conditions  and gain recognition  for the union; Pullman
didn’t negotiate
The union coordinated  strikes,  workers refused  to operate  trains with Pullman cars Railroads hired strike breakers  and Rickard Olney (attorney  general who had a stake in RR
industry) obtained  a federal  injunction ordering strikers back to work; this was
unsuccessful
President  Cleveland ordered federal troops into Chicago to enforce the injunction.  This
class  resulted in 13 deaths
After the arrest of union leaders,  the strike collapsed  and the supreme court upheld the
imprisonment  of leaders
Why have organizations been essential  to advancing the rights of individuals  in
an industrialized  society?
Why was organized labor not more successful  in gaining a larger share of power
from capital?
How did genders influence  labor conflict  and organizing? What role should the government  play in shaping the outcome of conflicts
between labor and capital?
Triangle  Information/Highlights: Don’t worry about names  or little  details Don’t need to know "union leaders"  names,  just know there is the Union and what they
view
Know the  viewpoint of the  owners of the factories,  and the conflict  of unions vs. factory
owners
Big Theme:  Industrialization  is a new thing and people  are fighting  over what to do People are fighting over what  to do Immigration  is a big theme The Fire is a symbol of the craziness  of industrialization Triangle  details typical  conditions for the  period (see lecture  5 notes) For those who haven't read it, chapters  1-5 basically  set  up what life is like for industrial
workers, and chapter  6 is the chapter  about the fire, which mainly  details how the
owners of the Triangle  factory neglected  to impose  safety standards  in the building
(because  it wasn’t  cost effective  or worth it to them,  and there were no regulations yet.
They also had an insanely high insurance  policy on it because  it was common  to commit
arson - when  there weren't  people working - and would get a lot of money from it) and
thus people died in horrible gruesome  ways like falling off and getting  crushed by ladders
that were  too small  to carry people,  jumping  off the building, not having enough exits,
not having a sprinkler system,  not having an alarm system  so certain  floors didn’t even
know about the  fire until it was too late etc.
• Look at the master  lecture  notes - Drake would connect  Triangle  to the  lecture  topics, so its probably more efficient  if you look at those if you haven't  read it • Also, I haven't found any summaries  of the book anywhere,  but you can easily  google the actual  event  and get a good idea of what  happened  and why its significant Key Terms and Definitions 4. Here are the "Key Terms"  and definitions  from each  chapter  from the book, I don’t actually
know if we need to know all of them  or their definitions  (Seems  like Drake wants  more of a big
picture deeper  understanding  of what's going on rather than memorizing  things),  but for
reference  here they  are:
Chapter 14 Proclamation  of Amnesty and Reconstruction  - December  1863, Lincoln signed this
agreement  that  southern states  had to: 1) accept  the abolition of slavery, 2)
Black  Codes - Racial  laws passed in the immediate  aftermath  of the Civil War by southern
legislatures.  The black codes  were intended  to reduce free African Americans  to a
condition as close to slavery as possible. (p. 457)
Fourteenth Amendment - Amendment  to the Constitution  defining citizenship  and
protecting  individual civil and political  rights from abridgment  by the states.  Adopted
during Reconstruction,  the Fourteenth  Amendment  overturned the  Dred Scott  decision.
(p. 463)
Tenure of Office Act -
Law  passed by Congress in 1867 to prevent President  Andrew Johnson from removing
cabinet  members  sympathetic  to the Republican  Party’s approach to congressional
Reconstruction  without  Senate  approval. Johnson was  impeached,  but not convicted,  for
violating the act.
Fifteenth Amendment -
Amendment  to the Constitution  prohibiting the abridgment  of a citizen’s  right to vote  on
the basis of “race,  color, or previous condition  of servitude.”  From the 1870s on, southern
states  devised  numerous strategies  for circumventing  the Fifteenth  Amendment.  (p. 463)
American Equal  Rights Association  -
Group of black and white women  and men formed in 1866 to promote gender and racial
equality.  The organization  split in 1869 over support for the Fifteenth  Amendment.  (p.
463)
Scalawags  - Derisive term for white  Southerners who supported Reconstruction. Carpetbaggers -
Derogatory term  for white  Northerners  who moved  to the South in the years following
the Civil War. Many white  Southerners  believed  that such migrants  were intent  on
exploiting their suffering.
Sharecropping  -
A system  that emerged  as the dominant  mode of agricultural production in the South in
the years after the Civil War. Under the sharecropping  system,  sharecroppers  received
tools and supplies from landowners in exchange  for a share of the eventual  harvest.
Exodusters -
Blacks  who migrated  from the South to Kansas in 1879 seeking  land and a better way of
life.
Redeemers -
White, conservative  Democrats  who challenged  and overthrew Republican  rule in the
South during Reconstruction.
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan  -
Organization formed in 1865 by General Nathan  Bedford Forrest to enforce  prewar racial
norms. Members  of the KKK used threats  and violence  to intimidate  blacks and white
Republicans.
Force Acts -
Three acts  passed  by the U.S. Congress in 1870 and 1871 in response to vigilante  attacks
on southern blacks.  The acts  were designed  to protect black  political rights and end
violence  by the Ku Klux Klan and similar organizations.
Compromise of 1877 -
Compromise  between  Republicans  and southern  Democrats  that resulted  in the election
of Rutherford B. Hayes.  Southern Democrats  agreed  to support Hayes in the  disputed
presidential  election  in
exchange  for his promise  to end Reconstruction. Freedman's Bureau - Federal  agency  created  in 1865 to provide ex-slaves  with economic
and legal  resources.  The freedmen's  bureau played and active  role in shaping black  life in
the postwar south.
Signed into law by Lincoln Aided former slaves  in obtaining land Made hundred of thousands of acres  available  to recently  emancipated  slaves Reunited  families  and marriages Established  schools Johnson didn’t like it Republicans  supported it: helped  southern blacks transition  to freedom White southerners and northern democrats:  "an expensive  social  welfare  program
that rewarded  idleness  in blacks"
Document  14.2 & 14.3 Established  in 1865, extended  after Johnson's veto in 1866, Blacks attended
schools in 1870
Chapter 15 Great Plains  -
Semiarid  territory in central  North America.
Transcontinental  railroad -
A railroad linking the  East and West Coasts of North America.  Completed  in 1869, the
transcontinental  railroad facilitated  the flow of migrants  and the development  of
economic  connections  between  the West  and the East.
Treaty of Fort Laramie -
1851 treaty  that sought to confine  tribes on the northern plains to designated  areas in an
attempt  to keep white  settlers  from encroaching  on their land. In 1868, the second  Treaty
of Fort Laramie  gave northern tribes control  over the “Great  Reservation”  in parts of
present-day  Montana,  Wyoming, North Dakota,  and South Dakota.
Treaty of Medicine Lodge -
1867 treaty  that provided reservation  lands for the Comanche,  Kiowa-Apache  and
Southern Arapaho to settle.  Despite  this agreement,  white  hunters soon invaded this
territory and decimated
the buffalo herd. Battle of the Little BigHorn  -
1876 battle  in the Montana  Territory in which Lieutenant  Colonel George  Armstrong
Custer and his troops were  massacred  by Lakota Sioux.
Buffalo  Soldiers -
African American cavalrymen  who fought in the West  against the  Indians in the 1870s
and 1880s and served with distinction.
Dawes Act -
1887 act  that ended federal  recognition of tribal sovereignty  and divided Indian land into
160-acre parcels to be distributed  to Indian heads  of household. The act  dramatically
reduced  the amount of Indian-controlled  land and undermined Indian social  and cultural
institutions.
Ghost Dance -
Religious  ritual performed by the Paiute Indians in the late  nineteenth  century.  Following
a vision he received  in 1888, the prophet Wovoka believed  that performing the Ghost
Dance  would cause  whites  to disappear and allow Indians to regain control of their lands.
Comstock Lode -
Massive  silver deposit discovered  in the Sierra Nevada  in the late 1850s.
Long Drive -
Cattle  drive from the grazing lands of Texas to rail depots in Kansas.  Once in Kansas,  the
cattle  were shipped eastward  to slaughterhouses  in Chicago.
Homestead Act -
1862 act  that established  procedures  for distributing 160-acre lots to western  settlers,  on
condition that  they develop and farm their land, as an incentive  for western  migration.
Mormons -
Religious  sect  that migrated  to Utah  to escape  religious persecution;  also known as the
Church of Jesus  Christ of Latter-Day  Saints.
Californions  -
Spanish and Mexican  residents  of California. Before  the nineteenth  century, Californios
made  up California’s economic  and political  elite.  Their position, however,  deteriorated
after the conclusion  of the Mexican-American  War in 1848.
Chinese Exclusion  Act -
1882 act  that banned Chinese immigration  into the United States  and prohibited those
Chinese  already in the country from becoming  naturalized  American citizens.
Chapter 16 New South -
Term popularized by newspaper  editor Henry Grady in the 1880s, a proponent of the
modernization  of the southern economy.  Grady believed  that industrial development
would lead to the emergence  of a “New  South.”
Convict lease-
The system  used by southern governments  to furnish mainly  African American  prison
labor to plantation owners  and industrialists  and to raise revenue for the states.  In
practice,  convict  labor replaced  slavery as the  means  of providing a forced labor supply.
Vertical integration -
The control of all elements  in a supply chain by a single  firm. For example,  Andrew
Carnegie,  a vertically  integrated  steel  producer, sought to own suppliers of all the raw
materials  used in steel  production.
Horizontal  integration -
The ownership of as many firms as possible  in a given industry by a single owner.  John D.
Rockefeller  pursued a strategy  of horizontal integration  when he bought up rival oil
refineries.
Corporation -
A form of business  ownership in which the liability of shareholders in a company is
limited  to their individual investments.  The formation of corporations  in the late
nineteenth  century greatly  stimulated  investment  in industry.
Trust -
Business  monopolies formed in the late  nineteenth  and early twentieth  centuries  through
mergers  and consolidation  that inhibited  competition
and controlled  the market. Sherman antitrust act -
1890 act  that outlawed  monopolies  that prevented  free competition  in interstate
commerce.
Laissez-faire  -
French for “let  things alone.”  Advocates  of laissez-faire  believed  that the marketplace
should be left to regulate  itself,  allowing individuals to pursue their own self-interest
without  any government  restraint  or interference.
"The Gospel of Wealth" -
1889 essay by Andrew Carnegie  in which he argued that the rich should act  as stewards
of the wealth  they earned,  using their surplus income  for the benefit  of the community.
Gilded Age -
Term coined  by Mark Twain  and Charles Dudley Warner to describe  the late  nineteenth
century.  The term referred to the opulent and often ostentatious  lifestyles  of the era’s
superrich.
Jim Crow -
Late-nineteenth-century  statutes  that  established  legally defined racial  segregation  in the
South. Jim Crow legislation  helped  ensure the social  and economic  inferiority of southern
blacks.
Plessy v. Ferguson -
1896 Supreme  Court ruling that upheld the legality  of Jim Crow legislation.  The Court
ruled that  as long as states  provided “equal  but separate”  facilities  for whites  and blacks,
Jim Crow laws did not violate  the equal protection  clause  of the Fourteenth  Amendment.
Billion  Dollar Congress -
The Republican-controlled  Congress of 1890 that  spent huge sums of money to promote
business and other interests.
Chapter 17
*sorry, ran out of time
Unskilled  Workers
Skilled Workers
Unions
Collective  bargaining
Noble Order of the Knights of Labor
Haymarket  Square
America  Federation  of Labor (AFL)
Homestead  Strike
Pullman Strike
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
Grangers
Interstate  Commerce  Commission  (ICC)
Farmers' Alliances
Subtreasury System
Populists
Depression  of 1893
Coxey's Army
Important Amendments typed 5. 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments: 13 - (Ratified  1865) Section  1: Neither  slavery not involuntary servitude,  except  as punishment  for
crime  whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,  shall exist within the
United  States,  or any place  subject  to their jurisdiction.
Section  2: Congress shall have power to enforce  this article  by appropriate
legislation.
14 - (Ratified  1868) Section  1: All persons born or naturalized  in the US, and subject  to the jurisdiction
thereof,  are citizens  of the US and of the State  wherein they reside.  No state  shall
make  or enforce  any law which  shall abridge  the privileges or immunities  of
citizens  of the  United States;  nor shall any state  deprive any person of life,  liberty,
or property, without  due process of law;  nor deny to any person within its
jurisdiction the equal  protection of the laws.
Section  2: Representatives  shall be appointed  among the several  states  according
to their respective  numbers,  counting the whole  number of persons in each state,
excluding Indians not taxed.  But when the  right to vote at any election  for the
choice  of electors  for president  and vice-president  of the united states,
representatives  in congress,  the executive  and judicial  officers of a state,  or the
members  of the legislatures  thereof,  is denied  to any of the male  inhabitants  of
such state,  being twenty-one  years of age  and citizens  of the united states,  or in
any way abridges,  except  for participation  in rebellion,  or other crime,  the basis of
representation  therein shall be reduced in the  proportion which  the number of
such male  citizens  shall bear to the whole number of male  citizens  twenty-one
years of age in such state.
Section  3: NO person shall be a senator or representative  in congress,  or elector  of
president  and vice-president,  or hold any office,  civil, or military, under the united
states,  or under any state  who, having previously taken an oath, as a member  of
congress,  or as an officer of the united states,  or as a member  of any state
legislature,  or as an executive  or judicial officer  of any state,  to support the
constitution  of the united states,  shall have engaged  in insurrection or rebellion
against  the same,  or given aid or comfort  to the enemies  thereof.  Congress may,
by a vote  of two-thirds of each  house, remove  such disability.
Section  4: The validity of the public debt  of the US, authorized  by law, including
debts incurred for payment  of pensions and bounties for services  in suppressing
insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned.  But neither the US nor any state
shall assume  or pay any debt or obligation  incurred in aid of insurrection or
rebellion against  the united states,  or any claim  for the loss or emancipation  of any
slave;  but all such debts, obligations,  and claims  shall be held illegal and void.
Section  5: The congress  shall have power to enforce,  by appropriate  legislation,  the
provisions of this article.
15 - (Ratified  1870) Section  1: The right of citizen  of the united  states  to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the united states  or by any state  on account  of race, color, or previous
condition of servitude.
Section  2: The congress  shall have power to enforce  this article  by appropriate
legislation.
Master Lecture Notes from the first day of class  to Thursday  1/26 6. Day 1: The Union  Restored or Renewed? Presidential vs. Radical  Reconstruction Reconstruction: Reuniting  a Nation Torn After the civil war, the U.S.  was a torn nation. The civil war may be the most
important  event in American History. 750,000 people  died in the civil war out of
only 30,000,000 people total.  No one really knew how to put the country back
together  after the North won.
How much "reconstruction?" Who will be in charge? How far will reconstruction
go? What about former slaves?
What does it mean  to reconstruct  - what changes,  political  adjustments,
fast/slow,  who's in charge,  and what  to do with former slaves?
§ James  Garfield 1865 " Have  we done it? Have we given freedom  to the black man? What is freedom?  Is it mere  negation?  Is it the bare privilege of not
being chained,  of not being bought and sold, branded and scourged? If this
is all, then freedom  is a bitter mockery,  a cruel delusion,  and it may well be
questioned  whether  slavery were not better."
§ What about civil rights for former slaves? § The civil war didn’t bring the freedom  that  was intended,  and failed  in a lot
ways
§ 1. I. A Snapshot  of America, 1865 30 million people  living in rural, small  towns, and small farms. Agriculture everywhere. People live & die in the same  area and don't travel Eventually  there  is rapid industrializing,  especially  in the Northeast War is over, people are still angry. The fate  of the south is unknown, will there be punishment? South just wants  a quick and simple reconstruction II. Presidential Reconstruction  - the "gentle approach" Abraham Lincoln was the leader  of the Northern effort against  confederacy Not super tough on confederacy,  wanted  a gentle  reconstruction  with not a lot of
changes.
Second Inaugural  address March 4 1865 "With malice  toward none, with charity
for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the  right, let  us strive on to
finish the  work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall
have borne the battle  and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which  may
achieve  and cherish a just and lasting peace  among ourselves and with all nations."
However,  Lincoln wasn’t  able to implement  his plans for reconstruction  because  he
was assassinated  in 1865 and Andrew Johnson took over.
White northerners were a lot of white  supremacists. Proclamation  of Amnesty and Reconstruction  (1863) How to get  confederates  back in the U.S? § Confederate  states  must agree  to three  terms: Accept  the 13th amendment  - abolishes slavery Rewrite  constitution  to say there is no slavery Renounce  succession 10% of voting population must sign a loyalty  oath to the U.S. Those 10% ended  up being white southern  men, not blacks - it was
those who were eligible  to vote in 1860
§ These  terms  were not too bad, but gave  no word about the fate  of freed
slaves
§ 1. Lincoln  the racial  moderate Racial  moderate,  not a civil rights advocate.  Didn’t believe  in full equality. § Pro civil rights is different  than anti-slavery. § The terms  of the proclamation  of amnesty  and reconstruction are a
reflection  of Lincoln's  moderate  views  on slavery - no discussion  about freed
slaves.
§ Then he was shot at the  theater. § 2. Andrew Johnson - Continuing  Lincoln's  "gentle approach" Possibly one of the worst presidents  ever. § Southern Democrat  - Lincoln chose  him to appeal to border-state  voters § Not friendly, southern, born in NC, raised in TN § Substituted  his own aims  for those  of the north, refused to engage  in
meaningful  compromise,  and misled  the south into believing that  he could
achieve  restoration  quickly.
§ Johnson  versus the radicals Not all southerners were  equally confederate.  People  who had more
slaves  had stronger loyalty to the confederacy.  These  were rich
plantation  owners in places  like Charleston,  Louisiana,  New  Orleans,
Savannah.
People in the mountains  where  there weren't  as many plantations
were suspicious  of the confederacy.
So, the  confederacy  faced  hesitation  and resistance  from southerners
in the mountains.
There was  a lots of mistrust  towards rich plantation  owners Johnson hated rich cotton  plantation  owners and thought  the
confederate  was only helping them.
Johnson wasn’t opposed to slavery, he just didn’t like that only the
rich could have slaves.  He thought all white  people should have
slaves
Saw emancipation  as a means  to "break down an odious and
dangerous aristocracy,"  not to empower  blacks.
He was one of the only southerners  to leave  the confederacy  and stay
loyal to the union
He was made  VP in 1864 by Lincoln Called the south treasonous Hated  black people more than southern rich people;  unconcerned
with the fate  of blacks in the postwar  south
Continued gentle  reconstruction Hated  abolitionists Drank a lot and alienated  a lot of people Wanted to bring the south back to the Union quickly, and thought the
end of slavery would doom the southern aristocracy  he hated  so
much
Moderate  republicans  believed:  blacks  were inferior to whites,  but
the federal  government  needed  to protect  newly  emancipated  slaves.
Without national legislation,  ex slaves  would be "tyrannized  over,
abused,  and virtually enslaved"  (Which is basically  what happened).
Expected  southern states  to extend  basic civil rights to the freedmen.
Radical  Republicans  believed:  Freedmen  deserved  voting rights for
African American men,  and advocated  for the redistribution of
southern plantation  lands to freed slaves.  Called out for the
government  to provide freed people  "a homestead  of forty acres of
land".
Republicans  overall failed to pass a comprehensible  land distribution
program
All republicans believed:  congress  should have a strong voice  in
determining  the  fate of the former confederate  states.  They were
ready to pounce on Johnson's plans. They  also expected  Johnson to
be harsh with his former political  foes, but Johnson relished having
control over them,  and granted almost  all of their requests  for
pardons.
A. 3. III. Radical  Reconstruction  - the "get tough" approach The north wasn't  happy with the gentle  approach  from Lincoln,  thought he was
being too slack  on the south.
Radical  republicans were  especially  not happy about Andrew Johnson and Lincoln's
weak  stance.
Radical  Republicans  started  out as northern anti-slavery  party and thought  winning
the civil war was only the beginning . Believed:
Black people  deserved  freedom and justice,  not necessarily  equality.  They
deserved  certain  rights. **
1. South has to be significantly  reconstructed  to avoid the confederacy  from
coming  back and reorganizing.
2. Black  Codes and Ex-Confederates- Black Codes Document  in chapter  14 § Laws  in the south aimed at black people  intended  to reduce  African
Americans  back to something  close to slavery.
§ Regulations  for blacks:  example  - its illegal  for blacks  to be unemployed,
travel without  a permit,  banned from testifying  in court, can't bear arms
§ Basically  slavery again, and black people  were forced back into cotton fields. § Black codes  were designed  to recreate  slavery § Radical  republicans were  not happy. § States  that  came  back to the  U.S. began electing  congress  people,  and rich
plantation  owners were elected  to represent  southern states.
§ North didn't like this, because  it recreates  some  of the same  problems and
allowed  the confederates  to rise again.  They saw postwar south the same  as
old south.
§ Republicans:  "I demand  to know of what  practical  value is the amendment
abolishing slavery?"
§ Stopping the south from rising again Radical  republicans thought  the reconstruction  needed  to make
significant  deep changes  in southern politics to prevent the south
from rising.
i. 1. Constitutional changes:  13th, 14th, and 15th amendments Radicals  brought the 13, and especially  the  14 & 15 amendments. § Read amendments 13 - abolished slavery 14 - gives citizenship  to former slaves.  Important  for the republican
party (so blacks would vote for republican ideas,  against  the southern
politicians).  Gave  the states  the option to exclude blacks  from voting
with the consequence  that they had less  congressional
representation  if they did so.
15 - black men gained the right to vote,  but states  control the voter
registration  process,  which lead to lots of voter suppression.
Johnson encouraged  the south to reject  the  14th amendment. Congress intended  to force former confederate  states  to protect  civil
rights of African Americans  and grant them  the right to vote.
§ The short-lived Era of Black  political  influence in the south Freed black slaves  voted for the republican party which prevented
the confederacy  from gaining power.
Radicals  made  it tougher for former confederate  states;  trying to
percent  the return of the confederacy.
Led to a short-lived period of black political  participation Pro-slavery confederates  were not happy with  black voter
participation
Meanwhile  radicals took over congress  and alienated  Andrew
Johnson, who was  a candidate  that  believed  in white  supremacy.
John Geary - running for governor of Pennsylvania.  White
supremacists  in the north didn't want Geary  - see anti-Geary  poster in
slides.  
i. 2. Freedmen's Bureau Radical  republicans set  up the Freedmen's  Bureau,  president Johnson would
veto, and congress  (run by radicals)  overrode the  veto.
§ Republicans  thought it helped black males  embrace  freedom. § White southerners and northern democrats  thought it was an expensive
social welfare  program that rewarded  idleness  in blacks
§ Look at Document  14.2 § Constant  battle  of president vs. congress § Radicals  wanted  to get  rid of Johnson § The Freedmen's  Bureau might have been morally defensible*,  but was
politically  indefensible  as it was unconstitutional  .
§ 3. Occupation 4. IV. Impeaching  Andrew Johnson Johnson thought southern states  followed  his plan and could resume their
representation  in congress
Republicans  did not agree Johnson vetoed the civil rights act passed  by congress Condemned  the freedmen's  bureau His vetoes  showed his racism  and beliefs  that slavery was  only evil because  it was
harmful to poor whites,  not slaves themselves.
Thought the bills he vetoed  discriminated  against  whites V. Tenure of Office Act (1867) The Tenure  of Office Act was specifically  against  Johnson. § Made it so firing someone  must  be approved or given permission  from
congress.
§ Prevented  Johnson from firing cabinet  officers  sympathetic  to congressional
reconstruction
§ Johnson wanted  to fire Edwin  Stanton, who was radical sympathizer  that
Lincoln appointed
§ Johnson fired Stanton,  so congress  impeached  Johnson, and Johnson went
to trial and was defeated  politically.
§ Johnson was the first president  to ever be impeached § Republicans  won back presidency  in 1868 with Ulysses  S. Grant. § Grant was previously a Democratic  governor of NY, also an ally of Radical
republicans.  Won with 53% of popular vote  and 73% of electoral  vote.
§ 1. "Redemption" - the white South regains power Ulysses  S. Grant was elected  after  Johnson Reconstruction  was a good idea in the eyes  of radicals and blacks, but was a failure
overall because  the North dropped the  ball.
Redemption  - white south regained  control Preventing the vote 15th amendment  allowed  the states  to regulated  voter registration,  and the
south wanted  to eliminate  black men  from voting, so used violence  and
intimidation  and the KKK was  born.
§ 15th amendment  prohibited voting discrimination  based on race,  but states
could still impose qualifications  on voters like literacy,  paying taxes, moral
character,  etc.  Loopholes for white  leaders  to disfranchise  African
Americans.
§ American  Equal rights association  formed immediately  after the war, but
members  divided over the 15th amendment.
§ KKK - founded to prevent black  men from voting.  Used violence  and murder. § There were  federal attempts  to stop the clan, like the Forced Act. § 1. "Reconstruction  Fatigue" in the North North lost interest  in preventing the  south confederacy. § Slavery became  segregation § Weakened  drive for reconstruction § Panic  of 1873 The economy  was bad, so people  who were  going bankrupt didn’t
care as much about slavery. Personal problems  trumped the fate  of
other people. Most  white people  took white  supremacy  as a given
everywhere,  and there was  less concern for black people.
i. Racism  and death of Radicals The leaders  of the radicals who believed  in equality  died, so there
was a lack of leadership and momentum
ii. Legal  setbacks Courts stacked  against iii. Growing labor strife and industrialism Explosion of industrialism  - people were distracted  by labor issues North abandoned freed slaves,  which led to segregation  and the
reinstating  of slavery
iv. 2. I. The Final  Act: the Compromise of 1877 Read about Last  Union troops removed from the south No federal presence  to enforce  laws, so slaves  were  on their own. II. Day 2: Fate of the Freedmen: Reconstruction and Enduring  Legacies  of Slavery The worldwide history of slavery Sharecropper vs. slaves - important economic  arrangement What is the fate  of freed slaves? U.S. was  the second to last country to abolish slavery. 3 countries of slavery in new world? Unique characteristics  of Euro-American  Slavery Euro-American  slavery was different  than other country's versions Culturally specific/different  motivations Money, race, and descent Money Slaves were  viewed  as money  makers/an  economic  tool for money.
Other countries weren't  like that.
Native  Americans  used to steal  people  from other tribes when
someone  died, so slavery was  not economic,  but rather filling a
spiritual void
American  slavery had four motivations  unique to the U.S. Capitalist  sub orientation 1. Slaves were  property - literally  could be bought and sold under
law
2. Inherited  and permanent  - born and died a slave,  usually
through mothers  line
3. Racial 4. Laws  made it illegal to free slaves because  it was dangerous to the
system.
Which came  first - racism  or slavery? Eventually,  to be black meant  you were a slave in the U.S. In other places,  to be a slave meant  you were  captured,  not
necessarily  race  based or about who you were  as a person, but about
the circumstance  you were  in.
Slavery was European invented,  but American  adopted Orlando equanando - book of a slave Slaves were  captured  and traded to Europeans through trade
networks.  Europeans didn’t directly  gather slaves,  they used goods to
trade for them.
Slave ships segregated  men/women/boys  and separated  them  by
language  so they didn’t organize.
75% of slaves  went to the Caribbean or brazil - Brazilian  culture still
heavily influenced  by slavery.
25% of slaves  went the U.S. 1600/1700s - slaves  grew sugar for the European  market  on the
coasts  of brazil and the Caribbean - Barbados was huge with  10's of
thousands of slaves.
Europeans first tried to enslave  natives,  but the natives  fought back
and lots died fro European diseases,  which  led to African slavery.
Canary islands - Portuguese grow sugar and slottered  natives Major Caribbean islands were sugar slave islands "sugar made  from blood" - average  life of sugar slaves  = 3 years You cant grow sugar with frost; 15 month growing period; after
harvesting,  cut and carry very quickly to grinder
Lots of money  gets made  through sugar farming i. A. 1. I. Slavery and the south Early on the south had a labor problem because  they had a lot of land with no workers.
Slavery came  because  the U.S. tapped  into a system  that already  existed.
First grew indigo and tobacco,  cotton  came  later Slavery as a source of economic/political  power The "planter elite" South was wealthiest  part of America for a long time § 1860 - most valuable  things were slaves  and cotton § Generally,  most  people had less than 20 slaves but wanted  to be part of the
top 4% owners with many slaves.
§ Top 4% were powerful and set the tone for culture  and politics;  they ran the
region and country.
§ Gone with the wind - problematic  but shows the self-indulgent  nature of
southerners
§ You can believe  in white supremacy  and not be pro slavery § Northern criticism  of slavery: Economic.  Thought there  were better  ways to
make  money than slavery. Slavery made  white  people lazy and made  a
dishonest  labor system.  Didn’t think it was  race drive.
§ A. 1. Slavery and poor whites - the "social  floor" Most white  people didn't own slaves,  why would they  support the system
and they  couldn’t afford slaves.
§ Many didn't fight for the confederacy. § West Virginia succeeded  from confederacy  and joined union § Slavery still gave benefits,  you wanted  to have slaves  and be part of the
elite,  so people  took jobs related  to the slave  system  like lawyers.
§ Social floor argument: slavery was racially based,  so being white  guaranteed
that you were  not the bottom  of society.  Even the poorest white  person was
still above an educated  black person. So if you're a white  person at the
bottom,   your white skin is the only similarity  you have to the rich white
people,  which gave you a sense of pride.
§ 2. After the war: recreating the slave system without slavery After the war, white people  want their status  back and don’t want to be the
bottom,  so they wanted  to recreate  the system.
§ 3. II. The end of slavery and the beginning  of freedom - now what? After the way, freedom  was powerful and scary for freedmen No violence  at first Searching  for family First thing freedmen  did was look for family 1. Schools  and education Young and old wanted  to be educated Freedmen's  Bureau: main goal was to give  education  to freedmen  so they could
vote and get included in politics
2. Establishing  churches Center of African American  culture in this era Studied the bible without  owners' interpretation  for the first time New  interpretation  of Christianity Tow major churches:  African Methodist  episcopal  (AME) and African Baptist Run by and for African American  center  for culture and organization Politics 3. Entering politics Before the north lost interest  in the  civil rights movement  and the KKK was
formed, blacks  entered  politics
Document:  force act  - tried to stop clan Blacks  voted and ran for congress An effort to try and take advantage  of their citizenship 4. III. The problem of making a living  - the rise of sharecropping How can freedmen  make  a living? 1865 - everyone  wanted  farms because  land = wealth  = power = independent The Freedmen's dream: independent "yeoman" farming "Nothing  but freedom"  - no longer slaves,  but no land Independent  farmers who owned - Yeomen  farmer § Document   - petition to give freed slaves  land § Plantation  owners still owned the land § Rumor that plantations  would be given to slave families,  but didn’t happen § Freedmen  felt  the land was theirs because  they worked on it § A. Resistance  to Black  codes and the old Plantation Black codes:  laws  about freedmen.  Ex. Had to have a job and couldn’t  move
around
§ B. How to make a living? C. 1. White plantation owners - need cheap labor,  how to get it? Blacks  refused to work for landowners Landowners  had incentive  to negotiate  with  slaves so they  could make  money,  but
the whites  still got better deal
2. Solution - the sharecropping  system Landowners  and slaves  negotiate  to split profits of harvests To slaves, this was better  than getting  nothing like before Look at sharecropper contract  in book Benefits both parties (but whites get a better end of the deal) A. Freedmen supply labor,  white owners supply equipment, tools - all profits split
50/50 (in theory)
B. The problem of "Debt Peonage" and the sharecropping  trap Unraveling  - landowners wanted  to collect  payment  of whatever  they gave
slaves  originally, and they charged  a lot for the  stuff they  gave.
§ They could buy things from the "company  store" but owners hiked the
prices,  and this money will go back to the owner
§ If there  was no crop, the slaves were  in debt to the landowner § Slaves would get in debt  so far that they  could never get  out - Debt  peonage § Laws  were written  so blacks  couldn’t get  out § Not exactly  slavery, but not freedom § This was the dominant  economic  system  after war which  was very
productive for the south
§ White people get  pulled into this debt too § Book "Let  us now praise famous men" § Before,  whites had their skin, now they don’t § Tractors  in the 1930s put sharecroppers  out of business § C. 3. IV. Day 3: Westward Expansion  and the fate of Native America. Ch. 15 Triangle: Don’t worry about names  or little  details Don’t need to know "union leaders"  names,  just know there is the Union and what they
view
Know the  viewpoint of the  owners of the factories View  of union vs. Factory owners Fire is a symbol of the craziness  of industrialization Pros & Cons Industrialization  is a new thing People are fighting over what  to do Immigration  is a big theme Documents in Textbook: Know them  in context Sharecropping contract  - example  of the attempt  to recreate  slavery; hybrid-like slavery Documents  on test  look at big issues in context Noted  that Dr. Drake likes maps and graphs Heading  West - why? Context:
What motivated  people  to live in the middle  of America?
By the 1860s & 1870s most native  Americans  have been eliminated,  but not in the west What to do with natives? Idea of "who's  a real American?",  "How to make  whoever is not an American,  an
American?",  "What to do with natives?"
Railroads were a very important  event  in American  history In 1880s - civilization  was moving west Lots of debate  over land rights/treaty  rights Technically,  people  have been spreading West  since Europeans  first landed in the new
world, but what was  considered to be "West"  changed  over time.  At some  point, Georgia
was "the  west",  then in 1817 Michigan  was considered  "the  West",  etc.
Why did people move  west?  "For freedom"  is not necessarily  correct  because  its a vague
idea. People  move for specific  pragmatic  reasons, they wanted  cheap  land in hopes of
becoming  wealthy
The "American  dream"  in 1870s was owning a farm and being a yeoman  farmer, which
made  you as independent  as possible
Government  wanted  to give away free land In 1800s government  gave away  land via the center  of American  citizenship Government  viewed  farmers  as ideal citizens Northerners  liked small  farms, but not big plantations.  They thought slavery was  bad for
small farmers  - Free soil ideology.
Government  wanted  to give free land, but this was blocked  by southern politics After the succession,  government  gave away  more land I. Cheap Land - Homestead Act of 1862 Act where the government  gave away land in the west  for an extremely  small fee Caused the "squareness"  of everything  out west Everything  out west  is square shaped,  counties,  parts of counties,  townships,  etc.
are all squares within squares
Townships  - subdivision of a county. Found in the north and west  commonly,  but
not in south.
Government  did this on land where natives  had been removed,  and there  was no
ownership in place,  so the  government  took ownership and gave  it away
Fundamental  unit of homestead  act  was corner sections Government  land office:  GLO - sold sections  of land for extremely  cheap,  just a
small filing fee.  They gave out millions of acres in the mid-west  like this
Possibly the  most important  legislation  in Midwest  land legislation 1. Business  Opportunities People also went  out west  to sell supplies  to settlers,  not necessarily  to get  land There was  a large real estate  market,  which was technically  supposed to be illegal,
where people  would buy land and resell  it for a profit using many different  names
This was called  Land speculation People flipped land, in ways that were  kosher and not so kosher The rise of the "corporate West" The west  soon became  a center  for business  corporations § Railroads were the  first entity  to be similar to modern corporations § Cattle  was also a business  market,  and cattle  corporations became  the first
powerful corporations in the U.S.
§ Cowboys were employed  under cattle  corporations  (picture of the
stockyards  in the PowerPoint) and were  sent out to gather  cattle  and bring
them  back to brand them  for the company  they worked for
§ Chicago became  the  meatpacking  center  of the planet  at one point in time.
"porkopolis"
§ The rise of businesses  created  conflicts  between  owners and workers,
known as the labor strife
§ There was  unprecedented  wealth  in the U.S.  so how does the  role of
democracy  fit into this?
§ There were  many different opinions between  owners and workers § A. 2. *Side tangent  that Drake said probably wouldn’t be tested  over: Johnson county range war - people  in Wyoming under "stockman's  associations"
employed  cowboys
In 1892 there  was an economic  downturn and many cowboys  were laid off They decided  to go into business  for themselves,  searching for unbranded cattle Heard owners felt like this was theft  and didn’t like having new competitors So, the  owners of cattle  corporations got a list of their former employees  and hired
assassins  to kill them (picture  of hitmen  in PowerPoint)
The cowboys  started fighting  back and there  were gun battles Basically,  this is an example  of the important  conflict  between  workers and
corporation/business  owners
Manifest  Destiny The belief  that America  was "fated"  to dominate  the continent,  which is where  the
phrase "sea to shining sea" came  from (manifest   identity)
Idea that  America was  under a larger divine plan Technology  will help manifest  destiny Painting in the PowerPoint of a woman  leading America  westward 1. Conquering Nature Dr. Drake specifically  skipped this idea during class § A. Opportunities for Freedom Slaves took advantage  of the westward  expansion and also went out west  to get
land, to become  more independent  and therefore,  actually  embrace  freedom
1. The Fate of the Natives - Death, Disappearance,  or reform Americans  took the native's land The mentality  of most Americans  was not "if" we got their land, it was "when  and how"
we get  the natives land
There were  two main ideas of when  and how to get  the land" Eradication  of
philosophy/school  and the idea of Assimilation
The "eradication"  school The idea that  Americans had about the natives  to "kill them  all, take their land, and
let God deal with the rest"
"The only good Indian is a dead Indian"  - General  Phillip Sheridan Sand Creek Massacre  (1864), Fetterman Massacre  (1866), A. "Kill and scalp them  all, big & little" There were  some augments  over whether  this actually  was a "massacre"  or not -
maybe  because  many Americans  didn’t consider natives  as Americans/people?
Little Big Horn (1876) B. Union army was sent  out west  to fight the natives Phillip Sheridan Eradacists People were  terrified - not all American's  agreed  with the eradication  philosophy 1. The "Assimilationist"  school Important  document  Drake mentioned:  Helen  hunt Jackson document  in chapter
15
Drake also mentioned  all the assimilation  documents  are important to know Assimilation  is the idea that  natives are noble people and shouldn’t be massacred People thought that  the culture of natives  would disappear anyways,  so Americans
to take them  and teach  them  how to be Americans
"assimilate"  them  to be Americans This is a cultural  genocide,  but at the time  people thought the idea  of assimilation
was a very progressive idea
The Myth of the "vanishing  Indian" A. Educate Indians  via  schooling,  land  policy,  and law, to make them "civilized" Indian  schools Americans  put Indian kids in boarding schools to teach  them  how to
be Americans  (PowerPoint Image  of Carlisle school Indian kids)
Americans  cut their hair and put them  in different clothes,  which was
staunchly  against  their culture
Natives  weren't  allowed  to speak  their native  languages  or allowed  to
practice  their own religion
Women were  taught to sew and how to become  domestic  servants Textbook document  to look at: women  in schools Sometimes  natives  would escape  and run away from these  schools Some assimilated  well and became  activists Weird side effect  of assimilation  was that  different tribes  who used to
hate each  other came  together:  Pan Indianism
i. Reservations and the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 Dawes  act is an important  piece  of legislation Henry Dawes  was a radical republican  who took reservations  and
divided them  into 160 acre  chunks
Version of the homestead  act Gave every Indian family their own piece  of land and wanted  them  to
be yeomen  farmers
BIA, Bureau of Indian Affairs - assimilation  program Meant  to teach  natives  about democracy  and citizenship Indians were not equal, but government  wanted  to civilize  them Similar to freedmen's  bureau Reoccurring  idea of how to make  those who weren't  considered
Americans,  "real Americans"
Individuals would get 80 acres while families  got 160 acres The BIA was  very corrupt; local agents  didn't care much ii. B. 2. II. Failure of the Dawes Act and Assimilation Corruption, the loss of reservation  land, and cultural incompatibility  were  all disasters  the
Natives  faced
Indian Reservations  started  having lots of issues and alcoholism  became  common Loss of 'excess' land "excess"  land was given to white  people, so natives lost about 50% of their land
right away
PowerPoint image  of an advertisement  for land 1. Land  speculation problems Natives  could "rent"  land, and were manipulated  by outsiders 2. Lack  of compatibility  with native lifestyles In native  culture,  Women were the farmers/gatherers,  so the  American dream  of
the male  head being a yeomen  farmer was  foreign to the Natives
Natives  had a different  gender hierarchy Native  men felt  like they  were being asked to become  women,  and they refused
this idea
There was  a cultural incompatibility  between  the Indian culture  and American
culture
3. III. The Ghost Dance,  1890 Rumors circulated  that  if natives  banned together  and performed  a "Ghost  Dance"
(Image  in powerpoint),  then American's  would disappear and things would go back to
normal
Act of desperation IV. Day 4: The Ingredients of Industrialization:  Forging the Age of Capital *This is the first lecture  to be relevant  to "Triangle"
Introduction: The Current Time, and Why
Image  from the PowerPoint - pastel  picture of time zones Industrialism  made  time  zones consistent  , so for the first time it was the same  time
everywhere  in that  time  zone
Up until now, most people  live, grew up, died, and were buried in a few miles People lived localized  existences Time  used to be a localized  experience,  since  the curvature  of the earth varies what
"noon" looks like from place  to place,  time  was kept locally
Railroads made  time management  important,  so the railroad industry let to standardized
time
1880s - Congress adopted  national time  zone Railroad corporation in 1884 set up the time  zones we  still use today "Industrialism"  - Perhaps the most important development in US history after 1865 VERY  IMPORTANT  IDEA: Industrialism  is the most important  thing to happen in the  U.S.
between  the end of reconstruction  and the early 1900s
Industrialism  changes  everything People became  less localized,  origin of globalization The way people worked changed.  Used to work on farms, now in factories. I. American Business  Before 1870 The idea of "blue collar working class"  was born from Industrialism Changed where  people worked, how people  worked, and the American  lifestyle  in
general
Social values  changed,  economy  changed,  culture  changed Emergence  of industrialism changed  capitalism Was this change  good /bad? And for whom was it good/bad for? IMPORTANT  IDEA: what  does democracy  look like in this new age  of industrialism? The American  democratic  experience  was born in farming/local  experiences Now its been 100 years and everything has changed  profoundly, so what will
democracy  look like?
Some private  individuals became  more powerful  than the  government There were  a lot of strong opinions on what  is right/wrong Eventually  these  conflicts  lead to shoot-outs  in the street No child labor laws yet (PowerPoint picture  of kids in coal mines) Coal mining was a controversial  area of labor in this era "Dickenzian"  idea that questioned  whether  it was okay for kids to work like this In 1862 textile  mills  in New England  became  the first big factories  - Boston associates In 1850 the biggest  business  in the U.S. had less than 1000 workers, before
industrialization  most businesses  were small  proprietorships
By 1900, 2/3 of workers worked in factories  and only 1/3 were farmers.  In 1850 50%
people were  farmers
II. A case study - Andrew Carnegie Carnegie  Steel  company had over 20,000 workers and was the biggest  corporation in the
world at the time  with over 40 million dollars in profit (PowerPoint image  of smoke  stacks
at a steel  plant)
Drake said not to obsess over little  details  here Steel  is iron infused with carbon, and is very strong and flexible  while iron is soft and not
durable. But steel  is hard to make,  very energy intensive
To make to make lots of steal  with cheap  labor was very profitable A Fortuitous Combination  of Developments Technological  developments Carnegie  was an immigrant  from Scotland  born 1830s, came  to Pittsburg in
the 1840s with parents
§ He worked in places  sometimes  as a "bobbin boy" and gained good skills
and training,  he got promoted because  he was very good at organization
§ Railroads were the  first modern complex  corporation in history § Carnegie  was a genius for industrial organization  and was obsessed  with
efficiency
§ "worry about efficiency  and profits will take  care  of themselves" § But, efficiency  has a human cost § Carnegie  wanted  to be an entrepreneur  and had lots of drive. Wanted his
own industrial empire  and knew  that steel  was upcoming
§ He didn’t have a lot of money,  but he had investor friends (Tom Scott,  Henry
Frick, Charles Schwab)  who loaned him money  for a steel  plant in 1872
§ A. The rise of railroads Carnegie  knew that railroads would be a top customer § Railroads lowered  transportation costs  for everyone § Transportation  was a huge expense,  especially  for farmers out west § Way back when  people used rivers to send things  from the Midwest  south
to the Mississippi to places  like new Orleans
§ Railroads shifted the  flow of goods to the  East,  they could get  their faster
and cheaper  than before
§ Carnegie  negotiated  with railroad corporations § Key ideas here: Cheap transportation,  New  technology  & transportation,
Telegraphs
§ Telegraphs:  first instant  communication.  Telegraph  lines ran right next to
rail road lines
§ B. New resources from the West Vital  natural resources  from the west like iron, coal, silver, copper were
found
§ C. Immigration and cheap labor Cheap labor from immigrants  makes  industrialization  possible § 28 million people  came  to the US; 3rd wave  of immigration  was the factory
immigrants
§ Because  so many people came,  labor costs  were very low and profits were
very high
§ Industrialization  was  build on immigration § The northeast  still has a stamp  of industrialization  today § *Triangle  - pretty  much every character  is an immigrant D. 1. III. The invention of corporate business techniques Corporate business techniques  emerge  in this period § Carnegie  invents some  of them § Corporate structure  today was born in this period § Important:  The textbook has a section  on the integration  of business
techniques  that Drake said to look at, and the documents  at the end of the
chapter
§ A. Some Important corporate Business  techniques Integration of production A. Monopolization,  trusts, "price fixing"; (not so much Carnegie as others) B. 1. Other Helpful Developments A pro-industrial  US government and Republican  Party Republican  party - the party of corporations  and North/Eastern  businesses § Originally, the Republican  party was founded in 1854 over anti-slavery
views,  which were due to spiritual and pragmatic  reasons. Republicans
thought that  money wasn’t  in slavery, but that money  was in the
industrialization.
§ Anti-slavery/pro-business   ideas embraced  industrialism § Republicans  thought the  government  should use its power to make  business
growth possible
§ Democrats  were not as comfortable  with these  business  ideas from the
republicans,  they thought socialism  was the ideal
§ Pro-industrial  law: 14th amendment and Santa Clara County vs. Southern
Pacific  Railroad
The Laws  were tweaked  to be industrially friendly, which is an
example  of how the changes  with time  and the  cultural shift were
applied in laws
Example:  the 14th amendment  applied to businesses  as well, which
treated  corporations as individuals who had rights like a person
does -"corporate  personhood"
The Santa Clara case  is an example  of this "corporate  personhood" was seen as making  businesses  more
efficient  by eliminating  inefficiency
Opponents argues that  giving corporations  rights was dangerous The law and military was on the side of employers,  and the army
would be called  in to help deal with labor strikes
i. A. "Social  Darwinism" - the misguided application  of "survival of the fittest" to
economies
Carnegie  did not believe  in social  Darwinism,  he came  up as a poor
immigrant  and was ambivalent  on the role of the wealth  and poor
§ Social Darwinism  is the idea people  interpreted  out of "the origin of species"
that economic  life is like natural selection,  and we  should embrace  that.
People who didn’t agree were  viewed  as the "unfit",   and lazy
§ "origin of species"  is the work that social  Darwinism  was born out of, but
the origin of species  was not about people  should related  to each  other or
social structure  of humans.  Natural selection  should not apply to businesses,
as Darwin did not say to apply it to other aspects  of life
§ William Graham  Sumner - champion of social Darwinism  and critic  of social
reform - author of "What the  Social Classes  Owe to Each  Other", in which
he basically said they don’t owe each  other anything .
§ Important:  Look at Document  16.5: "A Defense  of Laissez-Faire" § B. 2. The Gilded  Age - Late 1880s-90s There was  unprecedented  wealth  and tremendous  opulence  in this age (PowerPoint
Image  of Cornelius Vanderbilt's  Summer  house = lots of baroque -European style  fancy
décor)
Wealthy Americans  adopted  the idea that  they were similar to European royalty - having
stunning wealth  and power,  and this translated  to architecture
In this era, money produces  political power Americans  admire this success,  but were  weary about the wealthy  gaining control over
everything
Ambivalence  about "Robber Barons" "Robber Barrens" was the idea that  wealth  was stolen from the middle class "Gilded"  - rotten things underneath  wealth,  like how rotten wood would be
underneath  gold plated  walls.
1. Carnegie's Social  Conscience Carnegie  retires in 1901, sells  J.P. Morgan,  and gives money  away Important:  Read the "Document  of Wealth"  document  16.7 Carnegies  is in the middle,  he feels there  is an obligation for the wealthy  do have a
part in philanthropy, but didn’t think they  should hand everything to the poor
His views show his ambivalence  (*side note,  Drake used the word "ambivalent"  to
describe  Carnegie's  view on social Darwinism  a LOT)
He wanted  to do something  substantial  with money,  not just have fancy  things and
show off his wealth
2. A Lingering  Question… Is the Industrialism  good or Bad? The answer  to this really depended on who you were,  and is a personal
moral question.
§ 3. IV. Day 5: "Eight Hours for What We Will": Unionization  and the Labor  Movement Review: Industrialization  & The Labor Movement Questions  about democratic  rights Last  time - rise of corporate  America,  people coming  together  made  industrialization
possible
Business  friendly government  = tremendous  wealth  (Picture of Vanderbilt's  living room) Is it good, bad or both? The wealthy  were  admired and feared  because  they  had power; turning into a
dictatorship
Captain of industry (Carnegie)  vs. Robber Barrens No safety regulations  yet,  machines  were  powered by open belt drives that were  high
powered = dangerous conditions
Questions  about working conditions  and democracy Right now, changing  things is controlled by the government  and wealthy *Industrialization  is the biggest  thing to happen in U.S. post civil war "Piece  work" - making pieces  of shirts to stitch  together.  Sleeves  and collars would be
made  separately  and sent  to a factory.
Triangle  was cutting-edge  because  everything  is done in house By 1890 - 2/3 of all Americans  work in industrial type settings Working conditions  in U.S.  Factories, c. late 19th century Loud, dirty, unsanitary  everywhere,  exhausting,  deadly, dangerous 35,000 people per year die in accidents,  similar to auto accidents  today Sanitation  - bad Meat  packing Chicago,  no hairnets,  gloves,  refrigeration;  waste  was pushed to
middle of table which drains to the Chicago  river
"Try to hit America in the heart,  but punched  them  in the stomach" 1. Working hours - long 40 hour workweek  came  from this era People worked 6 days a week,  10-16 hours a day Caused religious conflicts  for Jews Unions asked for fewer hours Reading  in the textbook - "deskilling"  of labor 2. Work style - regimented, repetitive, "on the clock" Important  change/difficult  for people Farming is hard work but it isn't regimented  or repetitive  like a factory is. Example:  Triangle - life is depressing Company would speed up machine  for more  production, so workers would have  to
work faster  and this was dangerous
Taylorism  - scientific  management system for labor Fredrick Taylor - hated by people § Efficiency  has human costs,  Taylorism  is an example § Factory would be observed and given a plan for how to make  it more
efficient
§ They gave steps  for workers, which made  them  like robots controlling their
every move
§ Triangle  is an example  of typical  conditions  for the period § i. 3. "De-skilling"  of labor Textbook reading Working with your hands - most  things used to be made  by hands by people  called
"Artisans",  who made  things like furniture, silver
They were  proud of their ability to produce things of value, and gave them  a
feeling  of ownership
They worked in small-scale  humane  environments Now, the  labor process is segmented,  workers don’t know the total picture,  just
one part
Knowledge  becomes  fragmented,  requires no skill Consequently,  there's  no pride in the  product The process alienated  worked from the product 4. Wages - low Better  than Europe, but still bad Wages were  low for everyone Triangle:  Owners were also immigrants  who came  to the country poor and rose up 5. I. Unionization  and Strikes - Workers Resist Industrial  Conditions Problems with working conditions,  but what  to do about it? Working class doesn’t  have influence  in government  so they formed groups (enter
Unions)
Unions started  small and grew 1866 - National  Labor Union NLU  - small,  limited membership  to only skilled workers Not much activity,  they had some  picnics Unions were often limited/fractured  by social  divisions No real consequential  unions till later 1. 1877 - Great Railroad  Strike (Picture of magazine) Railroad BNO - people got a 20% cut in pay one day and employees  were  pissed
and walked  out on strike
In the streets  of Baltimore  people rioted Owners decided  to replace  the striking workers with temporary  cheap labor
"Scabs"
"Scabs"  - workers who temporarily  replaced  workers Owners would play on the race division - they put African Americans  in as temps  to
make  the strikers mad
Owners ended up hiring thugs to beat up people  in unions Military was called  in by owners *Military/government  was industry friendly There were  different views  on "strikers,"  depending  on who you were,  you were
for them or against  them.  (Ex. Owners did not like strikers, most  working class  did)
(Images  in PP)
**There  was an ideological  difference  between  peoples views  on industrialization
and unions
Railroad strike, people  realized they used a national union that  could actually  do
stuff - idea of "collective  action"
2. II. 1870s-1880s - Knights of Labor First important union was the  knights of Labor Led by Irish immigrant  - Terrence  Powderly (PP Image  - KOL cartoon on how KOL viewed
the world. People with top hats and belly's represent  the wealthy)
Knights were open in their membership,  allowed  women,  African Americans  (but
sometimes  still segregated),  unskilled, even Irish (whites  thought  the Irish were the  worst
white  people) , but NO Chinese  (we'll go into this later)
KOL were  more open and powerful, with no "unproductive  classes" Only people who worked with their hands could join, no business/banker  people They believed  in "Producerism"  - the  idea that wealth  is created  in a society  by common
people who work with their hands
The thought was if you don’t work with your hands, you don’t do real work, you aren't a
"producer"
Producerism is an ideology which holds that those  members  of society  engaged  in the production of tangible  wealth  are of greater  benefit to society  than, for example,
aristocrats  who inherit their wealth  and station.
Working with hands was viewed  as honest labor (as opposed to slavery which  was seen
as dishonest labor since  the slaves did the work for the owners;  the owners themselves
didn’t do any hard work)
The KOL were  willing to strike  and walk off a job to improve  conditions;  they were willing
to put pressure on employers
However,  the KOL go away quickly Radical  goals  - increased wages, fewer hours 1. The eight hour movement, 1886 In 1886 the "8 hour day" was a hot topic,  lots of unions fought for this. "8 hours for work, 8 hours for sleep,  8 hours for what  we will" - motto  of the
movement
2. Haymarket Square Riots (Summer 1886). Spells the end of the Knights May 1886 - rally in Chicago  with 80,000 people At the same  time,  McCormick  reaper mechanical…  (something  I don’t remember  - I
think they called in the police or military) and after the rally there  was conflict
between  strikers and police  and people were  killed
At the rally there  were more police  than protesters  (not a very big striker/rally
presence)
Someone  threw a bomb at the police  and police  opened fire on the crowd On May 4, 1886, a labor protest rally near Chicago’s  Haymarket  Square turned into
a riot after someone  threw a bomb at police.  At least  eight  people died as a result
of the violence  that  day. Despite  a lack of evidence  against  them,  eight radical
labor activists  were convicted  in connection  with the bombing.  The Haymarket  Riot
was viewed  a setback  for the organized labor movement  in America,  which  was
fighting for such rights as the eight-hour  workday. At the same  time,  the men
convicted  in connection  with the riot were  viewed  by many in the labor movement
as martyrs.
**This  was bad for the KOL, people blamed  them  but it was done by radicals -
"bomb throwing radicals."
People thought the  KOL were a bunch of immigrant  bomb throwers who were
trying to overthrow the government
Chicago government  went after  the KOL leadership,  arrested  and tried 7 or 8
people,  two were hung with little  evidence.  The  point of this was to intimidate  the
Knights (PP Image  of the knights being hung)
Now, KOL have a bad reputation and membership  declines  rapidly 3. III. 1886 - American Federation of Labor. More "Respectable" The AFL is the new more conservative  union, they  replace  the KOL Sam Gompers  was a president  of the AFL (I wrote something  about him being in
Triangle?)
Different  unions have different  political views AFL was  less likely to strike and willing to negotiate Sometimes  members  thought they were  too lax AFL wanted  to separate  themselves  from the poorly viewed  "Anarchists,  radicals,  etc."
and just wanted  to be purely a labor organization
IV. More Radical  Unions  - often repressed by authorities Two main groups: The Reformers  vs. the  Revolutionaries Most people were  reformers Reformers  thought that the U.S.  had problems  but they can fix them  by making  the
system  work, and believed  Americans  can be made  to be America  again
Revolutionaries  thought  America is so rotten and had problems so deep that U.S.  needs
to be completely  reformed
Radicals  believed  in revolution The shittier  the job = people were angrier = the more you believe  in radical
revolution. And example  of this is coal miners.
Coal miners Had a high death  rate/ injury rate § Not paid in money, but paid in scrip, which  was like a coupon and could only
be spent in a few  places.
§ Coal miners were also often required to live in company  housing and pay
rent with scrip
§ They were  required to buy food and supplies  at the company store with
scrip
§ Law  enforcement  is like security  and would escort  and watch  coal miners
vote to make sure they voted for the right person
§ Basically,  the angriest  and therefore most  radical workers were those  who
worked in the coal industry
§ V. United Mine Workers of America - Ludlow Massacre,  1914 The united mine  workers were  radial and willing to strike, frequently There ended  up being blazing gun battles  between  workers and owners  (who hired
thugs, so sometimes  workers vs. thugs)
Striking minors were  strong men At one point, they left the housing and went  to live on the prairie in tents  after
being kicked out
Owners sent thugs to burn the field to force them  out and 75 people  ended up
dying
A. Industrial  Workers of the world - very radical:  socialists,  communists,  anarchists,  etc. Coal miners were so desperate,  so they adopted revolutionary  ideas Known as "Wobblies"  - members  of the industrial workers of the world Super radical,  people were  scared of them If you were communist,  you were a part of this group (Image  in PP) Revolutionary  (Pyramid of capitalist  Image  in PP) - shows their view  of the world "Producerism"  where  the wealthy  skimmed  off working class Not reformers Not very common,  but found in coal mines  and tough work places B. 1892 - Homestead Steel Strike: Andrew Carnegie fights back Carnegie  was less intense,  not anti-union, believed  the  poor could work themselves  up In 1892 - Carnegie  went  to Europe and left Henry Frick in charge.  Frick put up barbed wire
to keep unionsts out.
This caused  a conflict  and strikers were  killed Nice  summary here: http://www.history.com/topics/homestead-strike VI. Day 6: Farmer Brown Strikes Back:  The Populist  Revolt Against  Industrialism Intro: "The Rectangle  of Righteousness?" 1880s/90s - Kansas was a hotbed of political  change  and reform ideas Their opposition to industry was intense Farmers were  Reformers Farmers were  scared of industry, and angry at the ambivalence  towards  industry Populism - the country cousins of labor unions. They shared the same  concerns  and both
saw themselves  as allies  with the KOL and Triangle people.
Formed the third most  important political  party: the  Populist party It fades away The Urban vs. Rural divide has origins here Resistance  to industrialism I. "Agrarian America" The American  dream was to be an independent  yeoman  farmer Farmers were  proud, sometimes  arrogant "Jeffersonian agrarianism"  - farmers as idea citizens Thomas  Jefferson - "The  farmer is the Republic's  most  virtuous…" Farmers were  seen as politically  honest, virtuous, selfless,  put the good of the
whole above themselves,  honest in general
According to Jefferson,  having contact  with your land and soil made  you "better"
morally; the  idea is that you take  care of all your needs for yourself which makes
you ideal for democracy  because  you will vote for the good of the community
Jefferson  didn't like industry, and thought factory  workers were  at the mercy  of
their owners (having to vote the way the  owners wanted,  which happened  in the
coal industry)
Wanted a nation of farmers;  the Louisiana  Purchase was land bought for
Jeffersonian  people
Northerners  Loved*(Not  sure correct,  but what I wrote)  farmers However,  Jefferson  also owned  slaves As Industrialism  gained speed,  it caused  consternation  (Drake used that  word, it
means  anxiety) among  farmers
Farmers thought  they were getting  replaced  as the "Hero's"  by people like Andrew
Carnegie  and other business owners.  (This is similar to artisans cultural anxiety)
1. II. Industrialism's  Threats to Farmers Financial  trouble, debt, etc. Populist farmers are in trouble because  they start  overproducing Overproduction of crops became  a huge problem (and still is today. Drake joked
that overproduction is the "devil of agriculture."
Drake noted that famine  is usually due to politics and infrastructure,  not scarcity Too much of a good thing led to sending crops by the masses  and the  prices
dropped
Sometimes  farmers  couldn’t even break even,  and would be in debt, which
contradicts  their ideal of being "independent"
This is similar to sharecroppers - too much debt to ever get out of 1. Monopolies  - railroads  and banks Railroad and bank industries are HATED by the populists Farmers were  seen as credit risks, so they would get very high interest  rates The populists were  pissed about this because  from their viewpoint  they were  the
heroes of society,  providing food for everyone,  and they're  getting  gauged by
banks
Populists could get anti-sematic  (racists  against  Jews since  most bankers were
Jewish)
Railroad industry had a monopoly (populists hated  this), and sometimes  there
would only be one railroad near a farmer,  so the railroad owners  would charge
super high rates (yet they were  cutting  Carnegie  deals since  he produced steel  for
them)
*Key Idea:  Railroads and banks were  symbols of corruption and extortion (Image  in
PowerPoint of octopus,  this is an example  of how the populists  viewed
industrialism  (its destroying the common  people),  they used it frequently)
The next image  in the PowerPoint is also a populist drawing; a railroad is built on
bodies and the farmer is the one that notices  the train coming
Overall, there was lots of fear about the concentrated  power of wealthy
industrialists
Another image  from the PowerPoint is a cartoon with a gold-plated  knight on a
train (railroad industry) battling  the common  worker - this was used by labor
unions
2. "Producerism": the true source of wealth KEY IDEA FOR EXAM: Producerism:  ideology that  wealth  is made  by the
working class
§ Producerism is the idea that wealth  is created  by laboring with your hands
(tangible  work), and that classes  of people like bankers and lawyers  (who
didn’t work with their hands) don’t actually  create  wealth,  or at least  honest
wealth
§ " Producerism is an ideology which holds that those members  of society engaged  in the production of tangible  wealth  are of greater  benefit  to
society  than, for example,  aristocrats  who inherit their wealth  and station."
§ "Fleecing"  = screwing  people over by taking  money from them,  typically  by
overcharging  or swindling
§ Farmers believed  they were  the center  of the universe  (this is a producer
and agrarian idea)
§ A. "Status Anxiety" People were  very defensive  and anxious because  they were getting  replaced  by
industry
So people  formed groups, like unions, and called  it an alliance The farmer equivalent  to a union (northeast)  is an alliance  (west) 3. III. Forming "Alliances" 1867-1870 -- Patrons of Husbandry,  aka "The Grange" "Patrons of Husbandry" and "Grangers"  are farmer/agriculture  alliances Grangers: Members  of an organization  founded in 1867 to meet  the social and
cultural needs  of farmers. Grangers  took an active  role in the  promotion of the
economic  and political  interests  of farmers.
These  alliances  didn’t do much,  they had picnic, speeches,  and meetings They mutate  into the National  Farmers  Alliance (NFA) in the 1880s, which is the
KOL (union) of farmers
1. 1880s - National  Farmers' Alliance Links  to the Knights of Labor NFA is to farmers what  the KOL was to factory workers § They were  a significant  political  organization  of farmers § The NFA was famous for its speakers (They  would basically  preach  the
"gospel"  of farming, Drake read an except  of a speech  Mary Elizabeth  Lease
gave criticizing  industrialism  (he said it was great  rhetoric and unlike what
we have now), some  key phrases I noticed:
"Monopoly is the monster" § The "Manufacturing  east" § Workers were  "Forced to sell their virtue" § "lone shark companies" § "Raise  less corn and more Hell" § § The NFA gets big results in agricultural places,  and membership  goes up § But, they were  seen as 'nuts' to city people § They reached  out to the KOL, since they  saw themselves  as allies to factory
workers and they thought  they were both fighting the same  battle  against
tyranny and oppression
§ The NFA loved & was  sympathetic  for the idea of the 8hr day § A. IMPORTANT  DOCCUMENT  drake mentioned:  Populist party platform 1892
(Document  17.3, pp. 569)
2. IV. The National  Alliance's  Plan - the "Ocala  Demands" (1890) and the "Omaha Platform" (1892) The NFA came  up with actual  plans on how to reform society  and organized specific
proposals (some were  implemented)
Public  ownership of the railroads They wanted  the government  to run the railroads, not private  owner Public ownership, for the good of everyone 1. Direct election of senators/graduated income tax The idea that  the wealthier  you are, the more you should pay in income  tax is a
populist idea.
wealth  benefits  from society  collectively  (not sure what  I meant  here) Thought the (government)  system  was rigged by the wealthy,  since people
couldn’t  vote for important  positions like senators,  who were appointed
2. No protective tariffs for industry Saw this as unfair favoritism toward industry 3. The "subtreasury" system This never really happened Subtreasury idea:  the government  would build silos (a tower/pit  used to store
grain) around country and farmers would bring crops and store them in the silos, in
order to create  security  and create  a raise in price. Meanwhile,  the farmers  would
need money  so they wanted  to put a co-op (not a bank, community-run  financial
institution)  literally at the bottom  of silos so farmers could borrow money from the
co-op based on the potential  earnings of their crop. Then they  would wait  to make
enough money to pay the coop back and make a profit. This was an idea that never
actually  happened.
Subtreasury system:  A proposal by the Farmers’  Alliances  in the 1880s for the
federal government  to extend  loans to farmers and store their crops in
warehouses  until prices rose and they could buy back and sell their crops to repay
their debts.
4. Free coinage  of silver Farmers were  in debt and owed money  to banks. They believed  that  money was scarce,  limited,  and worth a lot when you could find
it; "gold standard" (system  by which the value of currency  was defined in terms  of
gold, for which  the currency could be exchanged)
Populists: supported the  gold standard and believe  that it provided the basis for a
sound and stable economy,  and were  proponents of the coinage  of silver which
asserted  that expansion  of the money supply (more literal money) would liberate
farmers and workers from debt and bring prosperity to more Americans
Banks HATED the gold standard idea In reality,  this idea of printing more money  (backed  by silver) causes  inflation, and
makes  the money worth less
This was confusing to me, helped  to look at this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_silver 5. V. 1892-1896 - the populist party "the people's  party" - the populist party The populist party held its first nominating  convention  in Omaha,  Nebraska  in 1892, and
nominated  James  B. Weaver (former union civil war general) for president.  He came  in
third (democrat  Grover Cleveland  won) (Image  in PowerPoint of map of election  results,
green areas = populist vote)
Republicans  were  strong in the north 1896 - William  Jennings Bryan and "fusion" with Democrats In 1896 the populists  nominated  William Jennings  Bryan Republicans  though the populists were  nuts (Cartoon Image  in PP of the  hot air
balloon depicts  republican's view of populists:  "Platform  of lunacy" = Free silver
part, peoples party, farmers alliance,  KOL party, socialists,  etc.)
Some people  were scared  with how powerful  populists had become Democrats  wanted  to work together  with populists so they could overrule
republicans  (Image  in PP of a cartoon populist  snake eating  the democratic  party
donkey: this is how republicans  viewed the  merger)
Populists didn’t want to "sell out" to mainstream  party William Jennings  became  the  candidate  for both parties (different  vice presidents
ran for populist or democrat)
Republicans  were  basically pro industry *KEY  IDEA: The 1896 election  was symbolic  of industry (gold) vs. Farming (silver) -
(Image  in PP of the republican  candidate  standing on a gold coin)
Republicans  won the election  with McKinley,  and became  the majority  party in the
U.S.
1. The Demise of (political)  Populism Republicans  won because  they were  a symbol of prosperity and progress After McKinley won, the populist party dwindled and died Populist issues: Free silver idea attracted  silver miners,  but the majority of workers couldn’t
identify with a party composed  mainly  of farmers.
Industrial laborers did not see  any benefit  in raising farm prices since  they
are consumers  of
agricultural  products Populists failed at incorporating other races 2. VI. 6. Additional  Info: We didn’t cover all of these  in class,  but just for fun here's some  additional info: Radical  Republicans:
Who: 
Members  of the Republican  Party committed  to Emancipation  of slaves  and equality  and
enfranchisement  of the freed blacks
What: A political  party
When: During and After the Civil War (1854-1877)
Where: United  States
Why: After the war, the Radicals  demanded  Civil rights for freedmen,  such as measures  of
ensuring suffrage. They  initiated  the Reconstruction  Acts, and limited  political  and voting rights
for ex-confederates.  They bitterly fought President  Andrew Johnson; they weakened  his powers
and attempted  to remove him form office  through impeachment  but were  one vote short.
Civil Rights Act of 1866:
Who: 
Legislative  Branch and Radical  Republicans
What: Piece  of legislation  that  tried to abolish black codes  by affirming African American’s  rights
to full and equal benefit  of laws and proceedings  for the security  of persons and property just
like white citizens.
When: 1866
Where: United  States  Congress
Why: It was meant  to put and end to legal discrimination  of blacks and expand their rights but
Andrew Johnson vetoed  the Act. It was the first time  citizenship  was defined.  It was the first
time  in history Congress overrode the president’s  veto on a major piece  of legislation.
Southerners rendered  this act  useless  through loopholes in the text and by putting  Jim Crow
laws and poll taxes in place.
Force Act (KKK act):
Who: 
United  States  Congress
What: The third Enforcement  Act that  made  state  officials liable  in federal court for depriving
anyone of their civil rights or the equal protection  of the laws. It authorized  the president to
dispatch  officials to the south to supervise  elections  and prevent voting interference.
When: 1871
Where: United  States  Congress and the South
Why: It effectively  backed  up and reinforced  the 14
th amendment  in preventing  southern officials  from oppressing and depriving the newly  freed blacks of certain  rights. It helped break
up the Klan but it did not end it.
Andrew Johnson
Who: 
17
th President  of the United  States What: Abraham Lincoln’s  Vice  President prior to his assassination  and member  of the
Democratic  Party. He wanted  to leave the  “Constitution  as it is, and the Union as it was.”
When: 1865-1869
Where: United  States  of America
Why: Was the fist president to be impeached  by the House of Representatives  and was
acquitted  in the Senate  by one vote. It revealed  that  the federal government  was no longer a
threat  to civil liberties.  His action lead to the passing of the 14
th amendment,  civil rights act,  and freedmen’s  bureau extension Black  codes:
Who: 
Southern States
What: Rules passed  in the south to reduce  blacks to a condition as close  to slavery as possible as
well as provide farmers  with a supply of cheap  black labor. It prohibited the blacks from bearing
arms, serving on juries and intermarriage.
When: 1865-66
Where: The South
Why: It prevented  the newly freed blacks  from leaving  plantations  unless they could prove that
they could support themselves,  which most  could not. Later  removed  by the Civil Rights  Act of
1866. It prevented  freedmen  from moving up in the world.
Crop-lien system:
Who:
Southern white  farmers, plantation  owners and blacks;  mainly cotton  farmers
What: A system  of agricultural  production after the Civil War, where country merchants  would
give supplies to poor southern farmers  and blacks  who needed  credit  to buy seeds  and materials
to grow crops, in exchange  for lien. The merchants  often had monopolies therefore  they
dictated  the terms.  Bad weather  etc.  would put them  further into debt along with the falling
prices of cotton  instead  of put them  on their feet
When: 1860s-1930s
Where: The South
Why: In 1880 the south could no longer feed itself  since they  were producing cotton instead  of
food, which  led to debt peonage.  The merchants  controlled  what they grew  and they made
them  grow cotton,  so the  farmers could never  grow food for themselves.  It proved Henry
Grady’s idea of the New  South wrong since  the South was still primarily agricultural  based.  
Henry Grady,  “new south”:
Who:
Editor of the Atlanta Constitution
What: He envisioned  slavery and secession  as the  ‘old south’ and that the vision of the  ‘new
south’ would be a time of unionization and economic  modernization  and industrialization.
When: 1886
Where: Atlanta,  Georgia
Why: His speech  in NY helped kick-start  the  south into industrialization  by influencing
entrepreneurs  to build factories  and mill and connect  railroads due to the availability  of cheap
labor. His speech  talked  about race relations  and economic  growth. It helped justify the
changing  of focus from Freedmen’s  rights to economic  issues.
Cowboys:
Who:
Men who herded cattle  and other livestock  throughout the west
What: Were grunt laborers and the worst paid whose jobs didn’t last long and made up a small
percentage  of the West.
When: Late  1860s
Where: The West
Why: They are still a symbol today of independent,  nomadic,  figures who fought for justice  and
defended  the honor and virtue of women  out west,  but were  really just ordinary; even though
their lives were actually  more mundane  and the  addition of railways in the west  to transport
cattle  removed the need  for them.
Battle of Little Big Horn:
Who:
General  Custer and men  vs. Sioux Indians
What: A battle  where General  Custer rode his men in to battle  to try to for the Sioux off their
land by cutting  their resources,  but were ultimately  defeated  and massacred  by the Sioux
Indians. It was a Lakota  victory.
When: 1876
Where: Montana  Territory
Why: It demonstrated  the fact  that the Sioux might  be able to win a battle  but they could not
win a war, simply because  the American  army could outlast them  or starve them.
Exodusters:
Who:
Former slaves who migrated  from the  South to Kansas seeking  land and a better  way of
life.
What: Blacks  who pooled together  their resources  and bought land in Kansas to settle  and
produce on so they could leave  the south for a better  life. Kansas was attractive  to blacks due to
the anti-slavery  martyr John Brown.
When: 1879
Where: Migration from the South to Kansas
Why: Even though it ended up not being  the promise land they  hoped for due to poor land and
weather,  the idea of owning their own land and escaping  the  south was worth the hardships to
them.  By 1880, 10,000 blacks were  living in Kansas  after 25,000 came  initially the  year before
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific  Railroad:  pg.  500
Who:
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific  Railroad
What: Dealt  with taxation of railroad properties.
Where: U.S. Supreme  Court
When: 1886
Why: This was the first time that  the Supreme  Court ruled that  the 14
th amendment’s  equal protection  clause  granted constitutional  protection  to corporations (not only people) in some
instances  as well.  Ruled a corporation was considered  a “person” and gave corporations the
same  right of due process
Chinese Exclusion  Act: (Pg. 481)
Who:
The Chinese  immigrants
What: Act that was created  to bar entry to America  to the Chinese  and to prohibit those
Chinese  already in the country from becoming  naturalized  American citizens.  People thought
the Chinese  would increase  the already rich and crush the white  working class.  This act  did not
stop the anti-Chinese  assaults
When: 1882
Where: The United  States,  California
Why: one of the most significant  restrictions  on free immigration  in US History. California’s
economy  dropped and Americans  saw the Chinese  as scapegoats.  The Chinese  worked for such
little  pay that the  white men  couldn’t ask for higher wages.
Ethnic Enclaves
Who:
Immigrants
What: Large  cities  such as New  York, Boston,  Pittsburgh, and Chicago are areas where  large
populations of immigrants  would often  settle  in groups by country/ethnicity  of origin.
Where: New  York City and Port Cities.  These  were  areas where everyone  shared the same
homeland.
When: 20 th Century. Why: Showed  that assimilating  with the U.S. was  not a top priority for many immigrants since
many chose  to stay with families  or neighbors they knew from home.  Most immigrants  valued
aspects  of their cultural  and social heritage  and took pains to preserve cherished  traditions  and
beliefs,  leading for many immigrants  to be very unwilling to become  fully Americans.  More
importantly,  the ethnic  enclaves  provided a place to keep cultural traditions  and beliefs.  These
communities  also allowed  for immigrants  to retain the best of their cultural identities  within the
larger democratic  society.  Assimilation  was more complicated  than the melting  pot metaphor
suggested.  Majority of immigrants  did not view  their trip to America  as permanent,  especially
men.
Laissiez-faire
Who:
Adam Smith
What: means  “let  things alone” and gained popularity from Adam Smith’s  Wealth of Nations -
businesses  could control themselves  and not be run by the government  (businesses  were  no
longer restricted  by the US government  → businesses  would grow and flourish leading  to a
better  economy)
Where: Idea for American  Government,  Western Nations,  especially  UK and US
When: 1776 (Wealth of Nations)  19
th Century was when  businessmen  and their conservation allies on the  Supreme Court used Smith’s  doctrines  to argue against restrictive  government
regulation.
Why:  Concept  of an “invisible hand” guided by natural law,  which would guarantee  the greatest
economic  success  if the government  let individuals pursue their own self-interest  unhindered by
outside and artificial  influences.  It ideally gave  businesses  freedom  to expand as far as they
wanted  to i.e. Rockefeller  and horizontal integration.  
Standard Oil: pg. 499
Who:
John D. Rockefeller
What: Largest  Oil Company in the U.S. Its formation  is the result of Rockefeller  noticing the
pattern  of the boom and bust cycle  and decided  to take advantage  of the opportunity by buying
out businesses  when they are about to fail. Trusts were  created  to hide his wealth.  Standard Oil
was known in the business world to be an octopus  because  it was so large and took over so
many businesses.  Squeezed  out fellow  competitors  and led the way in exporting products to
European and Asian Markets.
Where: Ohio
When: 1870
Why: The success  of this company depended  upon horizontal integration  by bringing a number
of key oil refiners into an alliance  to control 4/5
th of the industry. As a result of this market dominance,  the Sherman Anti-Trust Act was  passed in 1890 to prevent consolidation  of the
marketplace  and to return to highly competitive  small enterprises.  This company  also pointed
towards the growing inequality  of wealth  and income  as the top 1% of Americans  owned  25% of
industries.
William  Graham Sumner: pg. 518
Who:
Political  Scientist  from Harvard
What:  Wrote A Defense  to Laissez-Faire  1883. Wrote: What Social Classes  Owe Each  Other in
1883. He believed  the chief  purpose of the  workingman was  to pay. Social Darwinism  meant
there was  no point in giving money to the poor because  it prevented  them  from developing  the
moral capacity  to do better  for themselves  and climb the capital  ladder of society.
Where: Born in New  Jersey
When: (1840-1910)
Why: Believed  that  millionaires  deserved  their wealth  and the poor deserved  their fate.  He
believed  that if the  government  tried to help these  unfortunate  losers in the competitive
struggle,  progress would be halted and civilization  would decay.  Two kinds of poor: Deserving
(widows and orphans) and Undeserving  (anyone who was  poor outright).  **He was a social
Darwinist who was redefining the American Dream by promoting that if you work hard you
can have what you want.
Gospel of Wealth
Who:
Andrew Carnegie
What: Famous  essay written  by Carnegie
Where: Pittsburgh
When: 1889
Why:  Men of wealth  had a duty to furnish some  assistance  to the poor, mainly through
philanthropy (building institutions  that  would raise educational  and cultural  standards) NOT
charity (direct  handouts). Believed  men  should contribute  by making  the community  better  and
providing opportunities  for the  less fortunate.  “Help those  who will help themselves”
Tom Watson pg. 547
Who:
Agrarian Radical
What: Lawyer  who gained  fame  as a racial progressor and sought black votes.  Joined the
People’s  Party in 1892. As a Populist, he did not support free silver.
Where: Georgia
When: 1896
Why: The populist vice  presidential  candidate,  who had assisted  embattled  black farmers  in his
home state  of Georgia, called  on citizens  of both races  to vote against  the crushing power of
corporations and railroads. However,  after  the 1896 election,  he embarked  on a viscous
campaign  to exclude  blacks from voting and also disfranchised  African Americans  while
maintaining  white  supremacy.  In doing so, he thought that poor whites  would have the courage
to vote against rich whites.  Tom Watson was and example  of the Populist Party switching  to
exclude  blacks because  this encouraged  more poor whites  to vote for the party
Interstate Commerce Commission: pg. 539
Who:
Congress
What: A commission  established  by the Interstate  Commerce  Act with  the intent to regulate
railroads. Big business  ultimately  managed  to render government  regulation  largely ineffective.
Where: All across the US
When: 1887
Why: Designed  to regulate  railroads however,  large railroad lines found it easier  to influence  the
ICC and in time,  railroad advocates  came  to dominate  the ICC and enforced  the law in favor of
the railway lines rather than the shippers. Just another example  of a failed attempt  for farmers
and gain for capitalists/railroad  owners.
Knights of Labor: pg. 532
Who:
Founded by Uriah Stephens.  This was a very large group of working class men and four
years later women  as well who saw  the relationship between  employer  and employee  as a
failure and not mutually beneficial.
What: Labor Union/National  Workers’ Organization.  This was a Christian Based  Union.
Where: Massachusetts
When: 1869
Why: First majorly influential large-scale  union. It won battles  for the workers before  being
succeeded  by the  more effective  AFL. Initiated  the most  extensive  campaign  after  the Civil War
to unite workers and challenge  the  power of corporate capitalists.  Initiated  wage  slavery. Labor
unions were  seen as the best vehicle  for communication  and negotiation  between  workers and
owners. The  K.O.L. did not begin to flourish until Terence  Powderly replaced  Stephens.  Powderly
advocated  for an 8-hour workday, abolition of child labor, and equal pay for women.  
Sub treasury Plan
Who:
Southern Farmers’  Alliance and Charles Macune
What: Was a sophisticated  plan to solve the farmers’  problem of mounting  debt. Federal
government  would locate  offices  near warehouses  in which farmers  could store nonperishable
commodities.  In return, farmers would receive  federal  loans for 80 percent  of the current
market  value of their produce.
Where: North Carolina was  a key state
When: 1889
Why: In theory, temporarily taking  crops off the  market would decrease  supply and assuming
demand  remained  stable,  lead to increased  prices. This plan was considered  the most realistic
solution to the problem of chronic farm debt.  Showed how there was an over production of
cash crops, so the prices  of cotton dropped.
Mary Elizabeth  Lease: pg. 541
Who:
Famous recruiter  for the Farmers’ Alliances.  Also endorsed by Populist Party. Often
evoked emotions  from her audience  and is famous  for her quote: “raise  less corn and more
hell.”  She also wrote,  “The Problem of Civilization  Solved”  in 1895.
What: Excited  farm audiences  with  her forceful and colorful rhetoric,  delivering 160 speeches
Where: Born in Pennsylvania
When: 1890 was the year she joined the  Populist party
Why: Urged farmers  and workers to unite  against capitalist  exploitation,  but she also agitated
for women’s  rights and voice  her determination  to place the mothers  of this nation on an
equality  with the fathers.  She wanted  to nationalize  railroad and telegraph  lines, increase
currency supply, and expand popular democracy.
Pullman Strike: pg. 535
Who:
American  Railway Union (headed  by Eugene  V. Debs)
What: Nationwide  strike against  the Pullman company  after George  Pullman slashed wages  and
did not lower rent.  Federal Government  broke up this strike;  not Pullman.
Where: Nationwide  (coordinated  strike activities  across the country from its headquarters  in
Chicago)
When: 1894
Why: The union wanted  to improve economic  conditions and gain recognition.  Disrupted
interstate  commerce  and mail traffic,  which led to government  intervention.  FORCED FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT  TO INTERVIEN.  Made government  consider unions and make  employers  listen to
the unions’ demands  and accommodate  them more.
General Federation of Women’s Club: pg. 506
Who:
Middle or Upper Class Women
What: Sports/Fraternal  Club. Became  big promoters  of social gospel and offered a way for
women  to get  education.  The middle  class joined a variety of social  and professional
organizations  that were  arising to deal with problems accompanying  Industrialization.
Where:
When:
1892
Why: Founded to improve women’s  educational  and cultural lives.  Dedicated  to improving the
community  through volunteer service.  Allowed women  to be more active  in the community  and
in the later years of the federation,  in politics.
Drake HIST 2112 Exam 1 Study Guide
background image Included  in this Study Guide: Important notes about the test 1. What's covered 2. Chapter/Triangle Highlights 3. Key Terms with definitions 4. Important Amendments Typed 5. Master lecture notes from all the lectures thus far 6.
7. Additional  detail on certain terms
Happy  Studying! Important notes about the test Sorry this is late, I'm not sure I'll continue  doing study soup, but a few  people have
emailed  me  asking for the  study guide and notes, so here's stuff I used for my own
personal studying (no guarantee  on its relevance  to the test  or correctness)
Need  a blue book for the test Documents  seem  to be very important  to know; be able to know them  in their context Major highlights from lecture  are also very important Ex. Know what  populists believe/who  they  are/etc.  but don’t have to know names Drake said he might  have us compare  quotes from different viewpoints Everything  relates  to a big issue
• If you have literally done nothing for this class,  I'd start by reading the master  lecture
notes down below (since  that’s  encompasses  things he emphasized  in class,  and all the
things I have before it on this study guide  are kind of complemental  to the actual  lecture
notes),  and then go through and read some  of the documents  he mentions.  In my
opinion, the importance  of the things in this guide would be:
Master  Lecture  Notes  > Read Documents  (not in guide) > Highlights > Key
Terms/Amendments/Add.Detail
Some advice  from my TA: I really do not know the exact  details  of what  Dr. Drake will do. He changes  things
up from semester  to semester.  So, please  consider the following as suggestions,
not actually  what will or will not be on the test.  Try to think about the following
questions,  and see  if you can answer them  in three  or four sentences:
—What was industrialism?  How was it a change  from what  Americans  lived with
before?
—Who benefitted  most from industrialism?  What arguments  did they give to
support it?
—Who hated industrialism?  Why did they  say it harmed the United  States?
—What was city life like? Who came  to live in the cities,  and how did this affect  the
nation's culture?
—Who were the Populists?  What were  they for, and what were they  against?
—What was Reconstruction?
—What happened to slaves freed after  the Civil War? Why did southern states
bring about Jim Crow?
The first four apply mostly to Triangle, but the others will probably relate  to the
test  in some way.  I would see if you can answer  these  questions,  but not simply
give the most basic  definitions.  What you want to do is expand on your answer
some—why  are these  questions important?  How did they  affect  our nation's
history?
1. So, what's covered? Ch. 14: Emancipation  and Reconstruction  1863-1877
The Union Restored  or Renewed?  Presidential  vs. Radical  Reconstruction
Reconstruction  and the  Fate of the Freedmen
Ch. 15: The West 1865-1896
Westward  Expansion and the Fate  of Native  America
Ch. 16: Industrial America  1877-1900
The Ingredients  of Industrialization
Eight Hours for What We Will: Unionization  and the Labor Movement
Farmer Brown Fights Back:  The Populist Revolt  against  Industrialism
Ch. 17: Workers and Farmers  in the age of Organization  1877-1900
Triangle  pp. 0 - 170
2. Chapter/Triangle Highlights 3. These  were taken  from the book, at the end of each chapter  where  the important  documents
start (so they  pertain mostly to the important  documents  in each  chapter  that Drake has
mentioned  10000 times).  If you don’t know the important  highlights from his lectures,  take  a
look at the master  notes below  (there's obviously some overlap,  but I didn’t have time  to
compile  them  together  like I had hoped to).
Chapter 14 Highlights Black codes  passed by white  southern leaders  aimed  to prevent  freed people from
improving their social and economic  status
Johnson didn't support them,  but didn’t overturn them.  He clashed  with  congress over
reconstruction  - vetoing renewal  of freedmen's  bureau and opposing ratification  of the
14th amendment.
1867 republican congress  passed  military construction  acts  which put the south under
military rule and forced whites  to extend  equal political  and civil rights to AA
1870 - ratification  of 15th amendment  extended  suffrage to black men.  Allied with
republicans,  blacks won election  to a variety  of public offices
Interracial  legislatures  improved conditions  for blacks  and whites,  funding for education,
hospitals,  and other services
Opponents tarred the interracial  legislatures  with claims  of fraud, corruption, wasteful
spending,  and "black rule" (14.8)
By mid 1870s, many white northerners sought reconciliation  rather than continued
conflict  while white  southerners created  vigilante  groups like the KKK to use violence  to
intimated  black and white  republicans  (14.7 and 14.9)
By 1877, attacks  on black political  access  crushed southern republicanism,  leaving AA
struggling to retain the freedoms  they had gained during reconstruction
How did blacks and whites view freedom? How essential  was it for the federal  government to supervise  the movement  from
slavery to freedom?
Why didn't southern whites accept  the extension of civil rights for blacks,  if only
in a limited  way?
How did views about reconstruction change over time? How much  did Reconstruction  Transform the South and the Nation? What were the greatest limitations of federal Reconstruction  policies  and the
greatest challenges  to implementing  them?
Chapter 15 Highlights Views  on relationship  between  whites  and American  Indians varied widely  in late 19th
century west
Some whites  wanted  to exterminate  the Indians Some wants  to assimilate  them (15.5 and 15.6) Whites who encountered  Indians were  the least  sympathetic  (15.7) Civilians in the Interior Department  favored peace People in war Department  used military force to resolve conflicts White reformers did not understand Indian culture  and developed  policies  that led to the
decline  of Indian tribal societies
Indian attitudes  ranged from fierce resistance  to accommodation  and rarely, assimilation
(15.9)
Indians who adapted to white  society  still held pride in their Indian traditions (15.8) How do white Americans  and their leaders  deal with differences  among people
rooted in race and nationality?
How do those considered  minorities  forge strategies to gain political  and
economic  access  while maintaining their own identity and heritage?
How well did the U.S.  government in the late 19th century balance its
commitment  to the competing values  of continental expansion  and equal justice
under the law?
Chapter 16 Highlights Laissez-Faire Individual opportunity was a central  American  value Late  19th century - big business and giant trusts came  to dominate  whole industries Owners and those  in control of big businesses  argues that  individual effort and initiative
were still the central  engine  of the American  economy
This is seen  In Adam Smith's idea of laissez-faire  (the marketplace  should be left to
regulate  itself  and government  should do nothing to constrain  the development  of
industry (16.5)
Poverty expanded and a small number industrialists  and financiers accumulated  great
wealth
Reformers  questioned  whether  individualism undermined  community  and believed  the
government  should regulate  the free market  to promote  the greater  public welfare  (16.6
& 16.8)
Big gap between  poor and rich Industrialists  realized  they should help the poor or they would rise up against  them
(16.7), but they still resisted government  interference
Defenders  of industrialism  argued that individualism  must be preserved as the natural
order of society
Critics believed  that  cooperation rather than individual competition  made  social progress
possible,  and that government  should protect  ordinary people from the harm done by
greedy capitalists
Big Question: What is the meaning of success?  (This differed depending on who you
were)
How does each author define success? How do these authors intend to promote success? What can be done to relieve  the plight of those who do not succeed? Chapter 17 Highlights Industrialism  exercises  massive  power over workers and the conditions  of labor Workers organized into unions to secure  higher wages,  shorter hours, improved safety,
and a fairer measure  of control of the  labor process
Corporate owners who were sympathetic  (George Pullman) to workers still assumed  the
right to manage  their businesses  (17.5)
Pullman constructed  a model  tow with clean housing and parks, but didn’t address
economic  complaints  after the depression  of 1893
The American  Railway  Union ARU launched  a nationwide  strike against  the Pullman
company  to imporve economic  conditions  and gain recognition  for the union; Pullman
didn’t negotiate
The union coordinated  strikes,  workers refused  to operate  trains with Pullman cars Railroads hired strike breakers  and Rickard Olney (attorney  general who had a stake in RR
industry) obtained  a federal  injunction ordering strikers back to work; this was
unsuccessful
President  Cleveland ordered federal troops into Chicago to enforce the injunction.  This
class  resulted in 13 deaths
After the arrest of union leaders,  the strike collapsed  and the supreme court upheld the
imprisonment  of leaders
Why have organizations been essential  to advancing the rights of individuals  in
an industrialized  society?
Why was organized labor not more successful  in gaining a larger share of power
from capital?
How did genders influence  labor conflict  and organizing? What role should the government  play in shaping the outcome of conflicts
between labor and capital?
Triangle  Information/Highlights: Don’t worry about names  or little  details Don’t need to know "union leaders"  names,  just know there is the Union and what they
view
Know the  viewpoint of the  owners of the factories,  and the conflict  of unions vs. factory
owners
Big Theme:  Industrialization  is a new thing and people  are fighting  over what to do People are fighting over what  to do Immigration  is a big theme The Fire is a symbol of the craziness  of industrialization Triangle  details typical  conditions for the  period (see lecture  5 notes) For those who haven't read it, chapters  1-5 basically  set  up what life is like for industrial
workers, and chapter  6 is the chapter  about the fire, which mainly  details how the
owners of the Triangle  factory neglected  to impose  safety standards  in the building
(because  it wasn’t  cost effective  or worth it to them,  and there were no regulations yet.
They also had an insanely high insurance  policy on it because  it was common  to commit
arson - when  there weren't  people working - and would get a lot of money from it) and
thus people died in horrible gruesome  ways like falling off and getting  crushed by ladders
that were  too small  to carry people,  jumping  off the building, not having enough exits,
not having a sprinkler system,  not having an alarm system  so certain  floors didn’t even
know about the  fire until it was too late etc.
• Look at the master  lecture  notes - Drake would connect  Triangle  to the  lecture  topics, so its probably more efficient  if you look at those if you haven't  read it • Also, I haven't found any summaries  of the book anywhere,  but you can easily  google the actual  event  and get a good idea of what  happened  and why its significant Key Terms and Definitions 4. Here are the "Key Terms"  and definitions  from each  chapter  from the book, I don’t actually
know if we need to know all of them  or their definitions  (Seems  like Drake wants  more of a big
picture deeper  understanding  of what's going on rather than memorizing  things),  but for
reference  here they  are:
Chapter 14 Proclamation  of Amnesty and Reconstruction  - December  1863, Lincoln signed this
agreement  that  southern states  had to: 1) accept  the abolition of slavery, 2)
Black  Codes - Racial  laws passed in the immediate  aftermath  of the Civil War by southern
legislatures.  The black codes  were intended  to reduce free African Americans  to a
condition as close to slavery as possible. (p. 457)
Fourteenth Amendment - Amendment  to the Constitution  defining citizenship  and
protecting  individual civil and political  rights from abridgment  by the states.  Adopted
during Reconstruction,  the Fourteenth  Amendment  overturned the  Dred Scott  decision.
(p. 463)
Tenure of Office Act -
Law  passed by Congress in 1867 to prevent President  Andrew Johnson from removing
cabinet  members  sympathetic  to the Republican  Party’s approach to congressional
Reconstruction  without  Senate  approval. Johnson was  impeached,  but not convicted,  for
violating the act.
Fifteenth Amendment -
Amendment  to the Constitution  prohibiting the abridgment  of a citizen’s  right to vote  on
the basis of “race,  color, or previous condition  of servitude.”  From the 1870s on, southern
states  devised  numerous strategies  for circumventing  the Fifteenth  Amendment.  (p. 463)
American Equal  Rights Association  -
Group of black and white women  and men formed in 1866 to promote gender and racial
equality.  The organization  split in 1869 over support for the Fifteenth  Amendment.  (p.
463)
Scalawags  - Derisive term for white  Southerners who supported Reconstruction. Carpetbaggers -
Derogatory term  for white  Northerners  who moved  to the South in the years following
the Civil War. Many white  Southerners  believed  that such migrants  were intent  on
exploiting their suffering.
Sharecropping  -
A system  that emerged  as the dominant  mode of agricultural production in the South in
the years after the Civil War. Under the sharecropping  system,  sharecroppers  received
tools and supplies from landowners in exchange  for a share of the eventual  harvest.
Exodusters -
Blacks  who migrated  from the South to Kansas in 1879 seeking  land and a better way of
life.
Redeemers -
White, conservative  Democrats  who challenged  and overthrew Republican  rule in the
South during Reconstruction.
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan  -
Organization formed in 1865 by General Nathan  Bedford Forrest to enforce  prewar racial
norms. Members  of the KKK used threats  and violence  to intimidate  blacks and white
Republicans.
Force Acts -
Three acts  passed  by the U.S. Congress in 1870 and 1871 in response to vigilante  attacks
on southern blacks.  The acts  were designed  to protect black  political rights and end
violence  by the Ku Klux Klan and similar organizations.
Compromise of 1877 -
Compromise  between  Republicans  and southern  Democrats  that resulted  in the election
of Rutherford B. Hayes.  Southern Democrats  agreed  to support Hayes in the  disputed
presidential  election  in
exchange  for his promise  to end Reconstruction. Freedman's Bureau - Federal  agency  created  in 1865 to provide ex-slaves  with economic
and legal  resources.  The freedmen's  bureau played and active  role in shaping black  life in
the postwar south.
Signed into law by Lincoln Aided former slaves  in obtaining land Made hundred of thousands of acres  available  to recently  emancipated  slaves Reunited  families  and marriages Established  schools Johnson didn’t like it Republicans  supported it: helped  southern blacks transition  to freedom White southerners and northern democrats:  "an expensive  social  welfare  program
that rewarded  idleness  in blacks"
Document  14.2 & 14.3 Established  in 1865, extended  after Johnson's veto in 1866, Blacks attended
schools in 1870
Chapter 15 Great Plains  -
Semiarid  territory in central  North America.
Transcontinental  railroad -
A railroad linking the  East and West Coasts of North America.  Completed  in 1869, the
transcontinental  railroad facilitated  the flow of migrants  and the development  of
economic  connections  between  the West  and the East.
Treaty of Fort Laramie -
1851 treaty  that sought to confine  tribes on the northern plains to designated  areas in an
attempt  to keep white  settlers  from encroaching  on their land. In 1868, the second  Treaty
of Fort Laramie  gave northern tribes control  over the “Great  Reservation”  in parts of
present-day  Montana,  Wyoming, North Dakota,  and South Dakota.
Treaty of Medicine Lodge -
1867 treaty  that provided reservation  lands for the Comanche,  Kiowa-Apache  and
Southern Arapaho to settle.  Despite  this agreement,  white  hunters soon invaded this
territory and decimated
the buffalo herd. Battle of the Little BigHorn  -
1876 battle  in the Montana  Territory in which Lieutenant  Colonel George  Armstrong
Custer and his troops were  massacred  by Lakota Sioux.
Buffalo  Soldiers -
African American cavalrymen  who fought in the West  against the  Indians in the 1870s
and 1880s and served with distinction.
Dawes Act -
1887 act  that ended federal  recognition of tribal sovereignty  and divided Indian land into
160-acre parcels to be distributed  to Indian heads  of household. The act  dramatically
reduced  the amount of Indian-controlled  land and undermined Indian social  and cultural
institutions.
Ghost Dance -
Religious  ritual performed by the Paiute Indians in the late  nineteenth  century.  Following
a vision he received  in 1888, the prophet Wovoka believed  that performing the Ghost
Dance  would cause  whites  to disappear and allow Indians to regain control of their lands.
Comstock Lode -
Massive  silver deposit discovered  in the Sierra Nevada  in the late 1850s.
Long Drive -
Cattle  drive from the grazing lands of Texas to rail depots in Kansas.  Once in Kansas,  the
cattle  were shipped eastward  to slaughterhouses  in Chicago.
Homestead Act -
1862 act  that established  procedures  for distributing 160-acre lots to western  settlers,  on
condition that  they develop and farm their land, as an incentive  for western  migration.
Mormons -
Religious  sect  that migrated  to Utah  to escape  religious persecution;  also known as the
Church of Jesus  Christ of Latter-Day  Saints.
Californions  -
Spanish and Mexican  residents  of California. Before  the nineteenth  century, Californios
made  up California’s economic  and political  elite.  Their position, however,  deteriorated
after the conclusion  of the Mexican-American  War in 1848.
Chinese Exclusion  Act -
1882 act  that banned Chinese immigration  into the United States  and prohibited those
Chinese  already in the country from becoming  naturalized  American citizens.
Chapter 16 New South -
Term popularized by newspaper  editor Henry Grady in the 1880s, a proponent of the
modernization  of the southern economy.  Grady believed  that industrial development
would lead to the emergence  of a “New  South.”
Convict lease-
The system  used by southern governments  to furnish mainly  African American  prison
labor to plantation owners  and industrialists  and to raise revenue for the states.  In
practice,  convict  labor replaced  slavery as the  means  of providing a forced labor supply.
Vertical integration -
The control of all elements  in a supply chain by a single  firm. For example,  Andrew
Carnegie,  a vertically  integrated  steel  producer, sought to own suppliers of all the raw
materials  used in steel  production.
Horizontal  integration -
The ownership of as many firms as possible  in a given industry by a single owner.  John D.
Rockefeller  pursued a strategy  of horizontal integration  when he bought up rival oil
refineries.
Corporation -
A form of business  ownership in which the liability of shareholders in a company is
limited  to their individual investments.  The formation of corporations  in the late
nineteenth  century greatly  stimulated  investment  in industry.
Trust -
Business  monopolies formed in the late  nineteenth  and early twentieth  centuries  through
mergers  and consolidation  that inhibited  competition
and controlled  the market. Sherman antitrust act -
1890 act  that outlawed  monopolies  that prevented  free competition  in interstate
commerce.
Laissez-faire  -
French for “let  things alone.”  Advocates  of laissez-faire  believed  that the marketplace
should be left to regulate  itself,  allowing individuals to pursue their own self-interest
without  any government  restraint  or interference.
"The Gospel of Wealth" -
1889 essay by Andrew Carnegie  in which he argued that the rich should act  as stewards
of the wealth  they earned,  using their surplus income  for the benefit  of the community.
Gilded Age -
Term coined  by Mark Twain  and Charles Dudley Warner to describe  the late  nineteenth
century.  The term referred to the opulent and often ostentatious  lifestyles  of the era’s
superrich.
Jim Crow -
Late-nineteenth-century  statutes  that  established  legally defined racial  segregation  in the
South. Jim Crow legislation  helped  ensure the social  and economic  inferiority of southern
blacks.
Plessy v. Ferguson -
1896 Supreme  Court ruling that upheld the legality  of Jim Crow legislation.  The Court
ruled that  as long as states  provided “equal  but separate”  facilities  for whites  and blacks,
Jim Crow laws did not violate  the equal protection  clause  of the Fourteenth  Amendment.
Billion  Dollar Congress -
The Republican-controlled  Congress of 1890 that  spent huge sums of money to promote
business and other interests.
Chapter 17
*sorry, ran out of time
Unskilled  Workers
Skilled Workers
Unions
Collective  bargaining
Noble Order of the Knights of Labor
Haymarket  Square
America  Federation  of Labor (AFL)
Homestead  Strike
Pullman Strike
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
Grangers
Interstate  Commerce  Commission  (ICC)
Farmers' Alliances
Subtreasury System
Populists
Depression  of 1893
Coxey's Army
Important Amendments typed 5. 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments: 13 - (Ratified  1865) Section  1: Neither  slavery not involuntary servitude,  except  as punishment  for
crime  whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,  shall exist within the
United  States,  or any place  subject  to their jurisdiction.
Section  2: Congress shall have power to enforce  this article  by appropriate
legislation.
14 - (Ratified  1868) Section  1: All persons born or naturalized  in the US, and subject  to the jurisdiction
thereof,  are citizens  of the US and of the State  wherein they reside.  No state  shall
make  or enforce  any law which  shall abridge  the privileges or immunities  of
citizens  of the  United States;  nor shall any state  deprive any person of life,  liberty,
or property, without  due process of law;  nor deny to any person within its
jurisdiction the equal  protection of the laws.
Section  2: Representatives  shall be appointed  among the several  states  according
to their respective  numbers,  counting the whole  number of persons in each state,
excluding Indians not taxed.  But when the  right to vote at any election  for the
choice  of electors  for president  and vice-president  of the united states,
representatives  in congress,  the executive  and judicial  officers of a state,  or the
members  of the legislatures  thereof,  is denied  to any of the male  inhabitants  of
such state,  being twenty-one  years of age  and citizens  of the united states,  or in
any way abridges,  except  for participation  in rebellion,  or other crime,  the basis of
representation  therein shall be reduced in the  proportion which  the number of
such male  citizens  shall bear to the whole number of male  citizens  twenty-one
years of age in such state.
Section  3: NO person shall be a senator or representative  in congress,  or elector  of
president  and vice-president,  or hold any office,  civil, or military, under the united
states,  or under any state  who, having previously taken an oath, as a member  of
congress,  or as an officer of the united states,  or as a member  of any state
legislature,  or as an executive  or judicial officer  of any state,  to support the
constitution  of the united states,  shall have engaged  in insurrection or rebellion
against  the same,  or given aid or comfort  to the enemies  thereof.  Congress may,
by a vote  of two-thirds of each  house, remove  such disability.
Section  4: The validity of the public debt  of the US, authorized  by law, including
debts incurred for payment  of pensions and bounties for services  in suppressing
insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned.  But neither the US nor any state
shall assume  or pay any debt or obligation  incurred in aid of insurrection or
rebellion against  the united states,  or any claim  for the loss or emancipation  of any
slave;  but all such debts, obligations,  and claims  shall be held illegal and void.
Section  5: The congress  shall have power to enforce,  by appropriate  legislation,  the
provisions of this article.
15 - (Ratified  1870) Section  1: The right of citizen  of the united  states  to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the united states  or by any state  on account  of race, color, or previous
condition of servitude.
Section  2: The congress  shall have power to enforce  this article  by appropriate
legislation.
Master Lecture Notes from the first day of class  to Thursday  1/26 6. Day 1: The Union  Restored or Renewed? Presidential vs. Radical  Reconstruction Reconstruction: Reuniting  a Nation Torn After the civil war, the U.S.  was a torn nation. The civil war may be the most
important  event in American History. 750,000 people  died in the civil war out of
only 30,000,000 people total.  No one really knew how to put the country back
together  after the North won.
How much "reconstruction?" Who will be in charge? How far will reconstruction
go? What about former slaves?
What does it mean  to reconstruct  - what changes,  political  adjustments,
fast/slow,  who's in charge,  and what  to do with former slaves?
§ James  Garfield 1865 " Have  we done it? Have we given freedom  to the black man? What is freedom?  Is it mere  negation?  Is it the bare privilege of not
being chained,  of not being bought and sold, branded and scourged? If this
is all, then freedom  is a bitter mockery,  a cruel delusion,  and it may well be
questioned  whether  slavery were not better."
§ What about civil rights for former slaves? § The civil war didn’t bring the freedom  that  was intended,  and failed  in a lot
ways
§ 1. I. A Snapshot  of America, 1865 30 million people  living in rural, small  towns, and small farms. Agriculture everywhere. People live & die in the same  area and don't travel Eventually  there  is rapid industrializing,  especially  in the Northeast War is over, people are still angry. The fate  of the south is unknown, will there be punishment? South just wants  a quick and simple reconstruction II. Presidential Reconstruction  - the "gentle approach" Abraham Lincoln was the leader  of the Northern effort against  confederacy Not super tough on confederacy,  wanted  a gentle  reconstruction  with not a lot of
changes.
Second Inaugural  address March 4 1865 "With malice  toward none, with charity
for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the  right, let  us strive on to
finish the  work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall
have borne the battle  and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which  may
achieve  and cherish a just and lasting peace  among ourselves and with all nations."
However,  Lincoln wasn’t  able to implement  his plans for reconstruction  because  he
was assassinated  in 1865 and Andrew Johnson took over.
White northerners were a lot of white  supremacists. Proclamation  of Amnesty and Reconstruction  (1863) How to get  confederates  back in the U.S? § Confederate  states  must agree  to three  terms: Accept  the 13th amendment  - abolishes slavery Rewrite  constitution  to say there is no slavery Renounce  succession 10% of voting population must sign a loyalty  oath to the U.S. Those 10% ended  up being white southern  men, not blacks - it was
those who were eligible  to vote in 1860
§ These  terms  were not too bad, but gave  no word about the fate  of freed
slaves
§ 1. Lincoln  the racial  moderate Racial  moderate,  not a civil rights advocate.  Didn’t believe  in full equality. § Pro civil rights is different  than anti-slavery. § The terms  of the proclamation  of amnesty  and reconstruction are a
reflection  of Lincoln's  moderate  views  on slavery - no discussion  about freed
slaves.
§ Then he was shot at the  theater. § 2. Andrew Johnson - Continuing  Lincoln's  "gentle approach" Possibly one of the worst presidents  ever. § Southern Democrat  - Lincoln chose  him to appeal to border-state  voters § Not friendly, southern, born in NC, raised in TN § Substituted  his own aims  for those  of the north, refused to engage  in
meaningful  compromise,  and misled  the south into believing that  he could
achieve  restoration  quickly.
§ Johnson  versus the radicals Not all southerners were  equally confederate.  People  who had more
slaves  had stronger loyalty to the confederacy.  These  were rich
plantation  owners in places  like Charleston,  Louisiana,  New  Orleans,
Savannah.
People in the mountains  where  there weren't  as many plantations
were suspicious  of the confederacy.
So, the  confederacy  faced  hesitation  and resistance  from southerners
in the mountains.
There was  a lots of mistrust  towards rich plantation  owners Johnson hated rich cotton  plantation  owners and thought  the
confederate  was only helping them.
Johnson wasn’t opposed to slavery, he just didn’t like that only the
rich could have slaves.  He thought all white  people should have
slaves
Saw emancipation  as a means  to "break down an odious and
dangerous aristocracy,"  not to empower  blacks.
He was one of the only southerners  to leave  the confederacy  and stay
loyal to the union
He was made  VP in 1864 by Lincoln Called the south treasonous Hated  black people more than southern rich people;  unconcerned
with the fate  of blacks in the postwar  south
Continued gentle  reconstruction Hated  abolitionists Drank a lot and alienated  a lot of people Wanted to bring the south back to the Union quickly, and thought the
end of slavery would doom the southern aristocracy  he hated  so
much
Moderate  republicans  believed:  blacks  were inferior to whites,  but
the federal  government  needed  to protect  newly  emancipated  slaves.
Without national legislation,  ex slaves  would be "tyrannized  over,
abused,  and virtually enslaved"  (Which is basically  what happened).
Expected  southern states  to extend  basic civil rights to the freedmen.
Radical  Republicans  believed:  Freedmen  deserved  voting rights for
African American men,  and advocated  for the redistribution of
southern plantation  lands to freed slaves.  Called out for the
government  to provide freed people  "a homestead  of forty acres of
land".
Republicans  overall failed to pass a comprehensible  land distribution
program
All republicans believed:  congress  should have a strong voice  in
determining  the  fate of the former confederate  states.  They were
ready to pounce on Johnson's plans. They  also expected  Johnson to
be harsh with his former political  foes, but Johnson relished having
control over them,  and granted almost  all of their requests  for
pardons.
A. 3. III. Radical  Reconstruction  - the "get tough" approach The north wasn't  happy with the gentle  approach  from Lincoln,  thought he was
being too slack  on the south.
Radical  republicans were  especially  not happy about Andrew Johnson and Lincoln's
weak  stance.
Radical  Republicans  started  out as northern anti-slavery  party and thought  winning
the civil war was only the beginning . Believed:
Black people  deserved  freedom and justice,  not necessarily  equality.  They
deserved  certain  rights. **
1. South has to be significantly  reconstructed  to avoid the confederacy  from
coming  back and reorganizing.
2. Black  Codes and Ex-Confederates- Black Codes Document  in chapter  14 § Laws  in the south aimed at black people  intended  to reduce  African
Americans  back to something  close to slavery.
§ Regulations  for blacks:  example  - its illegal  for blacks  to be unemployed,
travel without  a permit,  banned from testifying  in court, can't bear arms
§ Basically  slavery again, and black people  were forced back into cotton fields. § Black codes  were designed  to recreate  slavery § Radical  republicans were  not happy. § States  that  came  back to the  U.S. began electing  congress  people,  and rich
plantation  owners were elected  to represent  southern states.
§ North didn't like this, because  it recreates  some  of the same  problems and
allowed  the confederates  to rise again.  They saw postwar south the same  as
old south.
§ Republicans:  "I demand  to know of what  practical  value is the amendment
abolishing slavery?"
§ Stopping the south from rising again Radical  republicans thought  the reconstruction  needed  to make
significant  deep changes  in southern politics to prevent the south
from rising.
i. 1. Constitutional changes:  13th, 14th, and 15th amendments Radicals  brought the 13, and especially  the  14 & 15 amendments. § Read amendments 13 - abolished slavery 14 - gives citizenship  to former slaves.  Important  for the republican
party (so blacks would vote for republican ideas,  against  the southern
politicians).  Gave  the states  the option to exclude blacks  from voting
with the consequence  that they had less  congressional
representation  if they did so.
15 - black men gained the right to vote,  but states  control the voter
registration  process,  which lead to lots of voter suppression.
Johnson encouraged  the south to reject  the  14th amendment. Congress intended  to force former confederate  states  to protect  civil
rights of African Americans  and grant them  the right to vote.
§ The short-lived Era of Black  political  influence in the south Freed black slaves  voted for the republican party which prevented
the confederacy  from gaining power.
Radicals  made  it tougher for former confederate  states;  trying to
percent  the return of the confederacy.
Led to a short-lived period of black political  participation Pro-slavery confederates  were not happy with  black voter
participation
Meanwhile  radicals took over congress  and alienated  Andrew
Johnson, who was  a candidate  that  believed  in white  supremacy.
John Geary - running for governor of Pennsylvania.  White
supremacists  in the north didn't want Geary  - see anti-Geary  poster in
slides.  
i. 2. Freedmen's Bureau Radical  republicans set  up the Freedmen's  Bureau,  president Johnson would
veto, and congress  (run by radicals)  overrode the  veto.
§ Republicans  thought it helped black males  embrace  freedom. § White southerners and northern democrats  thought it was an expensive
social welfare  program that rewarded  idleness  in blacks
§ Look at Document  14.2 § Constant  battle  of president vs. congress § Radicals  wanted  to get  rid of Johnson § The Freedmen's  Bureau might have been morally defensible*,  but was
politically  indefensible  as it was unconstitutional  .
§ 3. Occupation 4. IV. Impeaching  Andrew Johnson Johnson thought southern states  followed  his plan and could resume their
representation  in congress
Republicans  did not agree Johnson vetoed the civil rights act passed  by congress Condemned  the freedmen's  bureau His vetoes  showed his racism  and beliefs  that slavery was  only evil because  it was
harmful to poor whites,  not slaves themselves.
Thought the bills he vetoed  discriminated  against  whites V. Tenure of Office Act (1867) The Tenure  of Office Act was specifically  against  Johnson. § Made it so firing someone  must  be approved or given permission  from
congress.
§ Prevented  Johnson from firing cabinet  officers  sympathetic  to congressional
reconstruction
§ Johnson wanted  to fire Edwin  Stanton, who was radical sympathizer  that
Lincoln appointed
§ Johnson fired Stanton,  so congress  impeached  Johnson, and Johnson went
to trial and was defeated  politically.
§ Johnson was the first president  to ever be impeached § Republicans  won back presidency  in 1868 with Ulysses  S. Grant. § Grant was previously a Democratic  governor of NY, also an ally of Radical
republicans.  Won with 53% of popular vote  and 73% of electoral  vote.
§ 1. "Redemption" - the white South regains power Ulysses  S. Grant was elected  after  Johnson Reconstruction  was a good idea in the eyes  of radicals and blacks, but was a failure
overall because  the North dropped the  ball.
Redemption  - white south regained  control Preventing the vote 15th amendment  allowed  the states  to regulated  voter registration,  and the
south wanted  to eliminate  black men  from voting, so used violence  and
intimidation  and the KKK was  born.
§ 15th amendment  prohibited voting discrimination  based on race,  but states
could still impose qualifications  on voters like literacy,  paying taxes, moral
character,  etc.  Loopholes for white  leaders  to disfranchise  African
Americans.
§ American  Equal rights association  formed immediately  after the war, but
members  divided over the 15th amendment.
§ KKK - founded to prevent black  men from voting.  Used violence  and murder. § There were  federal attempts  to stop the clan, like the Forced Act. § 1. "Reconstruction  Fatigue" in the North North lost interest  in preventing the  south confederacy. § Slavery became  segregation § Weakened  drive for reconstruction § Panic  of 1873 The economy  was bad, so people  who were  going bankrupt didn’t
care as much about slavery. Personal problems  trumped the fate  of
other people. Most  white people  took white  supremacy  as a given
everywhere,  and there was  less concern for black people.
i. Racism  and death of Radicals The leaders  of the radicals who believed  in equality  died, so there
was a lack of leadership and momentum
ii. Legal  setbacks Courts stacked  against iii. Growing labor strife and industrialism Explosion of industrialism  - people were distracted  by labor issues North abandoned freed slaves,  which led to segregation  and the
reinstating  of slavery
iv. 2. I. The Final  Act: the Compromise of 1877 Read about Last  Union troops removed from the south No federal presence  to enforce  laws, so slaves  were  on their own. II. Day 2: Fate of the Freedmen: Reconstruction and Enduring  Legacies  of Slavery The worldwide history of slavery Sharecropper vs. slaves - important economic  arrangement What is the fate  of freed slaves? U.S. was  the second to last country to abolish slavery. 3 countries of slavery in new world? Unique characteristics  of Euro-American  Slavery Euro-American  slavery was different  than other country's versions Culturally specific/different  motivations Money, race, and descent Money Slaves were  viewed  as money  makers/an  economic  tool for money.
Other countries weren't  like that.
Native  Americans  used to steal  people  from other tribes when
someone  died, so slavery was  not economic,  but rather filling a
spiritual void
American  slavery had four motivations  unique to the U.S. Capitalist  sub orientation 1. Slaves were  property - literally  could be bought and sold under
law
2. Inherited  and permanent  - born and died a slave,  usually
through mothers  line
3. Racial 4. Laws  made it illegal to free slaves because  it was dangerous to the
system.
Which came  first - racism  or slavery? Eventually,  to be black meant  you were a slave in the U.S. In other places,  to be a slave meant  you were  captured,  not
necessarily  race  based or about who you were  as a person, but about
the circumstance  you were  in.
Slavery was European invented,  but American  adopted Orlando equanando - book of a slave Slaves were  captured  and traded to Europeans through trade
networks.  Europeans didn’t directly  gather slaves,  they used goods to
trade for them.
Slave ships segregated  men/women/boys  and separated  them  by
language  so they didn’t organize.
75% of slaves  went to the Caribbean or brazil - Brazilian  culture still
heavily influenced  by slavery.
25% of slaves  went the U.S. 1600/1700s - slaves  grew sugar for the European  market  on the
coasts  of brazil and the Caribbean - Barbados was huge with  10's of
thousands of slaves.
Europeans first tried to enslave  natives,  but the natives  fought back
and lots died fro European diseases,  which  led to African slavery.
Canary islands - Portuguese grow sugar and slottered  natives Major Caribbean islands were sugar slave islands "sugar made  from blood" - average  life of sugar slaves  = 3 years You cant grow sugar with frost; 15 month growing period; after
harvesting,  cut and carry very quickly to grinder
Lots of money  gets made  through sugar farming i. A. 1. I. Slavery and the south Early on the south had a labor problem because  they had a lot of land with no workers.
Slavery came  because  the U.S. tapped  into a system  that already  existed.
First grew indigo and tobacco,  cotton  came  later Slavery as a source of economic/political  power The "planter elite" South was wealthiest  part of America for a long time § 1860 - most valuable  things were slaves  and cotton § Generally,  most  people had less than 20 slaves but wanted  to be part of the
top 4% owners with many slaves.
§ Top 4% were powerful and set the tone for culture  and politics;  they ran the
region and country.
§ Gone with the wind - problematic  but shows the self-indulgent  nature of
southerners
§ You can believe  in white supremacy  and not be pro slavery § Northern criticism  of slavery: Economic.  Thought there  were better  ways to
make  money than slavery. Slavery made  white  people lazy and made  a
dishonest  labor system.  Didn’t think it was  race drive.
§ A. 1. Slavery and poor whites - the "social  floor" Most white  people didn't own slaves,  why would they  support the system
and they  couldn’t afford slaves.
§ Many didn't fight for the confederacy. § West Virginia succeeded  from confederacy  and joined union § Slavery still gave benefits,  you wanted  to have slaves  and be part of the
elite,  so people  took jobs related  to the slave  system  like lawyers.
§ Social floor argument: slavery was racially based,  so being white  guaranteed
that you were  not the bottom  of society.  Even the poorest white  person was
still above an educated  black person. So if you're a white  person at the
bottom,   your white skin is the only similarity  you have to the rich white
people,  which gave you a sense of pride.
§ 2. After the war: recreating the slave system without slavery After the war, white people  want their status  back and don’t want to be the
bottom,  so they wanted  to recreate  the system.
§ 3. II. The end of slavery and the beginning  of freedom - now what? After the way, freedom  was powerful and scary for freedmen No violence  at first Searching  for family First thing freedmen  did was look for family 1. Schools  and education Young and old wanted  to be educated Freedmen's  Bureau: main goal was to give  education  to freedmen  so they could
vote and get included in politics
2. Establishing  churches Center of African American  culture in this era Studied the bible without  owners' interpretation  for the first time New  interpretation  of Christianity Tow major churches:  African Methodist  episcopal  (AME) and African Baptist Run by and for African American  center  for culture and organization Politics 3. Entering politics Before the north lost interest  in the  civil rights movement  and the KKK was
formed, blacks  entered  politics
Document:  force act  - tried to stop clan Blacks  voted and ran for congress An effort to try and take advantage  of their citizenship 4. III. The problem of making a living  - the rise of sharecropping How can freedmen  make  a living? 1865 - everyone  wanted  farms because  land = wealth  = power = independent The Freedmen's dream: independent "yeoman" farming "Nothing  but freedom"  - no longer slaves,  but no land Independent  farmers who owned - Yeomen  farmer § Document   - petition to give freed slaves  land § Plantation  owners still owned the land § Rumor that plantations  would be given to slave families,  but didn’t happen § Freedmen  felt  the land was theirs because  they worked on it § A. Resistance  to Black  codes and the old Plantation Black codes:  laws  about freedmen.  Ex. Had to have a job and couldn’t  move
around
§ B. How to make a living? C. 1. White plantation owners - need cheap labor,  how to get it? Blacks  refused to work for landowners Landowners  had incentive  to negotiate  with  slaves so they  could make  money,  but
the whites  still got better deal
2. Solution - the sharecropping  system Landowners  and slaves  negotiate  to split profits of harvests To slaves, this was better  than getting  nothing like before Look at sharecropper contract  in book Benefits both parties (but whites get a better end of the deal) A. Freedmen supply labor,  white owners supply equipment, tools - all profits split
50/50 (in theory)
B. The problem of "Debt Peonage" and the sharecropping  trap Unraveling  - landowners wanted  to collect  payment  of whatever  they gave
slaves  originally, and they charged  a lot for the  stuff they  gave.
§ They could buy things from the "company  store" but owners hiked the
prices,  and this money will go back to the owner
§ If there  was no crop, the slaves were  in debt to the landowner § Slaves would get in debt  so far that they  could never get  out - Debt  peonage § Laws  were written  so blacks  couldn’t get  out § Not exactly  slavery, but not freedom § This was the dominant  economic  system  after war which  was very
productive for the south
§ White people get  pulled into this debt too § Book "Let  us now praise famous men" § Before,  whites had their skin, now they don’t § Tractors  in the 1930s put sharecroppers  out of business § C. 3. IV. Day 3: Westward Expansion  and the fate of Native America. Ch. 15 Triangle: Don’t worry about names  or little  details Don’t need to know "union leaders"  names,  just know there is the Union and what they
view
Know the  viewpoint of the  owners of the factories View  of union vs. Factory owners Fire is a symbol of the craziness  of industrialization Pros & Cons Industrialization  is a new thing People are fighting over what  to do Immigration  is a big theme Documents in Textbook: Know them  in context Sharecropping contract  - example  of the attempt  to recreate  slavery; hybrid-like slavery Documents  on test  look at big issues in context Noted  that Dr. Drake likes maps and graphs Heading  West - why? Context:
What motivated  people  to live in the middle  of America?
By the 1860s & 1870s most native  Americans  have been eliminated,  but not in the west What to do with natives? Idea of "who's  a real American?",  "How to make  whoever is not an American,  an
American?",  "What to do with natives?"
Railroads were a very important  event  in American  history In 1880s - civilization  was moving west Lots of debate  over land rights/treaty  rights Technically,  people  have been spreading West  since Europeans  first landed in the new
world, but what was  considered to be "West"  changed  over time.  At some  point, Georgia
was "the  west",  then in 1817 Michigan  was considered  "the  West",  etc.
Why did people move  west?  "For freedom"  is not necessarily  correct  because  its a vague
idea. People  move for specific  pragmatic  reasons, they wanted  cheap  land in hopes of
becoming  wealthy
The "American  dream"  in 1870s was owning a farm and being a yeoman  farmer, which
made  you as independent  as possible
Government  wanted  to give away free land In 1800s government  gave away  land via the center  of American  citizenship Government  viewed  farmers  as ideal citizens Northerners  liked small  farms, but not big plantations.  They thought slavery was  bad for
small farmers  - Free soil ideology.
Government  wanted  to give free land, but this was blocked  by southern politics After the succession,  government  gave away  more land I. Cheap Land - Homestead Act of 1862 Act where the government  gave away land in the west  for an extremely  small fee Caused the "squareness"  of everything  out west Everything  out west  is square shaped,  counties,  parts of counties,  townships,  etc.
are all squares within squares
Townships  - subdivision of a county. Found in the north and west  commonly,  but
not in south.
Government  did this on land where natives  had been removed,  and there  was no
ownership in place,  so the  government  took ownership and gave  it away
Fundamental  unit of homestead  act  was corner sections Government  land office:  GLO - sold sections  of land for extremely  cheap,  just a
small filing fee.  They gave out millions of acres in the mid-west  like this
Possibly the  most important  legislation  in Midwest  land legislation 1. Business  Opportunities People also went  out west  to sell supplies  to settlers,  not necessarily  to get  land There was  a large real estate  market,  which was technically  supposed to be illegal,
where people  would buy land and resell  it for a profit using many different  names
This was called  Land speculation People flipped land, in ways that were  kosher and not so kosher The rise of the "corporate West" The west  soon became  a center  for business  corporations § Railroads were the  first entity  to be similar to modern corporations § Cattle  was also a business  market,  and cattle  corporations became  the first
powerful corporations in the U.S.
§ Cowboys were employed  under cattle  corporations  (picture of the
stockyards  in the PowerPoint) and were  sent out to gather  cattle  and bring
them  back to brand them  for the company  they worked for
§ Chicago became  the  meatpacking  center  of the planet  at one point in time.
"porkopolis"
§ The rise of businesses  created  conflicts  between  owners and workers,
known as the labor strife
§ There was  unprecedented  wealth  in the U.S.  so how does the  role of
democracy  fit into this?
§ There were  many different opinions between  owners and workers § A. 2. *Side tangent  that Drake said probably wouldn’t be tested  over: Johnson county range war - people  in Wyoming under "stockman's  associations"
employed  cowboys
In 1892 there  was an economic  downturn and many cowboys  were laid off They decided  to go into business  for themselves,  searching for unbranded cattle Heard owners felt like this was theft  and didn’t like having new competitors So, the  owners of cattle  corporations got a list of their former employees  and hired
assassins  to kill them (picture  of hitmen  in PowerPoint)
The cowboys  started fighting  back and there  were gun battles Basically,  this is an example  of the important  conflict  between  workers and
corporation/business  owners
Manifest  Destiny The belief  that America  was "fated"  to dominate  the continent,  which is where  the
phrase "sea to shining sea" came  from (manifest   identity)
Idea that  America was  under a larger divine plan Technology  will help manifest  destiny Painting in the PowerPoint of a woman  leading America  westward 1. Conquering Nature Dr. Drake specifically  skipped this idea during class § A. Opportunities for Freedom Slaves took advantage  of the westward  expansion and also went out west  to get
land, to become  more independent  and therefore,  actually  embrace  freedom
1. The Fate of the Natives - Death, Disappearance,  or reform Americans  took the native's land The mentality  of most Americans  was not "if" we got their land, it was "when  and how"
we get  the natives land
There were  two main ideas of when  and how to get  the land" Eradication  of
philosophy/school  and the idea of Assimilation
The "eradication"  school The idea that  Americans had about the natives  to "kill them  all, take their land, and
let God deal with the rest"
"The only good Indian is a dead Indian"  - General  Phillip Sheridan Sand Creek Massacre  (1864), Fetterman Massacre  (1866), A. "Kill and scalp them  all, big & little" There were  some augments  over whether  this actually  was a "massacre"  or not -
maybe  because  many Americans  didn’t consider natives  as Americans/people?
Little Big Horn (1876) B. Union army was sent  out west  to fight the natives Phillip Sheridan Eradacists People were  terrified - not all American's  agreed  with the eradication  philosophy 1. The "Assimilationist"  school Important  document  Drake mentioned:  Helen  hunt Jackson document  in chapter
15
Drake also mentioned  all the assimilation  documents  are important to know Assimilation  is the idea that  natives are noble people and shouldn’t be massacred People thought that  the culture of natives  would disappear anyways,  so Americans
to take them  and teach  them  how to be Americans
"assimilate"  them  to be Americans This is a cultural  genocide,  but at the time  people thought the idea  of assimilation
was a very progressive idea
The Myth of the "vanishing  Indian" A. Educate Indians  via  schooling,  land  policy,  and law, to make them "civilized" Indian  schools Americans  put Indian kids in boarding schools to teach  them  how to
be Americans  (PowerPoint Image  of Carlisle school Indian kids)
Americans  cut their hair and put them  in different clothes,  which was
staunchly  against  their culture
Natives  weren't  allowed  to speak  their native  languages  or allowed  to
practice  their own religion
Women were  taught to sew and how to become  domestic  servants Textbook document  to look at: women  in schools Sometimes  natives  would escape  and run away from these  schools Some assimilated  well and became  activists Weird side effect  of assimilation  was that  different tribes  who used to
hate each  other came  together:  Pan Indianism
i. Reservations and the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 Dawes  act is an important  piece  of legislation Henry Dawes  was a radical republican  who took reservations  and
divided them  into 160 acre  chunks
Version of the homestead  act Gave every Indian family their own piece  of land and wanted  them  to
be yeomen  farmers
BIA, Bureau of Indian Affairs - assimilation  program Meant  to teach  natives  about democracy  and citizenship Indians were not equal, but government  wanted  to civilize  them Similar to freedmen's  bureau Reoccurring  idea of how to make  those who weren't  considered
Americans,  "real Americans"
Individuals would get 80 acres while families  got 160 acres The BIA was  very corrupt; local agents  didn't care much ii. B. 2. II. Failure of the Dawes Act and Assimilation Corruption, the loss of reservation  land, and cultural incompatibility  were  all disasters  the
Natives  faced
Indian Reservations  started  having lots of issues and alcoholism  became  common Loss of 'excess' land "excess"  land was given to white  people, so natives lost about 50% of their land
right away
PowerPoint image  of an advertisement  for land 1. Land  speculation problems Natives  could "rent"  land, and were manipulated  by outsiders 2. Lack  of compatibility  with native lifestyles In native  culture,  Women were the farmers/gatherers,  so the  American dream  of
the male  head being a yeomen  farmer was  foreign to the Natives
Natives  had a different  gender hierarchy Native  men felt  like they  were being asked to become  women,  and they refused
this idea
There was  a cultural incompatibility  between  the Indian culture  and American
culture
3. III. The Ghost Dance,  1890 Rumors circulated  that  if natives  banned together  and performed  a "Ghost  Dance"
(Image  in powerpoint),  then American's  would disappear and things would go back to
normal
Act of desperation IV. Day 4: The Ingredients of Industrialization:  Forging the Age of Capital *This is the first lecture  to be relevant  to "Triangle"
Introduction: The Current Time, and Why
Image  from the PowerPoint - pastel  picture of time zones Industrialism  made  time  zones consistent  , so for the first time it was the same  time
everywhere  in that  time  zone
Up until now, most people  live, grew up, died, and were buried in a few miles People lived localized  existences Time  used to be a localized  experience,  since  the curvature  of the earth varies what
"noon" looks like from place  to place,  time  was kept locally
Railroads made  time management  important,  so the railroad industry let to standardized
time
1880s - Congress adopted  national time  zone Railroad corporation in 1884 set up the time  zones we  still use today "Industrialism"  - Perhaps the most important development in US history after 1865 VERY  IMPORTANT  IDEA: Industrialism  is the most important  thing to happen in the  U.S.
between  the end of reconstruction  and the early 1900s
Industrialism  changes  everything People became  less localized,  origin of globalization The way people worked changed.  Used to work on farms, now in factories. I. American Business  Before 1870 The idea of "blue collar working class"  was born from Industrialism Changed where  people worked, how people  worked, and the American  lifestyle  in
general
Social values  changed,  economy  changed,  culture  changed Emergence  of industrialism changed  capitalism Was this change  good /bad? And for whom was it good/bad for? IMPORTANT  IDEA: what  does democracy  look like in this new age  of industrialism? The American  democratic  experience  was born in farming/local  experiences Now its been 100 years and everything has changed  profoundly, so what will
democracy  look like?
Some private  individuals became  more powerful  than the  government There were  a lot of strong opinions on what  is right/wrong Eventually  these  conflicts  lead to shoot-outs  in the street No child labor laws yet (PowerPoint picture  of kids in coal mines) Coal mining was a controversial  area of labor in this era "Dickenzian"  idea that questioned  whether  it was okay for kids to work like this In 1862 textile  mills  in New England  became  the first big factories  - Boston associates In 1850 the biggest  business  in the U.S. had less than 1000 workers, before
industrialization  most businesses  were small  proprietorships
By 1900, 2/3 of workers worked in factories  and only 1/3 were farmers.  In 1850 50%
people were  farmers
II. A case study - Andrew Carnegie Carnegie  Steel  company had over 20,000 workers and was the biggest  corporation in the
world at the time  with over 40 million dollars in profit (PowerPoint image  of smoke  stacks
at a steel  plant)
Drake said not to obsess over little  details  here Steel  is iron infused with carbon, and is very strong and flexible  while iron is soft and not
durable. But steel  is hard to make,  very energy intensive
To make to make lots of steal  with cheap  labor was very profitable A Fortuitous Combination  of Developments Technological  developments Carnegie  was an immigrant  from Scotland  born 1830s, came  to Pittsburg in
the 1840s with parents
§ He worked in places  sometimes  as a "bobbin boy" and gained good skills
and training,  he got promoted because  he was very good at organization
§ Railroads were the  first modern complex  corporation in history § Carnegie  was a genius for industrial organization  and was obsessed  with
efficiency
§ "worry about efficiency  and profits will take  care  of themselves" § But, efficiency  has a human cost § Carnegie  wanted  to be an entrepreneur  and had lots of drive. Wanted his
own industrial empire  and knew  that steel  was upcoming
§ He didn’t have a lot of money,  but he had investor friends (Tom Scott,  Henry
Frick, Charles Schwab)  who loaned him money  for a steel  plant in 1872
§ A. The rise of railroads Carnegie  knew that railroads would be a top customer § Railroads lowered  transportation costs  for everyone § Transportation  was a huge expense,  especially  for farmers out west § Way back when  people used rivers to send things  from the Midwest  south
to the Mississippi to places  like new Orleans
§ Railroads shifted the  flow of goods to the  East,  they could get  their faster
and cheaper  than before
§ Carnegie  negotiated  with railroad corporations § Key ideas here: Cheap transportation,  New  technology  & transportation,
Telegraphs
§ Telegraphs:  first instant  communication.  Telegraph  lines ran right next to
rail road lines
§ B. New resources from the West Vital  natural resources  from the west like iron, coal, silver, copper were
found
§ C. Immigration and cheap labor Cheap labor from immigrants  makes  industrialization  possible § 28 million people  came  to the US; 3rd wave  of immigration  was the factory
immigrants
§ Because  so many people came,  labor costs  were very low and profits were
very high
§ Industrialization  was  build on immigration § The northeast  still has a stamp  of industrialization  today § *Triangle  - pretty  much every character  is an immigrant D. 1. III. The invention of corporate business techniques Corporate business techniques  emerge  in this period § Carnegie  invents some  of them § Corporate structure  today was born in this period § Important:  The textbook has a section  on the integration  of business
techniques  that Drake said to look at, and the documents  at the end of the
chapter
§ A. Some Important corporate Business  techniques Integration of production A. Monopolization,  trusts, "price fixing"; (not so much Carnegie as others) B. 1. Other Helpful Developments A pro-industrial  US government and Republican  Party Republican  party - the party of corporations  and North/Eastern  businesses § Originally, the Republican  party was founded in 1854 over anti-slavery
views,  which were due to spiritual and pragmatic  reasons. Republicans
thought that  money wasn’t  in slavery, but that money  was in the
industrialization.
§ Anti-slavery/pro-business   ideas embraced  industrialism § Republicans  thought the  government  should use its power to make  business
growth possible
§ Democrats  were not as comfortable  with these  business  ideas from the
republicans,  they thought socialism  was the ideal
§ Pro-industrial  law: 14th amendment and Santa Clara County vs. Southern
Pacific  Railroad
The Laws  were tweaked  to be industrially friendly, which is an
example  of how the changes  with time  and the  cultural shift were
applied in laws
Example:  the 14th amendment  applied to businesses  as well, which
treated  corporations as individuals who had rights like a person
does -"corporate  personhood"
The Santa Clara case  is an example  of this "corporate  personhood" was seen as making  businesses  more
efficient  by eliminating  inefficiency
Opponents argues that  giving corporations  rights was dangerous The law and military was on the side of employers,  and the army
would be called  in to help deal with labor strikes
i. A. "Social  Darwinism" - the misguided application  of "survival of the fittest" to
economies
Carnegie  did not believe  in social  Darwinism,  he came  up as a poor
immigrant  and was ambivalent  on the role of the wealth  and poor
§ Social Darwinism  is the idea people  interpreted  out of "the origin of species"
that economic  life is like natural selection,  and we  should embrace  that.
People who didn’t agree were  viewed  as the "unfit",   and lazy
§ "origin of species"  is the work that social  Darwinism  was born out of, but
the origin of species  was not about people  should related  to each  other or
social structure  of humans.  Natural selection  should not apply to businesses,
as Darwin did not say to apply it to other aspects  of life
§ William Graham  Sumner - champion of social Darwinism  and critic  of social
reform - author of "What the  Social Classes  Owe to Each  Other", in which
he basically said they don’t owe each  other anything .
§ Important:  Look at Document  16.5: "A Defense  of Laissez-Faire" § B. 2. The Gilded  Age - Late 1880s-90s There was  unprecedented  wealth  and tremendous  opulence  in this age (PowerPoint
Image  of Cornelius Vanderbilt's  Summer  house = lots of baroque -European style  fancy
décor)
Wealthy Americans  adopted  the idea that  they were similar to European royalty - having
stunning wealth  and power,  and this translated  to architecture
In this era, money produces  political power Americans  admire this success,  but were  weary about the wealthy  gaining control over
everything
Ambivalence  about "Robber Barons" "Robber Barrens" was the idea that  wealth  was stolen from the middle class "Gilded"  - rotten things underneath  wealth,  like how rotten wood would be
underneath  gold plated  walls.
1. Carnegie's Social  Conscience Carnegie  retires in 1901, sells  J.P. Morgan,  and gives money  away Important:  Read the "Document  of Wealth"  document  16.7 Carnegies  is in the middle,  he feels there  is an obligation for the wealthy  do have a
part in philanthropy, but didn’t think they  should hand everything to the poor
His views show his ambivalence  (*side note,  Drake used the word "ambivalent"  to
describe  Carnegie's  view on social Darwinism  a LOT)
He wanted  to do something  substantial  with money,  not just have fancy  things and
show off his wealth
2. A Lingering  Question… Is the Industrialism  good or Bad? The answer  to this really depended on who you were,  and is a personal
moral question.
§ 3. IV. Day 5: "Eight Hours for What We Will": Unionization  and the Labor  Movement Review: Industrialization  & The Labor Movement Questions  about democratic  rights Last  time - rise of corporate  America,  people coming  together  made  industrialization
possible
Business  friendly government  = tremendous  wealth  (Picture of Vanderbilt's  living room) Is it good, bad or both? The wealthy  were  admired and feared  because  they  had power; turning into a
dictatorship
Captain of industry (Carnegie)  vs. Robber Barrens No safety regulations  yet,  machines  were  powered by open belt drives that were  high
powered = dangerous conditions
Questions  about working conditions  and democracy Right now, changing  things is controlled by the government  and wealthy *Industrialization  is the biggest  thing to happen in U.S. post civil war "Piece  work" - making pieces  of shirts to stitch  together.  Sleeves  and collars would be
made  separately  and sent  to a factory.
Triangle  was cutting-edge  because  everything  is done in house By 1890 - 2/3 of all Americans  work in industrial type settings Working conditions  in U.S.  Factories, c. late 19th century Loud, dirty, unsanitary  everywhere,  exhausting,  deadly, dangerous 35,000 people per year die in accidents,  similar to auto accidents  today Sanitation  - bad Meat  packing Chicago,  no hairnets,  gloves,  refrigeration;  waste  was pushed to
middle of table which drains to the Chicago  river
"Try to hit America in the heart,  but punched  them  in the stomach" 1. Working hours - long 40 hour workweek  came  from this era People worked 6 days a week,  10-16 hours a day Caused religious conflicts  for Jews Unions asked for fewer hours Reading  in the textbook - "deskilling"  of labor 2. Work style - regimented, repetitive, "on the clock" Important  change/difficult  for people Farming is hard work but it isn't regimented  or repetitive  like a factory is. Example:  Triangle - life is depressing Company would speed up machine  for more  production, so workers would have  to
work faster  and this was dangerous
Taylorism  - scientific  management system for labor Fredrick Taylor - hated by people § Efficiency  has human costs,  Taylorism  is an example § Factory would be observed and given a plan for how to make  it more
efficient
§ They gave steps  for workers, which made  them  like robots controlling their
every move
§ Triangle  is an example  of typical  conditions  for the period § i. 3. "De-skilling"  of labor Textbook reading Working with your hands - most  things used to be made  by hands by people  called
"Artisans",  who made  things like furniture, silver
They were  proud of their ability to produce things of value, and gave them  a
feeling  of ownership
They worked in small-scale  humane  environments Now, the  labor process is segmented,  workers don’t know the total picture,  just
one part
Knowledge  becomes  fragmented,  requires no skill Consequently,  there's  no pride in the  product The process alienated  worked from the product 4. Wages - low Better  than Europe, but still bad Wages were  low for everyone Triangle:  Owners were also immigrants  who came  to the country poor and rose up 5. I. Unionization  and Strikes - Workers Resist Industrial  Conditions Problems with working conditions,  but what  to do about it? Working class doesn’t  have influence  in government  so they formed groups (enter
Unions)
Unions started  small and grew 1866 - National  Labor Union NLU  - small,  limited membership  to only skilled workers Not much activity,  they had some  picnics Unions were often limited/fractured  by social  divisions No real consequential  unions till later 1. 1877 - Great Railroad  Strike (Picture of magazine) Railroad BNO - people got a 20% cut in pay one day and employees  were  pissed
and walked  out on strike
In the streets  of Baltimore  people rioted Owners decided  to replace  the striking workers with temporary  cheap labor
"Scabs"
"Scabs"  - workers who temporarily  replaced  workers Owners would play on the race division - they put African Americans  in as temps  to
make  the strikers mad
Owners ended up hiring thugs to beat up people  in unions Military was called  in by owners *Military/government  was industry friendly There were  different views  on "strikers,"  depending  on who you were,  you were
for them or against  them.  (Ex. Owners did not like strikers, most  working class  did)
(Images  in PP)
**There  was an ideological  difference  between  peoples views  on industrialization
and unions
Railroad strike, people  realized they used a national union that  could actually  do
stuff - idea of "collective  action"
2. II. 1870s-1880s - Knights of Labor First important union was the  knights of Labor Led by Irish immigrant  - Terrence  Powderly (PP Image  - KOL cartoon on how KOL viewed
the world. People with top hats and belly's represent  the wealthy)
Knights were open in their membership,  allowed  women,  African Americans  (but
sometimes  still segregated),  unskilled, even Irish (whites  thought  the Irish were the  worst
white  people) , but NO Chinese  (we'll go into this later)
KOL were  more open and powerful, with no "unproductive  classes" Only people who worked with their hands could join, no business/banker  people They believed  in "Producerism"  - the  idea that wealth  is created  in a society  by common
people who work with their hands
The thought was if you don’t work with your hands, you don’t do real work, you aren't a
"producer"
Producerism is an ideology which holds that those  members  of society  engaged  in the production of tangible  wealth  are of greater  benefit to society  than, for example,
aristocrats  who inherit their wealth  and station.
Working with hands was viewed  as honest labor (as opposed to slavery which  was seen
as dishonest labor since  the slaves did the work for the owners;  the owners themselves
didn’t do any hard work)
The KOL were  willing to strike  and walk off a job to improve  conditions;  they were willing
to put pressure on employers
However,  the KOL go away quickly Radical  goals  - increased wages, fewer hours 1. The eight hour movement, 1886 In 1886 the "8 hour day" was a hot topic,  lots of unions fought for this. "8 hours for work, 8 hours for sleep,  8 hours for what  we will" - motto  of the
movement
2. Haymarket Square Riots (Summer 1886). Spells the end of the Knights May 1886 - rally in Chicago  with 80,000 people At the same  time,  McCormick  reaper mechanical…  (something  I don’t remember  - I
think they called in the police or military) and after the rally there  was conflict
between  strikers and police  and people were  killed
At the rally there  were more police  than protesters  (not a very big striker/rally
presence)
Someone  threw a bomb at the police  and police  opened fire on the crowd On May 4, 1886, a labor protest rally near Chicago’s  Haymarket  Square turned into
a riot after someone  threw a bomb at police.  At least  eight  people died as a result
of the violence  that  day. Despite  a lack of evidence  against  them,  eight radical
labor activists  were convicted  in connection  with the bombing.  The Haymarket  Riot
was viewed  a setback  for the organized labor movement  in America,  which  was
fighting for such rights as the eight-hour  workday. At the same  time,  the men
convicted  in connection  with the riot were  viewed  by many in the labor movement
as martyrs.
**This  was bad for the KOL, people blamed  them  but it was done by radicals -
"bomb throwing radicals."
People thought the  KOL were a bunch of immigrant  bomb throwers who were
trying to overthrow the government
Chicago government  went after  the KOL leadership,  arrested  and tried 7 or 8
people,  two were hung with little  evidence.  The  point of this was to intimidate  the
Knights (PP Image  of the knights being hung)
Now, KOL have a bad reputation and membership  declines  rapidly 3. III. 1886 - American Federation of Labor. More "Respectable" The AFL is the new more conservative  union, they  replace  the KOL Sam Gompers  was a president  of the AFL (I wrote something  about him being in
Triangle?)
Different  unions have different  political views AFL was  less likely to strike and willing to negotiate Sometimes  members  thought they were  too lax AFL wanted  to separate  themselves  from the poorly viewed  "Anarchists,  radicals,  etc."
and just wanted  to be purely a labor organization
IV. More Radical  Unions  - often repressed by authorities Two main groups: The Reformers  vs. the  Revolutionaries Most people were  reformers Reformers  thought that the U.S.  had problems  but they can fix them  by making  the
system  work, and believed  Americans  can be made  to be America  again
Revolutionaries  thought  America is so rotten and had problems so deep that U.S.  needs
to be completely  reformed
Radicals  believed  in revolution The shittier  the job = people were angrier = the more you believe  in radical
revolution. And example  of this is coal miners.
Coal miners Had a high death  rate/ injury rate § Not paid in money, but paid in scrip, which  was like a coupon and could only
be spent in a few  places.
§ Coal miners were also often required to live in company  housing and pay
rent with scrip
§ They were  required to buy food and supplies  at the company store with
scrip
§ Law  enforcement  is like security  and would escort  and watch  coal miners
vote to make sure they voted for the right person
§ Basically,  the angriest  and therefore most  radical workers were those  who
worked in the coal industry
§ V. United Mine Workers of America - Ludlow Massacre,  1914 The united mine  workers were  radial and willing to strike, frequently There ended  up being blazing gun battles  between  workers and owners  (who hired
thugs, so sometimes  workers vs. thugs)
Striking minors were  strong men At one point, they left the housing and went  to live on the prairie in tents  after
being kicked out
Owners sent thugs to burn the field to force them  out and 75 people  ended up
dying
A. Industrial  Workers of the world - very radical:  socialists,  communists,  anarchists,  etc. Coal miners were so desperate,  so they adopted revolutionary  ideas Known as "Wobblies"  - members  of the industrial workers of the world Super radical,  people were  scared of them If you were communist,  you were a part of this group (Image  in PP) Revolutionary  (Pyramid of capitalist  Image  in PP) - shows their view  of the world "Producerism"  where  the wealthy  skimmed  off working class Not reformers Not very common,  but found in coal mines  and tough work places B. 1892 - Homestead Steel Strike: Andrew Carnegie fights back Carnegie  was less intense,  not anti-union, believed  the  poor could work themselves  up In 1892 - Carnegie  went  to Europe and left Henry Frick in charge.  Frick put up barbed wire
to keep unionsts out.
This caused  a conflict  and strikers were  killed Nice  summary here: http://www.history.com/topics/homestead-strike VI. Day 6: Farmer Brown Strikes Back:  The Populist  Revolt Against  Industrialism Intro: "The Rectangle  of Righteousness?" 1880s/90s - Kansas was a hotbed of political  change  and reform ideas Their opposition to industry was intense Farmers were  Reformers Farmers were  scared of industry, and angry at the ambivalence  towards  industry Populism - the country cousins of labor unions. They shared the same  concerns  and both
saw themselves  as allies  with the KOL and Triangle people.
Formed the third most  important political  party: the  Populist party It fades away The Urban vs. Rural divide has origins here Resistance  to industrialism I. "Agrarian America" The American  dream was to be an independent  yeoman  farmer Farmers were  proud, sometimes  arrogant "Jeffersonian agrarianism"  - farmers as idea citizens Thomas  Jefferson - "The  farmer is the Republic's  most  virtuous…" Farmers were  seen as politically  honest, virtuous, selfless,  put the good of the
whole above themselves,  honest in general
According to Jefferson,  having contact  with your land and soil made  you "better"
morally; the  idea is that you take  care of all your needs for yourself which makes
you ideal for democracy  because  you will vote for the good of the community
Jefferson  didn't like industry, and thought factory  workers were  at the mercy  of
their owners (having to vote the way the  owners wanted,  which happened  in the
coal industry)
Wanted a nation of farmers;  the Louisiana  Purchase was land bought for
Jeffersonian  people
Northerners  Loved*(Not  sure correct,  but what I wrote)  farmers However,  Jefferson  also owned  slaves As Industrialism  gained speed,  it caused  consternation  (Drake used that  word, it
means  anxiety) among  farmers
Farmers thought  they were getting  replaced  as the "Hero's"  by people like Andrew
Carnegie  and other business owners.  (This is similar to artisans cultural anxiety)
1. II. Industrialism's  Threats to Farmers Financial  trouble, debt, etc. Populist farmers are in trouble because  they start  overproducing Overproduction of crops became  a huge problem (and still is today. Drake joked
that overproduction is the "devil of agriculture."
Drake noted that famine  is usually due to politics and infrastructure,  not scarcity Too much of a good thing led to sending crops by the masses  and the  prices
dropped
Sometimes  farmers  couldn’t even break even,  and would be in debt, which
contradicts  their ideal of being "independent"
This is similar to sharecroppers - too much debt to ever get out of 1. Monopolies  - railroads  and banks Railroad and bank industries are HATED by the populists Farmers were  seen as credit risks, so they would get very high interest  rates The populists were  pissed about this because  from their viewpoint  they were  the
heroes of society,  providing food for everyone,  and they're  getting  gauged by
banks
Populists could get anti-sematic  (racists  against  Jews since  most bankers were
Jewish)
Railroad industry had a monopoly (populists hated  this), and sometimes  there
would only be one railroad near a farmer,  so the railroad owners  would charge
super high rates (yet they were  cutting  Carnegie  deals since  he produced steel  for
them)
*Key Idea:  Railroads and banks were  symbols of corruption and extortion (Image  in
PowerPoint of octopus,  this is an example  of how the populists  viewed
industrialism  (its destroying the common  people),  they used it frequently)
The next image  in the PowerPoint is also a populist drawing; a railroad is built on
bodies and the farmer is the one that notices  the train coming
Overall, there was lots of fear about the concentrated  power of wealthy
industrialists
Another image  from the PowerPoint is a cartoon with a gold-plated  knight on a
train (railroad industry) battling  the common  worker - this was used by labor
unions
2. "Producerism": the true source of wealth KEY IDEA FOR EXAM: Producerism:  ideology that  wealth  is made  by the
working class
§ Producerism is the idea that wealth  is created  by laboring with your hands
(tangible  work), and that classes  of people like bankers and lawyers  (who
didn’t work with their hands) don’t actually  create  wealth,  or at least  honest
wealth
§ " Producerism is an ideology which holds that those members  of society engaged  in the production of tangible  wealth  are of greater  benefit  to
society  than, for example,  aristocrats  who inherit their wealth  and station."
§ "Fleecing"  = screwing  people over by taking  money from them,  typically  by
overcharging  or swindling
§ Farmers believed  they were  the center  of the universe  (this is a producer
and agrarian idea)
§ A. "Status Anxiety" People were  very defensive  and anxious because  they were getting  replaced  by
industry
So people  formed groups, like unions, and called  it an alliance The farmer equivalent  to a union (northeast)  is an alliance  (west) 3. III. Forming "Alliances" 1867-1870 -- Patrons of Husbandry,  aka "The Grange" "Patrons of Husbandry" and "Grangers"  are farmer/agriculture  alliances Grangers: Members  of an organization  founded in 1867 to meet  the social and
cultural needs  of farmers. Grangers  took an active  role in the  promotion of the
economic  and political  interests  of farmers.
These  alliances  didn’t do much,  they had picnic, speeches,  and meetings They mutate  into the National  Farmers  Alliance (NFA) in the 1880s, which is the
KOL (union) of farmers
1. 1880s - National  Farmers' Alliance Links  to the Knights of Labor NFA is to farmers what  the KOL was to factory workers § They were  a significant  political  organization  of farmers § The NFA was famous for its speakers (They  would basically  preach  the
"gospel"  of farming, Drake read an except  of a speech  Mary Elizabeth  Lease
gave criticizing  industrialism  (he said it was great  rhetoric and unlike what
we have now), some  key phrases I noticed:
"Monopoly is the monster" § The "Manufacturing  east" § Workers were  "Forced to sell their virtue" § "lone shark companies" § "Raise  less corn and more Hell" § § The NFA gets big results in agricultural places,  and membership  goes up § But, they were  seen as 'nuts' to city people § They reached  out to the KOL, since they  saw themselves  as allies to factory
workers and they thought  they were both fighting the same  battle  against
tyranny and oppression
§ The NFA loved & was  sympathetic  for the idea of the 8hr day § A. IMPORTANT  DOCCUMENT  drake mentioned:  Populist party platform 1892
(Document  17.3, pp. 569)
2. IV. The National  Alliance's  Plan - the "Ocala  Demands" (1890) and the "Omaha Platform" (1892) The NFA came  up with actual  plans on how to reform society  and organized specific
proposals (some were  implemented)
Public  ownership of the railroads They wanted  the government  to run the railroads, not private  owner Public ownership, for the good of everyone 1. Direct election of senators/graduated income tax The idea that  the wealthier  you are, the more you should pay in income  tax is a
populist idea.
wealth  benefits  from society  collectively  (not sure what  I meant  here) Thought the (government)  system  was rigged by the wealthy,  since people
couldn’t  vote for important  positions like senators,  who were appointed
2. No protective tariffs for industry Saw this as unfair favoritism toward industry 3. The "subtreasury" system This never really happened Subtreasury idea:  the government  would build silos (a tower/pit  used to store
grain) around country and farmers would bring crops and store them in the silos, in
order to create  security  and create  a raise in price. Meanwhile,  the farmers  would
need money  so they wanted  to put a co-op (not a bank, community-run  financial
institution)  literally at the bottom  of silos so farmers could borrow money from the
co-op based on the potential  earnings of their crop. Then they  would wait  to make
enough money to pay the coop back and make a profit. This was an idea that never
actually  happened.
Subtreasury system:  A proposal by the Farmers’  Alliances  in the 1880s for the
federal government  to extend  loans to farmers and store their crops in
warehouses  until prices rose and they could buy back and sell their crops to repay
their debts.
4. Free coinage  of silver Farmers were  in debt and owed money  to banks. They believed  that  money was scarce,  limited,  and worth a lot when you could find
it; "gold standard" (system  by which the value of currency  was defined in terms  of
gold, for which  the currency could be exchanged)
Populists: supported the  gold standard and believe  that it provided the basis for a
sound and stable economy,  and were  proponents of the coinage  of silver which
asserted  that expansion  of the money supply (more literal money) would liberate
farmers and workers from debt and bring prosperity to more Americans
Banks HATED the gold standard idea In reality,  this idea of printing more money  (backed  by silver) causes  inflation, and
makes  the money worth less
This was confusing to me, helped  to look at this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_silver 5. V. 1892-1896 - the populist party "the people's  party" - the populist party The populist party held its first nominating  convention  in Omaha,  Nebraska  in 1892, and
nominated  James  B. Weaver (former union civil war general) for president.  He came  in
third (democrat  Grover Cleveland  won) (Image  in PowerPoint of map of election  results,
green areas = populist vote)
Republicans  were  strong in the north 1896 - William  Jennings Bryan and "fusion" with Democrats In 1896 the populists  nominated  William Jennings  Bryan Republicans  though the populists were  nuts (Cartoon Image  in PP of the  hot air
balloon depicts  republican's view of populists:  "Platform  of lunacy" = Free silver
part, peoples party, farmers alliance,  KOL party, socialists,  etc.)
Some people  were scared  with how powerful  populists had become Democrats  wanted  to work together  with populists so they could overrule
republicans  (Image  in PP of a cartoon populist  snake eating  the democratic  party
donkey: this is how republicans  viewed the  merger)
Populists didn’t want to "sell out" to mainstream  party William Jennings  became  the  candidate  for both parties (different  vice presidents
ran for populist or democrat)
Republicans  were  basically pro industry *KEY  IDEA: The 1896 election  was symbolic  of industry (gold) vs. Farming (silver) -
(Image  in PP of the republican  candidate  standing on a gold coin)
Republicans  won the election  with McKinley,  and became  the majority  party in the
U.S.
1. The Demise of (political)  Populism Republicans  won because  they were  a symbol of prosperity and progress After McKinley won, the populist party dwindled and died Populist issues: Free silver idea attracted  silver miners,  but the majority of workers couldn’t
identify with a party composed  mainly  of farmers.
Industrial laborers did not see  any benefit  in raising farm prices since  they
are consumers  of
agricultural  products Populists failed at incorporating other races 2. VI. 6. Additional  Info: We didn’t cover all of these  in class,  but just for fun here's some  additional info: Radical  Republicans:
Who: 
Members  of the Republican  Party committed  to Emancipation  of slaves  and equality  and
enfranchisement  of the freed blacks
What: A political  party
When: During and After the Civil War (1854-1877)
Where: United  States
Why: After the war, the Radicals  demanded  Civil rights for freedmen,  such as measures  of
ensuring suffrage. They  initiated  the Reconstruction  Acts, and limited  political  and voting rights
for ex-confederates.  They bitterly fought President  Andrew Johnson; they weakened  his powers
and attempted  to remove him form office  through impeachment  but were  one vote short.
Civil Rights Act of 1866:
Who: 
Legislative  Branch and Radical  Republicans
What: Piece  of legislation  that  tried to abolish black codes  by affirming African American’s  rights
to full and equal benefit  of laws and proceedings  for the security  of persons and property just
like white citizens.
When: 1866
Where: United  States  Congress
Why: It was meant  to put and end to legal discrimination  of blacks and expand their rights but
Andrew Johnson vetoed  the Act. It was the first time  citizenship  was defined.  It was the first
time  in history Congress overrode the president’s  veto on a major piece  of legislation.
Southerners rendered  this act  useless  through loopholes in the text and by putting  Jim Crow
laws and poll taxes in place.
Force Act (KKK act):
Who: 
United  States  Congress
What: The third Enforcement  Act that  made  state  officials liable  in federal court for depriving
anyone of their civil rights or the equal protection  of the laws. It authorized  the president to
dispatch  officials to the south to supervise  elections  and prevent voting interference.
When: 1871
Where: United  States  Congress and the South
Why: It effectively  backed  up and reinforced  the 14
th amendment  in preventing  southern officials  from oppressing and depriving the newly  freed blacks of certain  rights. It helped break
up the Klan but it did not end it.
Andrew Johnson
Who: 
17
th President  of the United  States What: Abraham Lincoln’s  Vice  President prior to his assassination  and member  of the
Democratic  Party. He wanted  to leave the  “Constitution  as it is, and the Union as it was.”
When: 1865-1869
Where: United  States  of America
Why: Was the fist president to be impeached  by the House of Representatives  and was
acquitted  in the Senate  by one vote. It revealed  that  the federal government  was no longer a
threat  to civil liberties.  His action lead to the passing of the 14
th amendment,  civil rights act,  and freedmen’s  bureau extension Black  codes:
Who: 
Southern States
What: Rules passed  in the south to reduce  blacks to a condition as close  to slavery as possible as
well as provide farmers  with a supply of cheap  black labor. It prohibited the blacks from bearing
arms, serving on juries and intermarriage.
When: 1865-66
Where: The South
Why: It prevented  the newly freed blacks  from leaving  plantations  unless they could prove that
they could support themselves,  which most  could not. Later  removed  by the Civil Rights  Act of
1866. It prevented  freedmen  from moving up in the world.
Crop-lien system:
Who:
Southern white  farmers, plantation  owners and blacks;  mainly cotton  farmers
What: A system  of agricultural  production after the Civil War, where country merchants  would
give supplies to poor southern farmers  and blacks  who needed  credit  to buy seeds  and materials
to grow crops, in exchange  for lien. The merchants  often had monopolies therefore  they
dictated  the terms.  Bad weather  etc.  would put them  further into debt along with the falling
prices of cotton  instead  of put them  on their feet
When: 1860s-1930s
Where: The South
Why: In 1880 the south could no longer feed itself  since they  were producing cotton instead  of
food, which  led to debt peonage.  The merchants  controlled  what they grew  and they made
them  grow cotton,  so the  farmers could never  grow food for themselves.  It proved Henry
Grady’s idea of the New  South wrong since  the South was still primarily agricultural  based.  
Henry Grady,  “new south”:
Who:
Editor of the Atlanta Constitution
What: He envisioned  slavery and secession  as the  ‘old south’ and that the vision of the  ‘new
south’ would be a time of unionization and economic  modernization  and industrialization.
When: 1886
Where: Atlanta,  Georgia
Why: His speech  in NY helped kick-start  the  south into industrialization  by influencing
entrepreneurs  to build factories  and mill and connect  railroads due to the availability  of cheap
labor. His speech  talked  about race relations  and economic  growth. It helped justify the
changing  of focus from Freedmen’s  rights to economic  issues.
Cowboys:
Who:
Men who herded cattle  and other livestock  throughout the west
What: Were grunt laborers and the worst paid whose jobs didn’t last long and made up a small
percentage  of the West.
When: Late  1860s
Where: The West
Why: They are still a symbol today of independent,  nomadic,  figures who fought for justice  and
defended  the honor and virtue of women  out west,  but were  really just ordinary; even though
their lives were actually  more mundane  and the  addition of railways in the west  to transport
cattle  removed the need  for them.
Battle of Little Big Horn:
Who:
General  Custer and men  vs. Sioux Indians
What: A battle  where General  Custer rode his men in to battle  to try to for the Sioux off their
land by cutting  their resources,  but were ultimately  defeated  and massacred  by the Sioux
Indians. It was a Lakota  victory.
When: 1876
Where: Montana  Territory
Why: It demonstrated  the fact  that the Sioux might  be able to win a battle  but they could not
win a war, simply because  the American  army could outlast them  or starve them.
Exodusters:
Who:
Former slaves who migrated  from the  South to Kansas seeking  land and a better  way of
life.
What: Blacks  who pooled together  their resources  and bought land in Kansas to settle  and
produce on so they could leave  the south for a better  life. Kansas was attractive  to blacks due to
the anti-slavery  martyr John Brown.
When: 1879
Where: Migration from the South to Kansas
Why: Even though it ended up not being  the promise land they  hoped for due to poor land and
weather,  the idea of owning their own land and escaping  the  south was worth the hardships to
them.  By 1880, 10,000 blacks were  living in Kansas  after 25,000 came  initially the  year before
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific  Railroad:  pg.  500
Who:
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific  Railroad
What: Dealt  with taxation of railroad properties.
Where: U.S. Supreme  Court
When: 1886
Why: This was the first time that  the Supreme  Court ruled that  the 14
th amendment’s  equal protection  clause  granted constitutional  protection  to corporations (not only people) in some
instances  as well.  Ruled a corporation was considered  a “person” and gave corporations the
same  right of due process
Chinese Exclusion  Act: (Pg. 481)
Who:
The Chinese  immigrants
What: Act that was created  to bar entry to America  to the Chinese  and to prohibit those
Chinese  already in the country from becoming  naturalized  American citizens.  People thought
the Chinese  would increase  the already rich and crush the white  working class.  This act  did not
stop the anti-Chinese  assaults
When: 1882
Where: The United  States,  California
Why: one of the most significant  restrictions  on free immigration  in US History. California’s
economy  dropped and Americans  saw the Chinese  as scapegoats.  The Chinese  worked for such
little  pay that the  white men  couldn’t ask for higher wages.
Ethnic Enclaves
Who:
Immigrants
What: Large  cities  such as New  York, Boston,  Pittsburgh, and Chicago are areas where  large
populations of immigrants  would often  settle  in groups by country/ethnicity  of origin.
Where: New  York City and Port Cities.  These  were  areas where everyone  shared the same
homeland.
When: 20 th Century. Why: Showed  that assimilating  with the U.S. was  not a top priority for many immigrants since
many chose  to stay with families  or neighbors they knew from home.  Most immigrants  valued
aspects  of their cultural  and social heritage  and took pains to preserve cherished  traditions  and
beliefs,  leading for many immigrants  to be very unwilling to become  fully Americans.  More
importantly,  the ethnic  enclaves  provided a place to keep cultural traditions  and beliefs.  These
communities  also allowed  for immigrants  to retain the best of their cultural identities  within the
larger democratic  society.  Assimilation  was more complicated  than the melting  pot metaphor
suggested.  Majority of immigrants  did not view  their trip to America  as permanent,  especially
men.
Laissiez-faire
Who:
Adam Smith
What: means  “let  things alone” and gained popularity from Adam Smith’s  Wealth of Nations -
businesses  could control themselves  and not be run by the government  (businesses  were  no
longer restricted  by the US government  → businesses  would grow and flourish leading  to a
better  economy)
Where: Idea for American  Government,  Western Nations,  especially  UK and US
When: 1776 (Wealth of Nations)  19
th Century was when  businessmen  and their conservation allies on the  Supreme Court used Smith’s  doctrines  to argue against restrictive  government
regulation.
Why:  Concept  of an “invisible hand” guided by natural law,  which would guarantee  the greatest
economic  success  if the government  let individuals pursue their own self-interest  unhindered by
outside and artificial  influences.  It ideally gave  businesses  freedom  to expand as far as they
wanted  to i.e. Rockefeller  and horizontal integration.  
Standard Oil: pg. 499
Who:
John D. Rockefeller
What: Largest  Oil Company in the U.S. Its formation  is the result of Rockefeller  noticing the
pattern  of the boom and bust cycle  and decided  to take advantage  of the opportunity by buying
out businesses  when they are about to fail. Trusts were  created  to hide his wealth.  Standard Oil
was known in the business world to be an octopus  because  it was so large and took over so
many businesses.  Squeezed  out fellow  competitors  and led the way in exporting products to
European and Asian Markets.
Where: Ohio
When: 1870
Why: The success  of this company depended  upon horizontal integration  by bringing a number
of key oil refiners into an alliance  to control 4/5
th of the industry. As a result of this market dominance,  the Sherman Anti-Trust Act was  passed in 1890 to prevent consolidation  of the
marketplace  and to return to highly competitive  small enterprises.  This company  also pointed
towards the growing inequality  of wealth  and income  as the top 1% of Americans  owned  25% of
industries.
William  Graham Sumner: pg. 518
Who:
Political  Scientist  from Harvard
What:  Wrote A Defense  to Laissez-Faire  1883. Wrote: What Social Classes  Owe Each  Other in
1883. He believed  the chief  purpose of the  workingman was  to pay. Social Darwinism  meant
there was  no point in giving money to the poor because  it prevented  them  from developing  the
moral capacity  to do better  for themselves  and climb the capital  ladder of society.
Where: Born in New  Jersey
When: (1840-1910)
Why: Believed  that  millionaires  deserved  their wealth  and the poor deserved  their fate.  He
believed  that if the  government  tried to help these  unfortunate  losers in the competitive
struggle,  progress would be halted and civilization  would decay.  Two kinds of poor: Deserving
(widows and orphans) and Undeserving  (anyone who was  poor outright).  **He was a social
Darwinist who was redefining the American Dream by promoting that if you work hard you
can have what you want.
Gospel of Wealth
Who:
Andrew Carnegie
What: Famous  essay written  by Carnegie
Where: Pittsburgh
When: 1889
Why:  Men of wealth  had a duty to furnish some  assistance  to the poor, mainly through
philanthropy (building institutions  that  would raise educational  and cultural  standards) NOT
charity (direct  handouts). Believed  men  should contribute  by making  the community  better  and
providing opportunities  for the  less fortunate.  “Help those  who will help themselves”
Tom Watson pg. 547
Who:
Agrarian Radical
What: Lawyer  who gained  fame  as a racial progressor and sought black votes.  Joined the
People’s  Party in 1892. As a Populist, he did not support free silver.
Where: Georgia
When: 1896
Why: The populist vice  presidential  candidate,  who had assisted  embattled  black farmers  in his
home state  of Georgia, called  on citizens  of both races  to vote against  the crushing power of
corporations and railroads. However,  after  the 1896 election,  he embarked  on a viscous
campaign  to exclude  blacks from voting and also disfranchised  African Americans  while
maintaining  white  supremacy.  In doing so, he thought that poor whites  would have the courage
to vote against rich whites.  Tom Watson was and example  of the Populist Party switching  to
exclude  blacks because  this encouraged  more poor whites  to vote for the party
Interstate Commerce Commission: pg. 539
Who:
Congress
What: A commission  established  by the Interstate  Commerce  Act with  the intent to regulate
railroads. Big business  ultimately  managed  to render government  regulation  largely ineffective.
Where: All across the US
When: 1887
Why: Designed  to regulate  railroads however,  large railroad lines found it easier  to influence  the
ICC and in time,  railroad advocates  came  to dominate  the ICC and enforced  the law in favor of
the railway lines rather than the shippers. Just another example  of a failed attempt  for farmers
and gain for capitalists/railroad  owners.
Knights of Labor: pg. 532
Who:
Founded by Uriah Stephens.  This was a very large group of working class men and four
years later women  as well who saw  the relationship between  employer  and employee  as a
failure and not mutually beneficial.
What: Labor Union/National  Workers’ Organization.  This was a Christian Based  Union.
Where: Massachusetts
When: 1869
Why: First majorly influential large-scale  union. It won battles  for the workers before  being
succeeded  by the  more effective  AFL. Initiated  the most  extensive  campaign  after  the Civil War
to unite workers and challenge  the  power of corporate capitalists.  Initiated  wage  slavery. Labor
unions were  seen as the best vehicle  for communication  and negotiation  between  workers and
owners. The  K.O.L. did not begin to flourish until Terence  Powderly replaced  Stephens.  Powderly
advocated  for an 8-hour workday, abolition of child labor, and equal pay for women.  
Sub treasury Plan
Who:
Southern Farmers’  Alliance and Charles Macune
What: Was a sophisticated  plan to solve the farmers’  problem of mounting  debt. Federal
government  would locate  offices  near warehouses  in which farmers  could store nonperishable
commodities.  In return, farmers would receive  federal  loans for 80 percent  of the current
market  value of their produce.
Where: North Carolina was  a key state
When: 1889
Why: In theory, temporarily taking  crops off the  market would decrease  supply and assuming
demand  remained  stable,  lead to increased  prices. This plan was considered  the most realistic
solution to the problem of chronic farm debt.  Showed how there was an over production of
cash crops, so the prices  of cotton dropped.
Mary Elizabeth  Lease: pg. 541
Who:
Famous recruiter  for the Farmers’ Alliances.  Also endorsed by Populist Party. Often
evoked emotions  from her audience  and is famous  for her quote: “raise  less corn and more
hell.”  She also wrote,  “The Problem of Civilization  Solved”  in 1895.
What: Excited  farm audiences  with  her forceful and colorful rhetoric,  delivering 160 speeches
Where: Born in Pennsylvania
When: 1890 was the year she joined the  Populist party
Why: Urged farmers  and workers to unite  against capitalist  exploitation,  but she also agitated
for women’s  rights and voice  her determination  to place the mothers  of this nation on an
equality  with the fathers.  She wanted  to nationalize  railroad and telegraph  lines, increase
currency supply, and expand popular democracy.
Pullman Strike: pg. 535
Who:
American  Railway Union (headed  by Eugene  V. Debs)
What: Nationwide  strike against  the Pullman company  after George  Pullman slashed wages  and
did not lower rent.  Federal Government  broke up this strike;  not Pullman.
Where: Nationwide  (coordinated  strike activities  across the country from its headquarters  in
Chicago)
When: 1894
Why: The union wanted  to improve economic  conditions and gain recognition.  Disrupted
interstate  commerce  and mail traffic,  which led to government  intervention.  FORCED FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT  TO INTERVIEN.  Made government  consider unions and make  employers  listen to
the unions’ demands  and accommodate  them more.
General Federation of Women’s Club: pg. 506
Who:
Middle or Upper Class Women
What: Sports/Fraternal  Club. Became  big promoters  of social gospel and offered a way for
women  to get  education.  The middle  class joined a variety of social  and professional
organizations  that were  arising to deal with problems accompanying  Industrialization.
Where:
When:
1892
Why: Founded to improve women’s  educational  and cultural lives.  Dedicated  to improving the
community  through volunteer service.  Allowed women  to be more active  in the community  and
in the later years of the federation,  in politics.
Drake HIST 2112 Exam 1 Study Guide
background image Included  in this Study Guide: Important notes about the test 1. What's covered 2. Chapter/Triangle Highlights 3. Key Terms with definitions 4. Important Amendments Typed 5. Master lecture notes from all the lectures thus far 6.
7. Additional  detail on certain terms
Happy  Studying! Important notes about the test Sorry this is late, I'm not sure I'll continue  doing study soup, but a few  people have
emailed  me  asking for the  study guide and notes, so here's stuff I used for my own
personal studying (no guarantee  on its relevance  to the test  or correctness)
Need  a blue book for the test Documents  seem  to be very important  to know; be able to know them  in their context Major highlights from lecture  are also very important Ex. Know what  populists believe/who  they  are/etc.  but don’t have to know names Drake said he might  have us compare  quotes from different viewpoints Everything  relates  to a big issue
• If you have literally done nothing for this class,  I'd start by reading the master  lecture
notes down below (since  that’s  encompasses  things he emphasized  in class,  and all the
things I have before it on this study guide  are kind of complemental  to the actual  lecture
notes),  and then go through and read some  of the documents  he mentions.  In my
opinion, the importance  of the things in this guide would be:
Master  Lecture  Notes  > Read Documents  (not in guide) > Highlights > Key
Terms/Amendments/Add.Detail
Some advice  from my TA: I really do not know the exact  details  of what  Dr. Drake will do. He changes  things
up from semester  to semester.  So, please  consider the following as suggestions,
not actually  what will or will not be on the test.  Try to think about the following
questions,  and see  if you can answer them  in three  or four sentences:
—What was industrialism?  How was it a change  from what  Americans  lived with
before?
—Who benefitted  most from industrialism?  What arguments  did they give to
support it?
—Who hated industrialism?  Why did they  say it harmed the United  States?
—What was city life like? Who came  to live in the cities,  and how did this affect  the
nation's culture?
—Who were the Populists?  What were  they for, and what were they  against?
—What was Reconstruction?
—What happened to slaves freed after  the Civil War? Why did southern states
bring about Jim Crow?
The first four apply mostly to Triangle, but the others will probably relate  to the
test  in some way.  I would see if you can answer  these  questions,  but not simply
give the most basic  definitions.  What you want to do is expand on your answer
some—why  are these  questions important?  How did they  affect  our nation's
history?
1. So, what's covered? Ch. 14: Emancipation  and Reconstruction  1863-1877
The Union Restored  or Renewed?  Presidential  vs. Radical  Reconstruction
Reconstruction  and the  Fate of the Freedmen
Ch. 15: The West 1865-1896
Westward  Expansion and the Fate  of Native  America
Ch. 16: Industrial America  1877-1900
The Ingredients  of Industrialization
Eight Hours for What We Will: Unionization  and the Labor Movement
Farmer Brown Fights Back:  The Populist Revolt  against  Industrialism
Ch. 17: Workers and Farmers  in the age of Organization  1877-1900
Triangle  pp. 0 - 170
2. Chapter/Triangle Highlights 3. These  were taken  from the book, at the end of each chapter  where  the important  documents
start (so they  pertain mostly to the important  documents  in each  chapter  that Drake has
mentioned  10000 times).  If you don’t know the important  highlights from his lectures,  take  a
look at the master  notes below  (there's obviously some overlap,  but I didn’t have time  to
compile  them  together  like I had hoped to).
Chapter 14 Highlights Black codes  passed by white  southern leaders  aimed  to prevent  freed people from
improving their social and economic  status
Johnson didn't support them,  but didn’t overturn them.  He clashed  with  congress over
reconstruction  - vetoing renewal  of freedmen's  bureau and opposing ratification  of the
14th amendment.
1867 republican congress  passed  military construction  acts  which put the south under
military rule and forced whites  to extend  equal political  and civil rights to AA
1870 - ratification  of 15th amendment  extended  suffrage to black men.  Allied with
republicans,  blacks won election  to a variety  of public offices
Interracial  legislatures  improved conditions  for blacks  and whites,  funding for education,
hospitals,  and other services
Opponents tarred the interracial  legislatures  with claims  of fraud, corruption, wasteful
spending,  and "black rule" (14.8)
By mid 1870s, many white northerners sought reconciliation  rather than continued
conflict  while white  southerners created  vigilante  groups like the KKK to use violence  to
intimated  black and white  republicans  (14.7 and 14.9)
By 1877, attacks  on black political  access  crushed southern republicanism,  leaving AA
struggling to retain the freedoms  they had gained during reconstruction
How did blacks and whites view freedom? How essential  was it for the federal  government to supervise  the movement  from
slavery to freedom?
Why didn't southern whites accept  the extension of civil rights for blacks,  if only
in a limited  way?
How did views about reconstruction change over time? How much  did Reconstruction  Transform the South and the Nation? What were the greatest limitations of federal Reconstruction  policies  and the
greatest challenges  to implementing  them?
Chapter 15 Highlights Views  on relationship  between  whites  and American  Indians varied widely  in late 19th
century west
Some whites  wanted  to exterminate  the Indians Some wants  to assimilate  them (15.5 and 15.6) Whites who encountered  Indians were  the least  sympathetic  (15.7) Civilians in the Interior Department  favored peace People in war Department  used military force to resolve conflicts White reformers did not understand Indian culture  and developed  policies  that led to the
decline  of Indian tribal societies
Indian attitudes  ranged from fierce resistance  to accommodation  and rarely, assimilation
(15.9)
Indians who adapted to white  society  still held pride in their Indian traditions (15.8) How do white Americans  and their leaders  deal with differences  among people
rooted in race and nationality?
How do those considered  minorities  forge strategies to gain political  and
economic  access  while maintaining their own identity and heritage?
How well did the U.S.  government in the late 19th century balance its
commitment  to the competing values  of continental expansion  and equal justice
under the law?
Chapter 16 Highlights Laissez-Faire Individual opportunity was a central  American  value Late  19th century - big business and giant trusts came  to dominate  whole industries Owners and those  in control of big businesses  argues that  individual effort and initiative
were still the central  engine  of the American  economy
This is seen  In Adam Smith's idea of laissez-faire  (the marketplace  should be left to
regulate  itself  and government  should do nothing to constrain  the development  of
industry (16.5)
Poverty expanded and a small number industrialists  and financiers accumulated  great
wealth
Reformers  questioned  whether  individualism undermined  community  and believed  the
government  should regulate  the free market  to promote  the greater  public welfare  (16.6
& 16.8)
Big gap between  poor and rich Industrialists  realized  they should help the poor or they would rise up against  them
(16.7), but they still resisted government  interference
Defenders  of industrialism  argued that individualism  must be preserved as the natural
order of society
Critics believed  that  cooperation rather than individual competition  made  social progress
possible,  and that government  should protect  ordinary people from the harm done by
greedy capitalists
Big Question: What is the meaning of success?  (This differed depending on who you
were)
How does each author define success? How do these authors intend to promote success? What can be done to relieve  the plight of those who do not succeed? Chapter 17 Highlights Industrialism  exercises  massive  power over workers and the conditions  of labor Workers organized into unions to secure  higher wages,  shorter hours, improved safety,
and a fairer measure  of control of the  labor process
Corporate owners who were sympathetic  (George Pullman) to workers still assumed  the
right to manage  their businesses  (17.5)
Pullman constructed  a model  tow with clean housing and parks, but didn’t address
economic  complaints  after the depression  of 1893
The American  Railway  Union ARU launched  a nationwide  strike against  the Pullman
company  to imporve economic  conditions  and gain recognition  for the union; Pullman
didn’t negotiate
The union coordinated  strikes,  workers refused  to operate  trains with Pullman cars Railroads hired strike breakers  and Rickard Olney (attorney  general who had a stake in RR
industry) obtained  a federal  injunction ordering strikers back to work; this was
unsuccessful
President  Cleveland ordered federal troops into Chicago to enforce the injunction.  This
class  resulted in 13 deaths
After the arrest of union leaders,  the strike collapsed  and the supreme court upheld the
imprisonment  of leaders
Why have organizations been essential  to advancing the rights of individuals  in
an industrialized  society?
Why was organized labor not more successful  in gaining a larger share of power
from capital?
How did genders influence  labor conflict  and organizing? What role should the government  play in shaping the outcome of conflicts
between labor and capital?
Triangle  Information/Highlights: Don’t worry about names  or little  details Don’t need to know "union leaders"  names,  just know there is the Union and what they
view
Know the  viewpoint of the  owners of the factories,  and the conflict  of unions vs. factory
owners
Big Theme:  Industrialization  is a new thing and people  are fighting  over what to do People are fighting over what  to do Immigration  is a big theme The Fire is a symbol of the craziness  of industrialization Triangle  details typical  conditions for the  period (see lecture  5 notes) For those who haven't read it, chapters  1-5 basically  set  up what life is like for industrial
workers, and chapter  6 is the chapter  about the fire, which mainly  details how the
owners of the Triangle  factory neglected  to impose  safety standards  in the building
(because  it wasn’t  cost effective  or worth it to them,  and there were no regulations yet.
They also had an insanely high insurance  policy on it because  it was common  to commit
arson - when  there weren't  people working - and would get a lot of money from it) and
thus people died in horrible gruesome  ways like falling off and getting  crushed by ladders
that were  too small  to carry people,  jumping  off the building, not having enough exits,
not having a sprinkler system,  not having an alarm system  so certain  floors didn’t even
know about the  fire until it was too late etc.
• Look at the master  lecture  notes - Drake would connect  Triangle  to the  lecture  topics, so its probably more efficient  if you look at those if you haven't  read it • Also, I haven't found any summaries  of the book anywhere,  but you can easily  google the actual  event  and get a good idea of what  happened  and why its significant Key Terms and Definitions 4. Here are the "Key Terms"  and definitions  from each  chapter  from the book, I don’t actually
know if we need to know all of them  or their definitions  (Seems  like Drake wants  more of a big
picture deeper  understanding  of what's going on rather than memorizing  things),  but for
reference  here they  are:
Chapter 14 Proclamation  of Amnesty and Reconstruction  - December  1863, Lincoln signed this
agreement  that  southern states  had to: 1) accept  the abolition of slavery, 2)
Black  Codes - Racial  laws passed in the immediate  aftermath  of the Civil War by southern
legislatures.  The black codes  were intended  to reduce free African Americans  to a
condition as close to slavery as possible. (p. 457)
Fourteenth Amendment - Amendment  to the Constitution  defining citizenship  and
protecting  individual civil and political  rights from abridgment  by the states.  Adopted
during Reconstruction,  the Fourteenth  Amendment  overturned the  Dred Scott  decision.
(p. 463)
Tenure of Office Act -
Law  passed by Congress in 1867 to prevent President  Andrew Johnson from removing
cabinet  members  sympathetic  to the Republican  Party’s approach to congressional
Reconstruction  without  Senate  approval. Johnson was  impeached,  but not convicted,  for
violating the act.
Fifteenth Amendment -
Amendment  to the Constitution  prohibiting the abridgment  of a citizen’s  right to vote  on
the basis of “race,  color, or previous condition  of servitude.”  From the 1870s on, southern
states  devised  numerous strategies  for circumventing  the Fifteenth  Amendment.  (p. 463)
American Equal  Rights Association  -
Group of black and white women  and men formed in 1866 to promote gender and racial
equality.  The organization  split in 1869 over support for the Fifteenth  Amendment.  (p.
463)
Scalawags  - Derisive term for white  Southerners who supported Reconstruction. Carpetbaggers -
Derogatory term  for white  Northerners  who moved  to the South in the years following
the Civil War. Many white  Southerners  believed  that such migrants  were intent  on
exploiting their suffering.
Sharecropping  -
A system  that emerged  as the dominant  mode of agricultural production in the South in
the years after the Civil War. Under the sharecropping  system,  sharecroppers  received
tools and supplies from landowners in exchange  for a share of the eventual  harvest.
Exodusters -
Blacks  who migrated  from the South to Kansas in 1879 seeking  land and a better way of
life.
Redeemers -
White, conservative  Democrats  who challenged  and overthrew Republican  rule in the
South during Reconstruction.
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan  -
Organization formed in 1865 by General Nathan  Bedford Forrest to enforce  prewar racial
norms. Members  of the KKK used threats  and violence  to intimidate  blacks and white
Republicans.
Force Acts -
Three acts  passed  by the U.S. Congress in 1870 and 1871 in response to vigilante  attacks
on southern blacks.  The acts  were designed  to protect black  political rights and end
violence  by the Ku Klux Klan and similar organizations.
Compromise of 1877 -
Compromise  between  Republicans  and southern  Democrats  that resulted  in the election
of Rutherford B. Hayes.  Southern Democrats  agreed  to support Hayes in the  disputed
presidential  election  in
exchange  for his promise  to end Reconstruction. Freedman's Bureau - Federal  agency  created  in 1865 to provide ex-slaves  with economic
and legal  resources.  The freedmen's  bureau played and active  role in shaping black  life in
the postwar south.
Signed into law by Lincoln Aided former slaves  in obtaining land Made hundred of thousands of acres  available  to recently  emancipated  slaves Reunited  families  and marriages Established  schools Johnson didn’t like it Republicans  supported it: helped  southern blacks transition  to freedom White southerners and northern democrats:  "an expensive  social  welfare  program
that rewarded  idleness  in blacks"
Document  14.2 & 14.3 Established  in 1865, extended  after Johnson's veto in 1866, Blacks attended
schools in 1870
Chapter 15 Great Plains  -
Semiarid  territory in central  North America.
Transcontinental  railroad -
A railroad linking the  East and West Coasts of North America.  Completed  in 1869, the
transcontinental  railroad facilitated  the flow of migrants  and the development  of
economic  connections  between  the West  and the East.
Treaty of Fort Laramie -
1851 treaty  that sought to confine  tribes on the northern plains to designated  areas in an
attempt  to keep white  settlers  from encroaching  on their land. In 1868, the second  Treaty
of Fort Laramie  gave northern tribes control  over the “Great  Reservation”  in parts of
present-day  Montana,  Wyoming, North Dakota,  and South Dakota.
Treaty of Medicine Lodge -
1867 treaty  that provided reservation  lands for the Comanche,  Kiowa-Apache  and
Southern Arapaho to settle.  Despite  this agreement,  white  hunters soon invaded this
territory and decimated
the buffalo herd. Battle of the Little BigHorn  -
1876 battle  in the Montana  Territory in which Lieutenant  Colonel George  Armstrong
Custer and his troops were  massacred  by Lakota Sioux.
Buffalo  Soldiers -
African American cavalrymen  who fought in the West  against the  Indians in the 1870s
and 1880s and served with distinction.
Dawes Act -
1887 act  that ended federal  recognition of tribal sovereignty  and divided Indian land into
160-acre parcels to be distributed  to Indian heads  of household. The act  dramatically
reduced  the amount of Indian-controlled  land and undermined Indian social  and cultural
institutions.
Ghost Dance -
Religious  ritual performed by the Paiute Indians in the late  nineteenth  century.  Following
a vision he received  in 1888, the prophet Wovoka believed  that performing the Ghost
Dance  would cause  whites  to disappear and allow Indians to regain control of their lands.
Comstock Lode -
Massive  silver deposit discovered  in the Sierra Nevada  in the late 1850s.
Long Drive -
Cattle  drive from the grazing lands of Texas to rail depots in Kansas.  Once in Kansas,  the
cattle  were shipped eastward  to slaughterhouses  in Chicago.
Homestead Act -
1862 act  that established  procedures  for distributing 160-acre lots to western  settlers,  on
condition that  they develop and farm their land, as an incentive  for western  migration.
Mormons -
Religious  sect  that migrated  to Utah  to escape  religious persecution;  also known as the
Church of Jesus  Christ of Latter-Day  Saints.
Californions  -
Spanish and Mexican  residents  of California. Before  the nineteenth  century, Californios
made  up California’s economic  and political  elite.  Their position, however,  deteriorated
after the conclusion  of the Mexican-American  War in 1848.
Chinese Exclusion  Act -
1882 act  that banned Chinese immigration  into the United States  and prohibited those
Chinese  already in the country from becoming  naturalized  American citizens.
Chapter 16 New South -
Term popularized by newspaper  editor Henry Grady in the 1880s, a proponent of the
modernization  of the southern economy.  Grady believed  that industrial development
would lead to the emergence  of a “New  South.”
Convict lease-
The system  used by southern governments  to furnish mainly  African American  prison
labor to plantation owners  and industrialists  and to raise revenue for the states.  In
practice,  convict  labor replaced  slavery as the  means  of providing a forced labor supply.
Vertical integration -
The control of all elements  in a supply chain by a single  firm. For example,  Andrew
Carnegie,  a vertically  integrated  steel  producer, sought to own suppliers of all the raw
materials  used in steel  production.
Horizontal  integration -
The ownership of as many firms as possible  in a given industry by a single owner.  John D.
Rockefeller  pursued a strategy  of horizontal integration  when he bought up rival oil
refineries.
Corporation -
A form of business  ownership in which the liability of shareholders in a company is
limited  to their individual investments.  The formation of corporations  in the late
nineteenth  century greatly  stimulated  investment  in industry.
Trust -
Business  monopolies formed in the late  nineteenth  and early twentieth  centuries  through
mergers  and consolidation  that inhibited  competition
and controlled  the market. Sherman antitrust act -
1890 act  that outlawed  monopolies  that prevented  free competition  in interstate
commerce.
Laissez-faire  -
French for “let  things alone.”  Advocates  of laissez-faire  believed  that the marketplace
should be left to regulate  itself,  allowing individuals to pursue their own self-interest
without  any government  restraint  or interference.
"The Gospel of Wealth" -
1889 essay by Andrew Carnegie  in which he argued that the rich should act  as stewards
of the wealth  they earned,  using their surplus income  for the benefit  of the community.
Gilded Age -
Term coined  by Mark Twain  and Charles Dudley Warner to describe  the late  nineteenth
century.  The term referred to the opulent and often ostentatious  lifestyles  of the era’s
superrich.
Jim Crow -
Late-nineteenth-century  statutes  that  established  legally defined racial  segregation  in the
South. Jim Crow legislation  helped  ensure the social  and economic  inferiority of southern
blacks.
Plessy v. Ferguson -
1896 Supreme  Court ruling that upheld the legality  of Jim Crow legislation.  The Court
ruled that  as long as states  provided “equal  but separate”  facilities  for whites  and blacks,
Jim Crow laws did not violate  the equal protection  clause  of the Fourteenth  Amendment.
Billion  Dollar Congress -
The Republican-controlled  Congress of 1890 that  spent huge sums of money to promote
business and other interests.
Chapter 17
*sorry, ran out of time
Unskilled  Workers
Skilled Workers
Unions
Collective  bargaining
Noble Order of the Knights of Labor
Haymarket  Square
America  Federation  of Labor (AFL)
Homestead  Strike
Pullman Strike
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
Grangers
Interstate  Commerce  Commission  (ICC)
Farmers' Alliances
Subtreasury System
Populists
Depression  of 1893
Coxey's Army
Important Amendments typed 5. 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments: 13 - (Ratified  1865) Section  1: Neither  slavery not involuntary servitude,  except  as punishment  for
crime  whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,  shall exist within the
United  States,  or any place  subject  to their jurisdiction.
Section  2: Congress shall have power to enforce  this article  by appropriate
legislation.
14 - (Ratified  1868) Section  1: All persons born or naturalized  in the US, and subject  to the jurisdiction
thereof,  are citizens  of the US and of the State  wherein they reside.  No state  shall
make  or enforce  any law which  shall abridge  the privileges or immunities  of
citizens  of the  United States;  nor shall any state  deprive any person of life,  liberty,
or property, without  due process of law;  nor deny to any person within its
jurisdiction the equal  protection of the laws.
Section  2: Representatives  shall be appointed  among the several  states  according
to their respective  numbers,  counting the whole  number of persons in each state,
excluding Indians not taxed.  But when the  right to vote at any election  for the
choice  of electors  for president  and vice-president  of the united states,
representatives  in congress,  the executive  and judicial  officers of a state,  or the
members  of the legislatures  thereof,  is denied  to any of the male  inhabitants  of
such state,  being twenty-one  years of age  and citizens  of the united states,  or in
any way abridges,  except  for participation  in rebellion,  or other crime,  the basis of
representation  therein shall be reduced in the  proportion which  the number of
such male  citizens  shall bear to the whole number of male  citizens  twenty-one
years of age in such state.
Section  3: NO person shall be a senator or representative  in congress,  or elector  of
president  and vice-president,  or hold any office,  civil, or military, under the united
states,  or under any state  who, having previously taken an oath, as a member  of
congress,  or as an officer of the united states,  or as a member  of any state
legislature,  or as an executive  or judicial officer  of any state,  to support the
constitution  of the united states,  shall have engaged  in insurrection or rebellion
against  the same,  or given aid or comfort  to the enemies  thereof.  Congress may,
by a vote  of two-thirds of each  house, remove  such disability.
Section  4: The validity of the public debt  of the US, authorized  by law, including
debts incurred for payment  of pensions and bounties for services  in suppressing
insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned.  But neither the US nor any state
shall assume  or pay any debt or obligation  incurred in aid of insurrection or
rebellion against  the united states,  or any claim  for the loss or emancipation  of any
slave;  but all such debts, obligations,  and claims  shall be held illegal and void.
Section  5: The congress  shall have power to enforce,  by appropriate  legislation,  the
provisions of this article.
15 - (Ratified  1870) Section  1: The right of citizen  of the united  states  to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the united states  or by any state  on account  of race, color, or previous
condition of servitude.
Section  2: The congress  shall have power to enforce  this article  by appropriate
legislation.
Master Lecture Notes from the first day of class  to Thursday  1/26 6. Day 1: The Union  Restored or Renewed? Presidential vs. Radical  Reconstruction Reconstruction: Reuniting  a Nation Torn After the civil war, the U.S.  was a torn nation. The civil war may be the most
important  event in American History. 750,000 people  died in the civil war out of
only 30,000,000 people total.  No one really knew how to put the country back
together  after the North won.
How much "reconstruction?" Who will be in charge? How far will reconstruction
go? What about former slaves?
What does it mean  to reconstruct  - what changes,  political  adjustments,
fast/slow,  who's in charge,  and what  to do with former slaves?
§ James  Garfield 1865 " Have  we done it? Have we given freedom  to the black man? What is freedom?  Is it mere  negation?  Is it the bare privilege of not
being chained,  of not being bought and sold, branded and scourged? If this
is all, then freedom  is a bitter mockery,  a cruel delusion,  and it may well be
questioned  whether  slavery were not better."
§ What about civil rights for former slaves? § The civil war didn’t bring the freedom  that  was intended,  and failed  in a lot
ways
§ 1. I. A Snapshot  of America, 1865 30 million people  living in rural, small  towns, and small farms. Agriculture everywhere. People live & die in the same  area and don't travel Eventually  there  is rapid industrializing,  especially  in the Northeast War is over, people are still angry. The fate  of the south is unknown, will there be punishment? South just wants  a quick and simple reconstruction II. Presidential Reconstruction  - the "gentle approach" Abraham Lincoln was the leader  of the Northern effort against  confederacy Not super tough on confederacy,  wanted  a gentle  reconstruction  with not a lot of
changes.
Second Inaugural  address March 4 1865 "With malice  toward none, with charity
for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the  right, let  us strive on to
finish the  work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall
have borne the battle  and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which  may
achieve  and cherish a just and lasting peace  among ourselves and with all nations."
However,  Lincoln wasn’t  able to implement  his plans for reconstruction  because  he
was assassinated  in 1865 and Andrew Johnson took over.
White northerners were a lot of white  supremacists. Proclamation  of Amnesty and Reconstruction  (1863) How to get  confederates  back in the U.S? § Confederate  states  must agree  to three  terms: Accept  the 13th amendment  - abolishes slavery Rewrite  constitution  to say there is no slavery Renounce  succession 10% of voting population must sign a loyalty  oath to the U.S. Those 10% ended  up being white southern  men, not blacks - it was
those who were eligible  to vote in 1860
§ These  terms  were not too bad, but gave  no word about the fate  of freed
slaves
§ 1. Lincoln  the racial  moderate Racial  moderate,  not a civil rights advocate.  Didn’t believe  in full equality. § Pro civil rights is different  than anti-slavery. § The terms  of the proclamation  of amnesty  and reconstruction are a
reflection  of Lincoln's  moderate  views  on slavery - no discussion  about freed
slaves.
§ Then he was shot at the  theater. § 2. Andrew Johnson - Continuing  Lincoln's  "gentle approach" Possibly one of the worst presidents  ever. § Southern Democrat  - Lincoln chose  him to appeal to border-state  voters § Not friendly, southern, born in NC, raised in TN § Substituted  his own aims  for those  of the north, refused to engage  in
meaningful  compromise,  and misled  the south into believing that  he could
achieve  restoration  quickly.
§ Johnson  versus the radicals Not all southerners were  equally confederate.  People  who had more
slaves  had stronger loyalty to the confederacy.  These  were rich
plantation  owners in places  like Charleston,  Louisiana,  New  Orleans,
Savannah.
People in the mountains  where  there weren't  as many plantations
were suspicious  of the confederacy.
So, the  confederacy  faced  hesitation  and resistance  from southerners
in the mountains.
There was  a lots of mistrust  towards rich plantation  owners Johnson hated rich cotton  plantation  owners and thought  the
confederate  was only helping them.
Johnson wasn’t opposed to slavery, he just didn’t like that only the
rich could have slaves.  He thought all white  people should have
slaves
Saw emancipation  as a means  to "break down an odious and
dangerous aristocracy,"  not to empower  blacks.
He was one of the only southerners  to leave  the confederacy  and stay
loyal to the union
He was made  VP in 1864 by Lincoln Called the south treasonous Hated  black people more than southern rich people;  unconcerned
with the fate  of blacks in the postwar  south
Continued gentle  reconstruction Hated  abolitionists Drank a lot and alienated  a lot of people Wanted to bring the south back to the Union quickly, and thought the
end of slavery would doom the southern aristocracy  he hated  so
much
Moderate  republicans  believed:  blacks  were inferior to whites,  but
the federal  government  needed  to protect  newly  emancipated  slaves.
Without national legislation,  ex slaves  would be "tyrannized  over,
abused,  and virtually enslaved"  (Which is basically  what happened).
Expected  southern states  to extend  basic civil rights to the freedmen.
Radical  Republicans  believed:  Freedmen  deserved  voting rights for
African American men,  and advocated  for the redistribution of
southern plantation  lands to freed slaves.  Called out for the
government  to provide freed people  "a homestead  of forty acres of
land".
Republicans  overall failed to pass a comprehensible  land distribution
program
All republicans believed:  congress  should have a strong voice  in
determining  the  fate of the former confederate  states.  They were
ready to pounce on Johnson's plans. They  also expected  Johnson to
be harsh with his former political  foes, but Johnson relished having
control over them,  and granted almost  all of their requests  for
pardons.
A. 3. III. Radical  Reconstruction  - the "get tough" approach The north wasn't  happy with the gentle  approach  from Lincoln,  thought he was
being too slack  on the south.
Radical  republicans were  especially  not happy about Andrew Johnson and Lincoln's
weak  stance.
Radical  Republicans  started  out as northern anti-slavery  party and thought  winning
the civil war was only the beginning . Believed:
Black people  deserved  freedom and justice,  not necessarily  equality.  They
deserved  certain  rights. **
1. South has to be significantly  reconstructed  to avoid the confederacy  from
coming  back and reorganizing.
2. Black  Codes and Ex-Confederates- Black Codes Document  in chapter  14 § Laws  in the south aimed at black people  intended  to reduce  African
Americans  back to something  close to slavery.
§ Regulations  for blacks:  example  - its illegal  for blacks  to be unemployed,
travel without  a permit,  banned from testifying  in court, can't bear arms
§ Basically  slavery again, and black people  were forced back into cotton fields. § Black codes  were designed  to recreate  slavery § Radical  republicans were  not happy. § States  that  came  back to the  U.S. began electing  congress  people,  and rich
plantation  owners were elected  to represent  southern states.
§ North didn't like this, because  it recreates  some  of the same  problems and
allowed  the confederates  to rise again.  They saw postwar south the same  as
old south.
§ Republicans:  "I demand  to know of what  practical  value is the amendment
abolishing slavery?"
§ Stopping the south from rising again Radical  republicans thought  the reconstruction  needed  to make
significant  deep changes  in southern politics to prevent the south
from rising.
i. 1. Constitutional changes:  13th, 14th, and 15th amendments Radicals  brought the 13, and especially  the  14 & 15 amendments. § Read amendments 13 - abolished slavery 14 - gives citizenship  to former slaves.  Important  for the republican
party (so blacks would vote for republican ideas,  against  the southern
politicians).  Gave  the states  the option to exclude blacks  from voting
with the consequence  that they had less  congressional
representation  if they did so.
15 - black men gained the right to vote,  but states  control the voter
registration  process,  which lead to lots of voter suppression.
Johnson encouraged  the south to reject  the  14th amendment. Congress intended  to force former confederate  states  to protect  civil
rights of African Americans  and grant them  the right to vote.
§ The short-lived Era of Black  political  influence in the south Freed black slaves  voted for the republican party which prevented
the confederacy  from gaining power.
Radicals  made  it tougher for former confederate  states;  trying to
percent  the return of the confederacy.
Led to a short-lived period of black political  participation Pro-slavery confederates  were not happy with  black voter
participation
Meanwhile  radicals took over congress  and alienated  Andrew
Johnson, who was  a candidate  that  believed  in white  supremacy.
John Geary - running for governor of Pennsylvania.  White
supremacists  in the north didn't want Geary  - see anti-Geary  poster in
slides.  
i. 2. Freedmen's Bureau Radical  republicans set  up the Freedmen's  Bureau,  president Johnson would
veto, and congress  (run by radicals)  overrode the  veto.
§ Republicans  thought it helped black males  embrace  freedom. § White southerners and northern democrats  thought it was an expensive
social welfare  program that rewarded  idleness  in blacks
§ Look at Document  14.2 § Constant  battle  of president vs. congress § Radicals  wanted  to get  rid of Johnson § The Freedmen's  Bureau might have been morally defensible*,  but was
politically  indefensible  as it was unconstitutional  .
§ 3. Occupation 4. IV. Impeaching  Andrew Johnson Johnson thought southern states  followed  his plan and could resume their
representation  in congress
Republicans  did not agree Johnson vetoed the civil rights act passed  by congress Condemned  the freedmen's  bureau His vetoes  showed his racism  and beliefs  that slavery was  only evil because  it was
harmful to poor whites,  not slaves themselves.
Thought the bills he vetoed  discriminated  against  whites V. Tenure of Office Act (1867) The Tenure  of Office Act was specifically  against  Johnson. § Made it so firing someone  must  be approved or given permission  from
congress.
§ Prevented  Johnson from firing cabinet  officers  sympathetic  to congressional
reconstruction
§ Johnson wanted  to fire Edwin  Stanton, who was radical sympathizer  that
Lincoln appointed
§ Johnson fired Stanton,  so congress  impeached  Johnson, and Johnson went
to trial and was defeated  politically.
§ Johnson was the first president  to ever be impeached § Republicans  won back presidency  in 1868 with Ulysses  S. Grant. § Grant was previously a Democratic  governor of NY, also an ally of Radical
republicans.  Won with 53% of popular vote  and 73% of electoral  vote.
§ 1. "Redemption" - the white South regains power Ulysses  S. Grant was elected  after  Johnson Reconstruction  was a good idea in the eyes  of radicals and blacks, but was a failure
overall because  the North dropped the  ball.
Redemption  - white south regained  control Preventing the vote 15th amendment  allowed  the states  to regulated  voter registration,  and the
south wanted  to eliminate  black men  from voting, so used violence  and
intimidation  and the KKK was  born.
§ 15th amendment  prohibited voting discrimination  based on race,  but states
could still impose qualifications  on voters like literacy,  paying taxes, moral
character,  etc.  Loopholes for white  leaders  to disfranchise  African
Americans.
§ American  Equal rights association  formed immediately  after the war, but
members  divided over the 15th amendment.
§ KKK - founded to prevent black  men from voting.  Used violence  and murder. § There were  federal attempts  to stop the clan, like the Forced Act. § 1. "Reconstruction  Fatigue" in the North North lost interest  in preventing the  south confederacy. § Slavery became  segregation § Weakened  drive for reconstruction § Panic  of 1873 The economy  was bad, so people  who were  going bankrupt didn’t
care as much about slavery. Personal problems  trumped the fate  of
other people. Most  white people  took white  supremacy  as a given
everywhere,  and there was  less concern for black people.
i. Racism  and death of Radicals The leaders  of the radicals who believed  in equality  died, so there
was a lack of leadership and momentum
ii. Legal  setbacks Courts stacked  against iii. Growing labor strife and industrialism Explosion of industrialism  - people were distracted  by labor issues North abandoned freed slaves,  which led to segregation  and the
reinstating  of slavery
iv. 2. I. The Final  Act: the Compromise of 1877 Read about Last  Union troops removed from the south No federal presence  to enforce  laws, so slaves  were  on their own. II. Day 2: Fate of the Freedmen: Reconstruction and Enduring  Legacies  of Slavery The worldwide history of slavery Sharecropper vs. slaves - important economic  arrangement What is the fate  of freed slaves? U.S. was  the second to last country to abolish slavery. 3 countries of slavery in new world? Unique characteristics  of Euro-American  Slavery Euro-American  slavery was different  than other country's versions Culturally specific/different  motivations Money, race, and descent Money Slaves were  viewed  as money  makers/an  economic  tool for money.
Other countries weren't  like that.
Native  Americans  used to steal  people  from other tribes when
someone  died, so slavery was  not economic,  but rather filling a
spiritual void
American  slavery had four motivations  unique to the U.S. Capitalist  sub orientation 1. Slaves were  property - literally  could be bought and sold under
law
2. Inherited  and permanent  - born and died a slave,  usually
through mothers  line
3. Racial 4. Laws  made it illegal to free slaves because  it was dangerous to the
system.
Which came  first - racism  or slavery? Eventually,  to be black meant  you were a slave in the U.S. In other places,  to be a slave meant  you were  captured,  not
necessarily  race  based or about who you were  as a person, but about
the circumstance  you were  in.
Slavery was European invented,  but American  adopted Orlando equanando - book of a slave Slaves were  captured  and traded to Europeans through trade
networks.  Europeans didn’t directly  gather slaves,  they used goods to
trade for them.
Slave ships segregated  men/women/boys  and separated  them  by
language  so they didn’t organize.
75% of slaves  went to the Caribbean or brazil - Brazilian  culture still
heavily influenced  by slavery.
25% of slaves  went the U.S. 1600/1700s - slaves  grew sugar for the European  market  on the
coasts  of brazil and the Caribbean - Barbados was huge with  10's of
thousands of slaves.
Europeans first tried to enslave  natives,  but the natives  fought back
and lots died fro European diseases,  which  led to African slavery.
Canary islands - Portuguese grow sugar and slottered  natives Major Caribbean islands were sugar slave islands "sugar made  from blood" - average  life of sugar slaves  = 3 years You cant grow sugar with frost; 15 month growing period; after
harvesting,  cut and carry very quickly to grinder
Lots of money  gets made  through sugar farming i. A. 1. I. Slavery and the south Early on the south had a labor problem because  they had a lot of land with no workers.
Slavery came  because  the U.S. tapped  into a system  that already  existed.
First grew indigo and tobacco,  cotton  came  later Slavery as a source of economic/political  power The "planter elite" South was wealthiest  part of America for a long time § 1860 - most valuable  things were slaves  and cotton § Generally,  most  people had less than 20 slaves but wanted  to be part of the
top 4% owners with many slaves.
§ Top 4% were powerful and set the tone for culture  and politics;  they ran the
region and country.
§ Gone with the wind - problematic  but shows the self-indulgent  nature of
southerners
§ You can believe  in white supremacy  and not be pro slavery § Northern criticism  of slavery: Economic.  Thought there  were better  ways to
make  money than slavery. Slavery made  white  people lazy and made  a
dishonest  labor system.  Didn’t think it was  race drive.
§ A. 1. Slavery and poor whites - the "social  floor" Most white  people didn't own slaves,  why would they  support the system
and they  couldn’t afford slaves.
§ Many didn't fight for the confederacy. § West Virginia succeeded  from confederacy  and joined union § Slavery still gave benefits,  you wanted  to have slaves  and be part of the
elite,  so people  took jobs related  to the slave  system  like lawyers.
§ Social floor argument: slavery was racially based,  so being white  guaranteed
that you were  not the bottom  of society.  Even the poorest white  person was
still above an educated  black person. So if you're a white  person at the
bottom,   your white skin is the only similarity  you have to the rich white
people,  which gave you a sense of pride.
§ 2. After the war: recreating the slave system without slavery After the war, white people  want their status  back and don’t want to be the
bottom,  so they wanted  to recreate  the system.
§ 3. II. The end of slavery and the beginning  of freedom - now what? After the way, freedom  was powerful and scary for freedmen No violence  at first Searching  for family First thing freedmen  did was look for family 1. Schools  and education Young and old wanted  to be educated Freedmen's  Bureau: main goal was to give  education  to freedmen  so they could
vote and get included in politics
2. Establishing  churches Center of African American  culture in this era Studied the bible without  owners' interpretation  for the first time New  interpretation  of Christianity Tow major churches:  African Methodist  episcopal  (AME) and African Baptist Run by and for African American  center  for culture and organization Politics 3. Entering politics Before the north lost interest  in the  civil rights movement  and the KKK was
formed, blacks  entered  politics
Document:  force act  - tried to stop clan Blacks  voted and ran for congress An effort to try and take advantage  of their citizenship 4. III. The problem of making a living  - the rise of sharecropping How can freedmen  make  a living? 1865 - everyone  wanted  farms because  land = wealth  = power = independent The Freedmen's dream: independent "yeoman" farming "Nothing  but freedom"  - no longer slaves,  but no land Independent  farmers who owned - Yeomen  farmer § Document   - petition to give freed slaves  land § Plantation  owners still owned the land § Rumor that plantations  would be given to slave families,  but didn’t happen § Freedmen  felt  the land was theirs because  they worked on it § A. Resistance  to Black  codes and the old Plantation Black codes:  laws  about freedmen.  Ex. Had to have a job and couldn’t  move
around
§ B. How to make a living? C. 1. White plantation owners - need cheap labor,  how to get it? Blacks  refused to work for landowners Landowners  had incentive  to negotiate  with  slaves so they  could make  money,  but
the whites  still got better deal
2. Solution - the sharecropping  system Landowners  and slaves  negotiate  to split profits of harvests To slaves, this was better  than getting  nothing like before Look at sharecropper contract  in book Benefits both parties (but whites get a better end of the deal) A. Freedmen supply labor,  white owners supply equipment, tools - all profits split
50/50 (in theory)
B. The problem of "Debt Peonage" and the sharecropping  trap Unraveling  - landowners wanted  to collect  payment  of whatever  they gave
slaves  originally, and they charged  a lot for the  stuff they  gave.
§ They could buy things from the "company  store" but owners hiked the
prices,  and this money will go back to the owner
§ If there  was no crop, the slaves were  in debt to the landowner § Slaves would get in debt  so far that they  could never get  out - Debt  peonage § Laws  were written  so blacks  couldn’t get  out § Not exactly  slavery, but not freedom § This was the dominant  economic  system  after war which  was very
productive for the south
§ White people get  pulled into this debt too § Book "Let  us now praise famous men" § Before,  whites had their skin, now they don’t § Tractors  in the 1930s put sharecroppers  out of business § C. 3. IV. Day 3: Westward Expansion  and the fate of Native America. Ch. 15 Triangle: Don’t worry about names  or little  details Don’t need to know "union leaders"  names,  just know there is the Union and what they
view
Know the  viewpoint of the  owners of the factories View  of union vs. Factory owners Fire is a symbol of the craziness  of industrialization Pros & Cons Industrialization  is a new thing People are fighting over what  to do Immigration  is a big theme Documents in Textbook: Know them  in context Sharecropping contract  - example  of the attempt  to recreate  slavery; hybrid-like slavery Documents  on test  look at big issues in context Noted  that Dr. Drake likes maps and graphs Heading  West - why? Context:
What motivated  people  to live in the middle  of America?
By the 1860s & 1870s most native  Americans  have been eliminated,  but not in the west What to do with natives? Idea of "who's  a real American?",  "How to make  whoever is not an American,  an
American?",  "What to do with natives?"
Railroads were a very important  event  in American  history In 1880s - civilization  was moving west Lots of debate  over land rights/treaty  rights Technically,  people  have been spreading West  since Europeans  first landed in the new
world, but what was  considered to be "West"  changed  over time.  At some  point, Georgia
was "the  west",  then in 1817 Michigan  was considered  "the  West",  etc.
Why did people move  west?  "For freedom"  is not necessarily  correct  because  its a vague
idea. People  move for specific  pragmatic  reasons, they wanted  cheap  land in hopes of
becoming  wealthy
The "American  dream"  in 1870s was owning a farm and being a yeoman  farmer, which
made  you as independent  as possible
Government  wanted  to give away free land In 1800s government  gave away  land via the center  of American  citizenship Government  viewed  farmers  as ideal citizens Northerners  liked small  farms, but not big plantations.  They thought slavery was  bad for
small farmers  - Free soil ideology.
Government  wanted  to give free land, but this was blocked  by southern politics After the succession,  government  gave away  more land I. Cheap Land - Homestead Act of 1862 Act where the government  gave away land in the west  for an extremely  small fee Caused the "squareness"  of everything  out west Everything  out west  is square shaped,  counties,  parts of counties,  townships,  etc.
are all squares within squares
Townships  - subdivision of a county. Found in the north and west  commonly,  but
not in south.
Government  did this on land where natives  had been removed,  and there  was no
ownership in place,  so the  government  took ownership and gave  it away
Fundamental  unit of homestead  act  was corner sections Government  land office:  GLO - sold sections  of land for extremely  cheap,  just a
small filing fee.  They gave out millions of acres in the mid-west  like this
Possibly the  most important  legislation  in Midwest  land legislation 1. Business  Opportunities People also went  out west  to sell supplies  to settlers,  not necessarily  to get  land There was  a large real estate  market,  which was technically  supposed to be illegal,
where people  would buy land and resell  it for a profit using many different  names
This was called  Land speculation People flipped land, in ways that were  kosher and not so kosher The rise of the "corporate West" The west  soon became  a center  for business  corporations § Railroads were the  first entity  to be similar to modern corporations § Cattle  was also a business  market,  and cattle  corporations became  the first
powerful corporations in the U.S.
§ Cowboys were employed  under cattle  corporations  (picture of the
stockyards  in the PowerPoint) and were  sent out to gather  cattle  and bring
them  back to brand them  for the company  they worked for
§ Chicago became  the  meatpacking  center  of the planet  at one point in time.
"porkopolis"
§ The rise of businesses  created  conflicts  between  owners and workers,
known as the labor strife
§ There was  unprecedented  wealth  in the U.S.  so how does the  role of
democracy  fit into this?
§ There were  many different opinions between  owners and workers § A. 2. *Side tangent  that Drake said probably wouldn’t be tested  over: Johnson county range war - people  in Wyoming under "stockman's  associations"
employed  cowboys
In 1892 there  was an economic  downturn and many cowboys  were laid off They decided  to go into business  for themselves,  searching for unbranded cattle Heard owners felt like this was theft  and didn’t like having new competitors So, the  owners of cattle  corporations got a list of their former employees  and hired
assassins  to kill them (picture  of hitmen  in PowerPoint)
The cowboys  started fighting  back and there  were gun battles Basically,  this is an example  of the important  conflict  between  workers and
corporation/business  owners
Manifest  Destiny The belief  that America  was "fated"  to dominate  the continent,  which is where  the
phrase "sea to shining sea" came  from (manifest   identity)
Idea that  America was  under a larger divine plan Technology  will help manifest  destiny Painting in the PowerPoint of a woman  leading America  westward 1. Conquering Nature Dr. Drake specifically  skipped this idea during class § A. Opportunities for Freedom Slaves took advantage  of the westward  expansion and also went out west  to get
land, to become  more independent  and therefore,  actually  embrace  freedom
1. The Fate of the Natives - Death, Disappearance,  or reform Americans  took the native's land The mentality  of most Americans  was not "if" we got their land, it was "when  and how"
we get  the natives land
There were  two main ideas of when  and how to get  the land" Eradication  of
philosophy/school  and the idea of Assimilation
The "eradication"  school The idea that  Americans had about the natives  to "kill them  all, take their land, and
let God deal with the rest"
"The only good Indian is a dead Indian"  - General  Phillip Sheridan Sand Creek Massacre  (1864), Fetterman Massacre  (1866), A. "Kill and scalp them  all, big & little" There were  some augments  over whether  this actually  was a "massacre"  or not -
maybe  because  many Americans  didn’t consider natives  as Americans/people?
Little Big Horn (1876) B. Union army was sent  out west  to fight the natives Phillip Sheridan Eradacists People were  terrified - not all American's  agreed  with the eradication  philosophy 1. The "Assimilationist"  school Important  document  Drake mentioned:  Helen  hunt Jackson document  in chapter
15
Drake also mentioned  all the assimilation  documents  are important to know Assimilation  is the idea that  natives are noble people and shouldn’t be massacred People thought that  the culture of natives  would disappear anyways,  so Americans
to take them  and teach  them  how to be Americans
"assimilate"  them  to be Americans This is a cultural  genocide,  but at the time  people thought the idea  of assimilation
was a very progressive idea
The Myth of the "vanishing  Indian" A. Educate Indians  via  schooling,  land  policy,  and law, to make them "civilized" Indian  schools Americans  put Indian kids in boarding schools to teach  them  how to
be Americans  (PowerPoint Image  of Carlisle school Indian kids)
Americans  cut their hair and put them  in different clothes,  which was
staunchly  against  their culture
Natives  weren't  allowed  to speak  their native  languages  or allowed  to
practice  their own religion
Women were  taught to sew and how to become  domestic  servants Textbook document  to look at: women  in schools Sometimes  natives  would escape  and run away from these  schools Some assimilated  well and became  activists Weird side effect  of assimilation  was that  different tribes  who used to
hate each  other came  together:  Pan Indianism
i. Reservations and the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 Dawes  act is an important  piece  of legislation Henry Dawes  was a radical republican  who took reservations  and
divided them  into 160 acre  chunks
Version of the homestead  act Gave every Indian family their own piece  of land and wanted  them  to
be yeomen  farmers
BIA, Bureau of Indian Affairs - assimilation  program Meant  to teach  natives  about democracy  and citizenship Indians were not equal, but government  wanted  to civilize  them Similar to freedmen's  bureau Reoccurring  idea of how to make  those who weren't  considered
Americans,  "real Americans"
Individuals would get 80 acres while families  got 160 acres The BIA was  very corrupt; local agents  didn't care much ii. B. 2. II. Failure of the Dawes Act and Assimilation Corruption, the loss of reservation  land, and cultural incompatibility  were  all disasters  the
Natives  faced
Indian Reservations  started  having lots of issues and alcoholism  became  common Loss of 'excess' land "excess"  land was given to white  people, so natives lost about 50% of their land
right away
PowerPoint image  of an advertisement  for land 1. Land  speculation problems Natives  could "rent"  land, and were manipulated  by outsiders 2. Lack  of compatibility  with native lifestyles In native  culture,  Women were the farmers/gatherers,  so the  American dream  of
the male  head being a yeomen  farmer was  foreign to the Natives
Natives  had a different  gender hierarchy Native  men felt  like they  were being asked to become  women,  and they refused
this idea
There was  a cultural incompatibility  between  the Indian culture  and American
culture
3. III. The Ghost Dance,  1890 Rumors circulated  that  if natives  banned together  and performed  a "Ghost  Dance"
(Image  in powerpoint),  then American's  would disappear and things would go back to
normal
Act of desperation IV. Day 4: The Ingredients of Industrialization:  Forging the Age of Capital *This is the first lecture  to be relevant  to "Triangle"
Introduction: The Current Time, and Why
Image  from the PowerPoint - pastel  picture of time zones Industrialism  made  time  zones consistent  , so for the first time it was the same  time
everywhere  in that  time  zone
Up until now, most people  live, grew up, died, and were buried in a few miles People lived localized  existences Time  used to be a localized  experience,  since  the curvature  of the earth varies what
"noon" looks like from place  to place,  time  was kept locally
Railroads made  time management  important,  so the railroad industry let to standardized
time
1880s - Congress adopted  national time  zone Railroad corporation in 1884 set up the time  zones we  still use today "Industrialism"  - Perhaps the most important development in US history after 1865 VERY  IMPORTANT  IDEA: Industrialism  is the most important  thing to happen in the  U.S.
between  the end of reconstruction  and the early 1900s
Industrialism  changes  everything People became  less localized,  origin of globalization The way people worked changed.  Used to work on farms, now in factories. I. American Business  Before 1870 The idea of "blue collar working class"  was born from Industrialism Changed where  people worked, how people  worked, and the American  lifestyle  in
general
Social values  changed,  economy  changed,  culture  changed Emergence  of industrialism changed  capitalism Was this change  good /bad? And for whom was it good/bad for? IMPORTANT  IDEA: what  does democracy  look like in this new age  of industrialism? The American  democratic  experience  was born in farming/local  experiences Now its been 100 years and everything has changed  profoundly, so what will
democracy  look like?
Some private  individuals became  more powerful  than the  government There were  a lot of strong opinions on what  is right/wrong Eventually  these  conflicts  lead to shoot-outs  in the street No child labor laws yet (PowerPoint picture  of kids in coal mines) Coal mining was a controversial  area of labor in this era "Dickenzian"  idea that questioned  whether  it was okay for kids to work like this In 1862 textile  mills  in New England  became  the first big factories  - Boston associates In 1850 the biggest  business  in the U.S. had less than 1000 workers, before
industrialization  most businesses  were small  proprietorships
By 1900, 2/3 of workers worked in factories  and only 1/3 were farmers.  In 1850 50%
people were  farmers
II. A case study - Andrew Carnegie Carnegie  Steel  company had over 20,000 workers and was the biggest  corporation in the
world at the time  with over 40 million dollars in profit (PowerPoint image  of smoke  stacks
at a steel  plant)
Drake said not to obsess over little  details  here Steel  is iron infused with carbon, and is very strong and flexible  while iron is soft and not
durable. But steel  is hard to make,  very energy intensive
To make to make lots of steal  with cheap  labor was very profitable A Fortuitous Combination  of Developments Technological  developments Carnegie  was an immigrant  from Scotland  born 1830s, came  to Pittsburg in
the 1840s with parents
§ He worked in places  sometimes  as a "bobbin boy" and gained good skills
and training,  he got promoted because  he was very good at organization
§ Railroads were the  first modern complex  corporation in history § Carnegie  was a genius for industrial organization  and was obsessed  with
efficiency
§ "worry about efficiency  and profits will take  care  of themselves" § But, efficiency  has a human cost § Carnegie  wanted  to be an entrepreneur  and had lots of drive. Wanted his
own industrial empire  and knew  that steel  was upcoming
§ He didn’t have a lot of money,  but he had investor friends (Tom Scott,  Henry
Frick, Charles Schwab)  who loaned him money  for a steel  plant in 1872
§ A. The rise of railroads Carnegie  knew that railroads would be a top customer § Railroads lowered  transportation costs  for everyone § Transportation  was a huge expense,  especially  for farmers out west § Way back when  people used rivers to send things  from the Midwest  south
to the Mississippi to places  like new Orleans
§ Railroads shifted the  flow of goods to the  East,  they could get  their faster
and cheaper  than before
§ Carnegie  negotiated  with railroad corporations § Key ideas here: Cheap transportation,  New  technology  & transportation,
Telegraphs
§ Telegraphs:  first instant  communication.  Telegraph  lines ran right next to
rail road lines
§ B. New resources from the West Vital  natural resources  from the west like iron, coal, silver, copper were
found
§ C. Immigration and cheap labor Cheap labor from immigrants  makes  industrialization  possible § 28 million people  came  to the US; 3rd wave  of immigration  was the factory
immigrants
§ Because  so many people came,  labor costs  were very low and profits were
very high
§ Industrialization  was  build on immigration § The northeast  still has a stamp  of industrialization  today § *Triangle  - pretty  much every character  is an immigrant D. 1. III. The invention of corporate business techniques Corporate business techniques  emerge  in this period § Carnegie  invents some  of them § Corporate structure  today was born in this period § Important:  The textbook has a section  on the integration  of business
techniques  that Drake said to look at, and the documents  at the end of the
chapter
§ A. Some Important corporate Business  techniques Integration of production A. Monopolization,  trusts, "price fixing"; (not so much Carnegie as others) B. 1. Other Helpful Developments A pro-industrial  US government and Republican  Party Republican  party - the party of corporations  and North/Eastern  businesses § Originally, the Republican  party was founded in 1854 over anti-slavery
views,  which were due to spiritual and pragmatic  reasons. Republicans
thought that  money wasn’t  in slavery, but that money  was in the
industrialization.
§ Anti-slavery/pro-business   ideas embraced  industrialism § Republicans  thought the  government  should use its power to make  business
growth possible
§ Democrats  were not as comfortable  with these  business  ideas from the
republicans,  they thought socialism  was the ideal
§ Pro-industrial  law: 14th amendment and Santa Clara County vs. Southern
Pacific  Railroad
The Laws  were tweaked  to be industrially friendly, which is an
example  of how the changes  with time  and the  cultural shift were
applied in laws
Example:  the 14th amendment  applied to businesses  as well, which
treated  corporations as individuals who had rights like a person
does -"corporate  personhood"
The Santa Clara case  is an example  of this "corporate  personhood" was seen as making  businesses  more
efficient  by eliminating  inefficiency
Opponents argues that  giving corporations  rights was dangerous The law and military was on the side of employers,  and the army
would be called  in to help deal with labor strikes
i. A. "Social  Darwinism" - the misguided application  of "survival of the fittest" to
economies
Carnegie  did not believe  in social  Darwinism,  he came  up as a poor
immigrant  and was ambivalent  on the role of the wealth  and poor
§ Social Darwinism  is the idea people  interpreted  out of "the origin of species"
that economic  life is like natural selection,  and we  should embrace  that.
People who didn’t agree were  viewed  as the "unfit",   and lazy
§ "origin of species"  is the work that social  Darwinism  was born out of, but
the origin of species  was not about people  should related  to each  other or
social structure  of humans.  Natural selection  should not apply to businesses,
as Darwin did not say to apply it to other aspects  of life
§ William Graham  Sumner - champion of social Darwinism  and critic  of social
reform - author of "What the  Social Classes  Owe to Each  Other", in which
he basically said they don’t owe each  other anything .
§ Important:  Look at Document  16.5: "A Defense  of Laissez-Faire" § B. 2. The Gilded  Age - Late 1880s-90s There was  unprecedented  wealth  and tremendous  opulence  in this age (PowerPoint
Image  of Cornelius Vanderbilt's  Summer  house = lots of baroque -European style  fancy
décor)
Wealthy Americans  adopted  the idea that  they were similar to European royalty - having
stunning wealth  and power,  and this translated  to architecture
In this era, money produces  political power Americans  admire this success,  but were  weary about the wealthy  gaining control over
everything
Ambivalence  about "Robber Barons" "Robber Barrens" was the idea that  wealth  was stolen from the middle class "Gilded"  - rotten things underneath  wealth,  like how rotten wood would be
underneath  gold plated  walls.
1. Carnegie's Social  Conscience Carnegie  retires in 1901, sells  J.P. Morgan,  and gives money  away Important:  Read the "Document  of Wealth"  document  16.7 Carnegies  is in the middle,  he feels there  is an obligation for the wealthy  do have a
part in philanthropy, but didn’t think they  should hand everything to the poor
His views show his ambivalence  (*side note,  Drake used the word "ambivalent"  to
describe  Carnegie's  view on social Darwinism  a LOT)
He wanted  to do something  substantial  with money,  not just have fancy  things and
show off his wealth
2. A Lingering  Question… Is the Industrialism  good or Bad? The answer  to this really depended on who you were,  and is a personal
moral question.
§ 3. IV. Day 5: "Eight Hours for What We Will": Unionization  and the Labor  Movement Review: Industrialization  & The Labor Movement Questions  about democratic  rights Last  time - rise of corporate  America,  people coming  together  made  industrialization
possible
Business  friendly government  = tremendous  wealth  (Picture of Vanderbilt's  living room) Is it good, bad or both? The wealthy  were  admired and feared  because  they  had power; turning into a
dictatorship
Captain of industry (Carnegie)  vs. Robber Barrens No safety regulations  yet,  machines  were  powered by open belt drives that were  high
powered = dangerous conditions
Questions  about working conditions  and democracy Right now, changing  things is controlled by the government  and wealthy *Industrialization  is the biggest  thing to happen in U.S. post civil war "Piece  work" - making pieces  of shirts to stitch  together.  Sleeves  and collars would be
made  separately  and sent  to a factory.
Triangle  was cutting-edge  because  everything  is done in house By 1890 - 2/3 of all Americans  work in industrial type settings Working conditions  in U.S.  Factories, c. late 19th century Loud, dirty, unsanitary  everywhere,  exhausting,  deadly, dangerous 35,000 people per year die in accidents,  similar to auto accidents  today Sanitation  - bad Meat  packing Chicago,  no hairnets,  gloves,  refrigeration;  waste  was pushed to
middle of table which drains to the Chicago  river
"Try to hit America in the heart,  but punched  them  in the stomach" 1. Working hours - long 40 hour workweek  came  from this era People worked 6 days a week,  10-16 hours a day Caused religious conflicts  for Jews Unions asked for fewer hours Reading  in the textbook - "deskilling"  of labor 2. Work style - regimented, repetitive, "on the clock" Important  change/difficult  for people Farming is hard work but it isn't regimented  or repetitive  like a factory is. Example:  Triangle - life is depressing Company would speed up machine  for more  production, so workers would have  to
work faster  and this was dangerous
Taylorism  - scientific  management system for labor Fredrick Taylor - hated by people § Efficiency  has human costs,  Taylorism  is an example § Factory would be observed and given a plan for how to make  it more
efficient
§ They gave steps  for workers, which made  them  like robots controlling their
every move
§ Triangle  is an example  of typical  conditions  for the period § i. 3. "De-skilling"  of labor Textbook reading Working with your hands - most  things used to be made  by hands by people  called
"Artisans",  who made  things like furniture, silver
They were  proud of their ability to produce things of value, and gave them  a
feeling  of ownership
They worked in small-scale  humane  environments Now, the  labor process is segmented,  workers don’t know the total picture,  just
one part
Knowledge  becomes  fragmented,  requires no skill Consequently,  there's  no pride in the  product The process alienated  worked from the product 4. Wages - low Better  than Europe, but still bad Wages were  low for everyone Triangle:  Owners were also immigrants  who came  to the country poor and rose up 5. I. Unionization  and Strikes - Workers Resist Industrial  Conditions Problems with working conditions,  but what  to do about it? Working class doesn’t  have influence  in government  so they formed groups (enter
Unions)
Unions started  small and grew 1866 - National  Labor Union NLU  - small,  limited membership  to only skilled workers Not much activity,  they had some  picnics Unions were often limited/fractured  by social  divisions No real consequential  unions till later 1. 1877 - Great Railroad  Strike (Picture of magazine) Railroad BNO - people got a 20% cut in pay one day and employees  were  pissed
and walked  out on strike
In the streets  of Baltimore  people rioted Owners decided  to replace  the striking workers with temporary  cheap labor
"Scabs"
"Scabs"  - workers who temporarily  replaced  workers Owners would play on the race division - they put African Americans  in as temps  to
make  the strikers mad
Owners ended up hiring thugs to beat up people  in unions Military was called  in by owners *Military/government  was industry friendly There were  different views  on "strikers,"  depending  on who you were,  you were
for them or against  them.  (Ex. Owners did not like strikers, most  working class  did)
(Images  in PP)
**There  was an ideological  difference  between  peoples views  on industrialization
and unions
Railroad strike, people  realized they used a national union that  could actually  do
stuff - idea of "collective  action"
2. II. 1870s-1880s - Knights of Labor First important union was the  knights of Labor Led by Irish immigrant  - Terrence  Powderly (PP Image  - KOL cartoon on how KOL viewed
the world. People with top hats and belly's represent  the wealthy)
Knights were open in their membership,  allowed  women,  African Americans  (but
sometimes  still segregated),  unskilled, even Irish (whites  thought  the Irish were the  worst
white  people) , but NO Chinese  (we'll go into this later)
KOL were  more open and powerful, with no "unproductive  classes" Only people who worked with their hands could join, no business/banker  people They believed  in "Producerism"  - the  idea that wealth  is created  in a society  by common
people who work with their hands
The thought was if you don’t work with your hands, you don’t do real work, you aren't a
"producer"
Producerism is an ideology which holds that those  members  of society  engaged  in the production of tangible  wealth  are of greater  benefit to society  than, for example,
aristocrats  who inherit their wealth  and station.
Working with hands was viewed  as honest labor (as opposed to slavery which  was seen
as dishonest labor since  the slaves did the work for the owners;  the owners themselves
didn’t do any hard work)
The KOL were  willing to strike  and walk off a job to improve  conditions;  they were willing
to put pressure on employers
However,  the KOL go away quickly Radical  goals  - increased wages, fewer hours 1. The eight hour movement, 1886 In 1886 the "8 hour day" was a hot topic,  lots of unions fought for this. "8 hours for work, 8 hours for sleep,  8 hours for what  we will" - motto  of the
movement
2. Haymarket Square Riots (Summer 1886). Spells the end of the Knights May 1886 - rally in Chicago  with 80,000 people At the same  time,  McCormick  reaper mechanical…  (something  I don’t remember  - I
think they called in the police or military) and after the rally there  was conflict
between  strikers and police  and people were  killed
At the rally there  were more police  than protesters  (not a very big striker/rally
presence)
Someone  threw a bomb at the police  and police  opened fire on the crowd On May 4, 1886, a labor protest rally near Chicago’s  Haymarket  Square turned into
a riot after someone  threw a bomb at police.  At least  eight  people died as a result
of the violence  that  day. Despite  a lack of evidence  against  them,  eight radical
labor activists  were convicted  in connection  with the bombing.  The Haymarket  Riot
was viewed  a setback  for the organized labor movement  in America,  which  was
fighting for such rights as the eight-hour  workday. At the same  time,  the men
convicted  in connection  with the riot were  viewed  by many in the labor movement
as martyrs.
**This  was bad for the KOL, people blamed  them  but it was done by radicals -
"bomb throwing radicals."
People thought the  KOL were a bunch of immigrant  bomb throwers who were
trying to overthrow the government
Chicago government  went after  the KOL leadership,  arrested  and tried 7 or 8
people,  two were hung with little  evidence.  The  point of this was to intimidate  the
Knights (PP Image  of the knights being hung)
Now, KOL have a bad reputation and membership  declines  rapidly 3. III. 1886 - American Federation of Labor. More "Respectable" The AFL is the new more conservative  union, they  replace  the KOL Sam Gompers  was a president  of the AFL (I wrote something  about him being in
Triangle?)
Different  unions have different  political views AFL was  less likely to strike and willing to negotiate Sometimes  members  thought they were  too lax AFL wanted  to separate  themselves  from the poorly viewed  "Anarchists,  radicals,  etc."
and just wanted  to be purely a labor organization
IV. More Radical  Unions  - often repressed by authorities Two main groups: The Reformers  vs. the  Revolutionaries Most people were  reformers Reformers  thought that the U.S.  had problems  but they can fix them  by making  the
system  work, and believed  Americans  can be made  to be America  again
Revolutionaries  thought  America is so rotten and had problems so deep that U.S.  needs
to be completely  reformed
Radicals  believed  in revolution The shittier  the job = people were angrier = the more you believe  in radical
revolution. And example  of this is coal miners.
Coal miners Had a high death  rate/ injury rate § Not paid in money, but paid in scrip, which  was like a coupon and could only
be spent in a few  places.
§ Coal miners were also often required to live in company  housing and pay
rent with scrip
§ They were  required to buy food and supplies  at the company store with
scrip
§ Law  enforcement  is like security  and would escort  and watch  coal miners
vote to make sure they voted for the right person
§ Basically,  the angriest  and therefore most  radical workers were those  who
worked in the coal industry
§ V. United Mine Workers of America - Ludlow Massacre,  1914 The united mine  workers were  radial and willing to strike, frequently There ended  up being blazing gun battles  between  workers and owners  (who hired
thugs, so sometimes  workers vs. thugs)
Striking minors were  strong men At one point, they left the housing and went  to live on the prairie in tents  after
being kicked out
Owners sent thugs to burn the field to force them  out and 75 people  ended up
dying
A. Industrial  Workers of the world - very radical:  socialists,  communists,  anarchists,  etc. Coal miners were so desperate,  so they adopted revolutionary  ideas Known as "Wobblies"  - members  of the industrial workers of the world Super radical,  people were  scared of them If you were communist,  you were a part of this group (Image  in PP) Revolutionary  (Pyramid of capitalist  Image  in PP) - shows their view  of the world "Producerism"  where  the wealthy  skimmed  off working class Not reformers Not very common,  but found in coal mines  and tough work places B. 1892 - Homestead Steel Strike: Andrew Carnegie fights back Carnegie  was less intense,  not anti-union, believed  the  poor could work themselves  up In 1892 - Carnegie  went  to Europe and left Henry Frick in charge.  Frick put up barbed wire
to keep unionsts out.
This caused  a conflict  and strikers were  killed Nice  summary here: http://www.history.com/topics/homestead-strike VI. Day 6: Farmer Brown Strikes Back:  The Populist  Revolt Against  Industrialism Intro: "The Rectangle  of Righteousness?" 1880s/90s - Kansas was a hotbed of political  change  and reform ideas Their opposition to industry was intense Farmers were  Reformers Farmers were  scared of industry, and angry at the ambivalence  towards  industry Populism - the country cousins of labor unions. They shared the same  concerns  and both
saw themselves  as allies  with the KOL and Triangle people.
Formed the third most  important political  party: the  Populist party It fades away The Urban vs. Rural divide has origins here Resistance  to industrialism I. "Agrarian America" The American  dream was to be an independent  yeoman  farmer Farmers were  proud, sometimes  arrogant "Jeffersonian agrarianism"  - farmers as idea citizens Thomas  Jefferson - "The  farmer is the Republic's  most  virtuous…" Farmers were  seen as politically  honest, virtuous, selfless,  put the good of the
whole above themselves,  honest in general
According to Jefferson,  having contact  with your land and soil made  you "better"
morally; the  idea is that you take  care of all your needs for yourself which makes
you ideal for democracy  because  you will vote for the good of the community
Jefferson  didn't like industry, and thought factory  workers were  at the mercy  of
their owners (having to vote the way the  owners wanted,  which happened  in the
coal industry)
Wanted a nation of farmers;  the Louisiana  Purchase was land bought for
Jeffersonian  people
Northerners  Loved*(Not  sure correct,  but what I wrote)  farmers However,  Jefferson  also owned  slaves As Industrialism  gained speed,  it caused  consternation  (Drake used that  word, it
means  anxiety) among  farmers
Farmers thought  they were getting  replaced  as the "Hero's"  by people like Andrew
Carnegie  and other business owners.  (This is similar to artisans cultural anxiety)
1. II. Industrialism's  Threats to Farmers Financial  trouble, debt, etc. Populist farmers are in trouble because  they start  overproducing Overproduction of crops became  a huge problem (and still is today. Drake joked
that overproduction is the "devil of agriculture."
Drake noted that famine  is usually due to politics and infrastructure,  not scarcity Too much of a good thing led to sending crops by the masses  and the  prices
dropped
Sometimes  farmers  couldn’t even break even,  and would be in debt, which
contradicts  their ideal of being "independent"
This is similar to sharecroppers - too much debt to ever get out of 1. Monopolies  - railroads  and banks Railroad and bank industries are HATED by the populists Farmers were  seen as credit risks, so they would get very high interest  rates The populists were  pissed about this because  from their viewpoint  they were  the
heroes of society,  providing food for everyone,  and they're  getting  gauged by
banks
Populists could get anti-sematic  (racists  against  Jews since  most bankers were
Jewish)
Railroad industry had a monopoly (populists hated  this), and sometimes  there
would only be one railroad near a farmer,  so the railroad owners  would charge
super high rates (yet they were  cutting  Carnegie  deals since  he produced steel  for
them)
*Key Idea:  Railroads and banks were  symbols of corruption and extortion (Image  in
PowerPoint of octopus,  this is an example  of how the populists  viewed
industrialism  (its destroying the common  people),  they used it frequently)
The next image  in the PowerPoint is also a populist drawing; a railroad is built on
bodies and the farmer is the one that notices  the train coming
Overall, there was lots of fear about the concentrated  power of wealthy
industrialists
Another image  from the PowerPoint is a cartoon with a gold-plated  knight on a
train (railroad industry) battling  the common  worker - this was used by labor
unions
2. "Producerism": the true source of wealth KEY IDEA FOR EXAM: Producerism:  ideology that  wealth  is made  by the
working class
§ Producerism is the idea that wealth  is created  by laboring with your hands
(tangible  work), and that classes  of people like bankers and lawyers  (who
didn’t work with their hands) don’t actually  create  wealth,  or at least  honest
wealth
§ " Producerism is an ideology which holds that those members  of society engaged  in the production of tangible  wealth  are of greater  benefit  to
society  than, for example,  aristocrats  who inherit their wealth  and station."
§ "Fleecing"  = screwing  people over by taking  money from them,  typically  by
overcharging  or swindling
§ Farmers believed  they were  the center  of the universe  (this is a producer
and agrarian idea)
§ A. "Status Anxiety" People were  very defensive  and anxious because  they were getting  replaced  by
industry
So people  formed groups, like unions, and called  it an alliance The farmer equivalent  to a union (northeast)  is an alliance  (west) 3. III. Forming "Alliances" 1867-1870 -- Patrons of Husbandry,  aka "The Grange" "Patrons of Husbandry" and "Grangers"  are farmer/agriculture  alliances Grangers: Members  of an organization  founded in 1867 to meet  the social and
cultural needs  of farmers. Grangers  took an active  role in the  promotion of the
economic  and political  interests  of farmers.
These  alliances  didn’t do much,  they had picnic, speeches,  and meetings They mutate  into the National  Farmers  Alliance (NFA) in the 1880s, which is the
KOL (union) of farmers
1. 1880s - National  Farmers' Alliance Links  to the Knights of Labor NFA is to farmers what  the KOL was to factory workers § They were  a significant  political  organization  of farmers § The NFA was famous for its speakers (They  would basically  preach  the
"gospel"  of farming, Drake read an except  of a speech  Mary Elizabeth  Lease
gave criticizing  industrialism  (he said it was great  rhetoric and unlike what
we have now), some  key phrases I noticed:
"Monopoly is the monster" § The "Manufacturing  east" § Workers were  "Forced to sell their virtue" § "lone shark companies" § "Raise  less corn and more Hell" § § The NFA gets big results in agricultural places,  and membership  goes up § But, they were  seen as 'nuts' to city people § They reached  out to the KOL, since they  saw themselves  as allies to factory
workers and they thought  they were both fighting the same  battle  against
tyranny and oppression
§ The NFA loved & was  sympathetic  for the idea of the 8hr day § A. IMPORTANT  DOCCUMENT  drake mentioned:  Populist party platform 1892
(Document  17.3, pp. 569)
2. IV. The National  Alliance's  Plan - the "Ocala  Demands" (1890) and the "Omaha Platform" (1892) The NFA came  up with actual  plans on how to reform society  and organized specific
proposals (some were  implemented)
Public  ownership of the railroads They wanted  the government  to run the railroads, not private  owner Public ownership, for the good of everyone 1. Direct election of senators/graduated income tax The idea that  the wealthier  you are, the more you should pay in income  tax is a
populist idea.
wealth  benefits  from society  collectively  (not sure what  I meant  here) Thought the (government)  system  was rigged by the wealthy,  since people
couldn’t  vote for important  positions like senators,  who were appointed
2. No protective tariffs for industry Saw this as unfair favoritism toward industry 3. The "subtreasury" system This never really happened Subtreasury idea:  the government  would build silos (a tower/pit  used to store
grain) around country and farmers would bring crops and store them in the silos, in
order to create  security  and create  a raise in price. Meanwhile,  the farmers  would
need money  so they wanted  to put a co-op (not a bank, community-run  financial
institution)  literally at the bottom  of silos so farmers could borrow money from the
co-op based on the potential  earnings of their crop. Then they  would wait  to make
enough money to pay the coop back and make a profit. This was an idea that never
actually  happened.
Subtreasury system:  A proposal by the Farmers’  Alliances  in the 1880s for the
federal government  to extend  loans to farmers and store their crops in
warehouses  until prices rose and they could buy back and sell their crops to repay
their debts.
4. Free coinage  of silver Farmers were  in debt and owed money  to banks. They believed  that  money was scarce,  limited,  and worth a lot when you could find
it; "gold standard" (system  by which the value of currency  was defined in terms  of
gold, for which  the currency could be exchanged)
Populists: supported the  gold standard and believe  that it provided the basis for a
sound and stable economy,  and were  proponents of the coinage  of silver which
asserted  that expansion  of the money supply (more literal money) would liberate
farmers and workers from debt and bring prosperity to more Americans
Banks HATED the gold standard idea In reality,  this idea of printing more money  (backed  by silver) causes  inflation, and
makes  the money worth less
This was confusing to me, helped  to look at this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_silver 5. V. 1892-1896 - the populist party "the people's  party" - the populist party The populist party held its first nominating  convention  in Omaha,  Nebraska  in 1892, and
nominated  James  B. Weaver (former union civil war general) for president.  He came  in
third (democrat  Grover Cleveland  won) (Image  in PowerPoint of map of election  results,
green areas = populist vote)
Republicans  were  strong in the north 1896 - William  Jennings Bryan and "fusion" with Democrats In 1896 the populists  nominated  William Jennings  Bryan Republicans  though the populists were  nuts (Cartoon Image  in PP of the  hot air
balloon depicts  republican's view of populists:  "Platform  of lunacy" = Free silver
part, peoples party, farmers alliance,  KOL party, socialists,  etc.)
Some people  were scared  with how powerful  populists had become Democrats  wanted  to work together  with populists so they could overrule
republicans  (Image  in PP of a cartoon populist  snake eating  the democratic  party
donkey: this is how republicans  viewed the  merger)
Populists didn’t want to "sell out" to mainstream  party William Jennings  became  the  candidate  for both parties (different  vice presidents
ran for populist or democrat)
Republicans  were  basically pro industry *KEY  IDEA: The 1896 election  was symbolic  of industry (gold) vs. Farming (silver) -
(Image  in PP of the republican  candidate  standing on a gold coin)
Republicans  won the election  with McKinley,  and became  the majority  party in the
U.S.
1. The Demise of (political)  Populism Republicans  won because  they were  a symbol of prosperity and progress After McKinley won, the populist party dwindled and died Populist issues: Free silver idea attracted  silver miners,  but the majority of workers couldn’t
identify with a party composed  mainly  of farmers.
Industrial laborers did not see  any benefit  in raising farm prices since  they
are consumers  of
agricultural  products Populists failed at incorporating other races 2. VI. 6. Additional  Info: We didn’t cover all of these  in class,  but just for fun here's some  additional info: Radical  Republicans:
Who: 
Members  of the Republican  Party committed  to Emancipation  of slaves  and equality  and
enfranchisement  of the freed blacks
What: A political  party
When: During and After the Civil War (1854-1877)
Where: United  States
Why: After the war, the Radicals  demanded  Civil rights for freedmen,  such as measures  of
ensuring suffrage. They  initiated  the Reconstruction  Acts, and limited  political  and voting rights
for ex-confederates.  They bitterly fought President  Andrew Johnson; they weakened  his powers
and attempted  to remove him form office  through impeachment  but were  one vote short.
Civil Rights Act of 1866:
Who: 
Legislative  Branch and Radical  Republicans
What: Piece  of legislation  that  tried to abolish black codes  by affirming African American’s  rights
to full and equal benefit  of laws and proceedings  for the security  of persons and property just
like white citizens.
When: 1866
Where: United  States  Congress
Why: It was meant  to put and end to legal discrimination  of blacks and expand their rights but
Andrew Johnson vetoed  the Act. It was the first time  citizenship  was defined.  It was the first
time  in history Congress overrode the president’s  veto on a major piece  of legislation.
Southerners rendered  this act  useless  through loopholes in the text and by putting  Jim Crow
laws and poll taxes in place.
Force Act (KKK act):
Who: 
United  States  Congress
What: The third Enforcement  Act that  made  state  officials liable  in federal court for depriving
anyone of their civil rights or the equal protection  of the laws. It authorized  the president to
dispatch  officials to the south to supervise  elections  and prevent voting interference.
When: 1871
Where: United  States  Congress and the South
Why: It effectively  backed  up and reinforced  the 14
th amendment  in preventing  southern officials  from oppressing and depriving the newly  freed blacks of certain  rights. It helped break
up the Klan but it did not end it.
Andrew Johnson
Who: 
17
th President  of the United  States What: Abraham Lincoln’s  Vice  President prior to his assassination  and member  of the
Democratic  Party. He wanted  to leave the  “Constitution  as it is, and the Union as it was.”
When: 1865-1869
Where: United  States  of America
Why: Was the fist president to be impeached  by the House of Representatives  and was
acquitted  in the Senate  by one vote. It revealed  that  the federal government  was no longer a
threat  to civil liberties.  His action lead to the passing of the 14
th amendment,  civil rights act,  and freedmen’s  bureau extension Black  codes:
Who: 
Southern States
What: Rules passed  in the south to reduce  blacks to a condition as close  to slavery as possible as
well as provide farmers  with a supply of cheap  black labor. It prohibited the blacks from bearing
arms, serving on juries and intermarriage.
When: 1865-66
Where: The South
Why: It prevented  the newly freed blacks  from leaving  plantations  unless they could prove that
they could support themselves,  which most  could not. Later  removed  by the Civil Rights  Act of
1866. It prevented  freedmen  from moving up in the world.
Crop-lien system:
Who:
Southern white  farmers, plantation  owners and blacks;  mainly cotton  farmers
What: A system  of agricultural  production after the Civil War, where country merchants  would
give supplies to poor southern farmers  and blacks  who needed  credit  to buy seeds  and materials
to grow crops, in exchange  for lien. The merchants  often had monopolies therefore  they
dictated  the terms.  Bad weather  etc.  would put them  further into debt along with the falling
prices of cotton  instead  of put them  on their feet
When: 1860s-1930s
Where: The South
Why: In 1880 the south could no longer feed itself  since they  were producing cotton instead  of
food, which  led to debt peonage.  The merchants  controlled  what they grew  and they made
them  grow cotton,  so the  farmers could never  grow food for themselves.  It proved Henry
Grady’s idea of the New  South wrong since  the South was still primarily agricultural  based.  
Henry Grady,  “new south”:
Who:
Editor of the Atlanta Constitution
What: He envisioned  slavery and secession  as the  ‘old south’ and that the vision of the  ‘new
south’ would be a time of unionization and economic  modernization  and industrialization.
When: 1886
Where: Atlanta,  Georgia
Why: His speech  in NY helped kick-start  the  south into industrialization  by influencing
entrepreneurs  to build factories  and mill and connect  railroads due to the availability  of cheap
labor. His speech  talked  about race relations  and economic  growth. It helped justify the
changing  of focus from Freedmen’s  rights to economic  issues.
Cowboys:
Who:
Men who herded cattle  and other livestock  throughout the west
What: Were grunt laborers and the worst paid whose jobs didn’t last long and made up a small
percentage  of the West.
When: Late  1860s
Where: The West
Why: They are still a symbol today of independent,  nomadic,  figures who fought for justice  and
defended  the honor and virtue of women  out west,  but were  really just ordinary; even though
their lives were actually  more mundane  and the  addition of railways in the west  to transport
cattle  removed the need  for them.
Battle of Little Big Horn:
Who:
General  Custer and men  vs. Sioux Indians
What: A battle  where General  Custer rode his men in to battle  to try to for the Sioux off their
land by cutting  their resources,  but were ultimately  defeated  and massacred  by the Sioux
Indians. It was a Lakota  victory.
When: 1876
Where: Montana  Territory
Why: It demonstrated  the fact  that the Sioux might  be able to win a battle  but they could not
win a war, simply because  the American  army could outlast them  or starve them.
Exodusters:
Who:
Former slaves who migrated  from the  South to Kansas seeking  land and a better  way of
life.
What: Blacks  who pooled together  their resources  and bought land in Kansas to settle  and
produce on so they could leave  the south for a better  life. Kansas was attractive  to blacks due to
the anti-slavery  martyr John Brown.
When: 1879
Where: Migration from the South to Kansas
Why: Even though it ended up not being  the promise land they  hoped for due to poor land and
weather,  the idea of owning their own land and escaping  the  south was worth the hardships to
them.  By 1880, 10,000 blacks were  living in Kansas  after 25,000 came  initially the  year before
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific  Railroad:  pg.  500
Who:
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific  Railroad
What: Dealt  with taxation of railroad properties.
Where: U.S. Supreme  Court
When: 1886
Why: This was the first time that  the Supreme  Court ruled that  the 14
th amendment’s  equal protection  clause  granted constitutional  protection  to corporations (not only people) in some
instances  as well.  Ruled a corporation was considered  a “person” and gave corporations the
same  right of due process
Chinese Exclusion  Act: (Pg. 481)
Who:
The Chinese  immigrants
What: Act that was created  to bar entry to America  to the Chinese  and to prohibit those
Chinese  already in the country from becoming  naturalized  American citizens.  People thought
the Chinese  would increase  the already rich and crush the white  working class.  This act  did not
stop the anti-Chinese  assaults
When: 1882
Where: The United  States,  California
Why: one of the most significant  restrictions  on free immigration  in US History. California’s
economy  dropped and Americans  saw the Chinese  as scapegoats.  The Chinese  worked for such
little  pay that the  white men  couldn’t ask for higher wages.
Ethnic Enclaves
Who:
Immigrants
What: Large  cities  such as New  York, Boston,  Pittsburgh, and Chicago are areas where  large
populations of immigrants  would often  settle  in groups by country/ethnicity  of origin.
Where: New  York City and Port Cities.  These  were  areas where everyone  shared the same
homeland.
When: 20 th Century. Why: Showed  that assimilating  with the U.S. was  not a top priority for many immigrants since
many chose  to stay with families  or neighbors they knew from home.  Most immigrants  valued
aspects  of their cultural  and social heritage  and took pains to preserve cherished  traditions  and
beliefs,  leading for many immigrants  to be very unwilling to become  fully Americans.  More
importantly,  the ethnic  enclaves  provided a place to keep cultural traditions  and beliefs.  These
communities  also allowed  for immigrants  to retain the best of their cultural identities  within the
larger democratic  society.  Assimilation  was more complicated  than the melting  pot metaphor
suggested.  Majority of immigrants  did not view  their trip to America  as permanent,  especially
men.
Laissiez-faire
Who:
Adam Smith
What: means  “let  things alone” and gained popularity from Adam Smith’s  Wealth of Nations -
businesses  could control themselves  and not be run by the government  (businesses  were  no
longer restricted  by the US government  → businesses  would grow and flourish leading  to a
better  economy)
Where: Idea for American  Government,  Western Nations,  especially  UK and US
When: 1776 (Wealth of Nations)  19
th Century was when  businessmen  and their conservation allies on the  Supreme Court used Smith’s  doctrines  to argue against restrictive  government
regulation.
Why:  Concept  of an “invisible hand” guided by natural law,  which would guarantee  the greatest
economic  success  if the government  let individuals pursue their own self-interest  unhindered by
outside and artificial  influences.  It ideally gave  businesses  freedom  to expand as far as they
wanted  to i.e. Rockefeller  and horizontal integration.  
Standard Oil: pg. 499
Who:
John D. Rockefeller
What: Largest  Oil Company in the U.S. Its formation  is the result of Rockefeller  noticing the
pattern  of the boom and bust cycle  and decided  to take advantage  of the opportunity by buying
out businesses  when they are about to fail. Trusts were  created  to hide his wealth.  Standard Oil
was known in the business world to be an octopus  because  it was so large and took over so
many businesses.  Squeezed  out fellow  competitors  and led the way in exporting products to
European and Asian Markets.
Where: Ohio
When: 1870
Why: The success  of this company depended  upon horizontal integration  by bringing a number
of key oil refiners into an alliance  to control 4/5
th of the industry. As a result of this market dominance,  the Sherman Anti-Trust Act was  passed in 1890 to prevent consolidation  of the
marketplace  and to return to highly competitive  small enterprises.  This company  also pointed
towards the growing inequality  of wealth  and income  as the top 1% of Americans  owned  25% of
industries.
William  Graham Sumner: pg. 518
Who:
Political  Scientist  from Harvard
What:  Wrote A Defense  to Laissez-Faire  1883. Wrote: What Social Classes  Owe Each  Other in
1883. He believed  the chief  purpose of the  workingman was  to pay. Social Darwinism  meant
there was  no point in giving money to the poor because  it prevented  them  from developing  the
moral capacity  to do better  for themselves  and climb the capital  ladder of society.
Where: Born in New  Jersey
When: (1840-1910)
Why: Believed  that  millionaires  deserved  their wealth  and the poor deserved  their fate.  He
believed  that if the  government  tried to help these  unfortunate  losers in the competitive
struggle,  progress would be halted and civilization  would decay.  Two kinds of poor: Deserving
(widows and orphans) and Undeserving  (anyone who was  poor outright).  **He was a social
Darwinist who was redefining the American Dream by promoting that if you work hard you
can have what you want.
Gospel of Wealth
Who:
Andrew Carnegie
What: Famous  essay written  by Carnegie
Where: Pittsburgh
When: 1889
Why:  Men of wealth  had a duty to furnish some  assistance  to the poor, mainly through
philanthropy (building institutions  that  would raise educational  and cultural  standards) NOT
charity (direct  handouts). Believed  men  should contribute  by making  the community  better  and
providing opportunities  for the  less fortunate.  “Help those  who will help themselves”
Tom Watson pg. 547
Who:
Agrarian Radical
What: Lawyer  who gained  fame  as a racial progressor and sought black votes.  Joined the
People’s  Party in 1892. As a Populist, he did not support free silver.
Where: Georgia
When: 1896
Why: The populist vice  presidential  candidate,  who had assisted  embattled  black farmers  in his
home state  of Georgia, called  on citizens  of both races  to vote against  the crushing power of
corporations and railroads. However,  after  the 1896 election,  he embarked  on a viscous
campaign  to exclude  blacks from voting and also disfranchised  African Americans  while
maintaining  white  supremacy.  In doing so, he thought that poor whites  would have the courage
to vote against rich whites.  Tom Watson was and example  of the Populist Party switching  to
exclude  blacks because  this encouraged  more poor whites  to vote for the party
Interstate Commerce Commission: pg. 539
Who:
Congress
What: A commission  established  by the Interstate  Commerce  Act with  the intent to regulate
railroads. Big business  ultimately  managed  to render government  regulation  largely ineffective.
Where: All across the US
When: 1887
Why: Designed  to regulate  railroads however,  large railroad lines found it easier  to influence  the
ICC and in time,  railroad advocates  came  to dominate  the ICC and enforced  the law in favor of
the railway lines rather than the shippers. Just another example  of a failed attempt  for farmers
and gain for capitalists/railroad  owners.
Knights of Labor: pg. 532
Who:
Founded by Uriah Stephens.  This was a very large group of working class men and four
years later women  as well who saw  the relationship between  employer  and employee  as a
failure and not mutually beneficial.
What: Labor Union/National  Workers’ Organization.  This was a Christian Based  Union.
Where: Massachusetts
When: 1869
Why: First majorly influential large-scale  union. It won battles  for the workers before  being
succeeded  by the  more effective  AFL. Initiated  the most  extensive  campaign  after  the Civil War
to unite workers and challenge  the  power of corporate capitalists.  Initiated  wage  slavery. Labor
unions were  seen as the best vehicle  for communication  and negotiation  between  workers and
owners. The  K.O.L. did not begin to flourish until Terence  Powderly replaced  Stephens.  Powderly
advocated  for an 8-hour workday, abolition of child labor, and equal pay for women.  
Sub treasury Plan
Who:
Southern Farmers’  Alliance and Charles Macune
What: Was a sophisticated  plan to solve the farmers’  problem of mounting  debt. Federal
government  would locate  offices  near warehouses  in which farmers  could store nonperishable
commodities.  In return, farmers would receive  federal  loans for 80 percent  of the current
market  value of their produce.
Where: North Carolina was  a key state
When: 1889
Why: In theory, temporarily taking  crops off the  market would decrease  supply and assuming
demand  remained  stable,  lead to increased  prices. This plan was considered  the most realistic
solution to the problem of chronic farm debt.  Showed how there was an over production of
cash crops, so the prices  of cotton dropped.
Mary Elizabeth  Lease: pg. 541
Who:
Famous recruiter  for the Farmers’ Alliances.  Also endorsed by Populist Party. Often
evoked emotions  from her audience  and is famous  for her quote: “raise  less corn and more
hell.”  She also wrote,  “The Problem of Civilization  Solved”  in 1895.
What: Excited  farm audiences  with  her forceful and colorful rhetoric,  delivering 160 speeches
Where: Born in Pennsylvania
When: 1890 was the year she joined the  Populist party
Why: Urged farmers  and workers to unite  against capitalist  exploitation,  but she also agitated
for women’s  rights and voice  her determination  to place the mothers  of this nation on an
equality  with the fathers.  She wanted  to nationalize  railroad and telegraph  lines, increase
currency supply, and expand popular democracy.
Pullman Strike: pg. 535
Who:
American  Railway Union (headed  by Eugene  V. Debs)
What: Nationwide  strike against  the Pullman company  after George  Pullman slashed wages  and
did not lower rent.  Federal Government  broke up this strike;  not Pullman.
Where: Nationwide  (coordinated  strike activities  across the country from its headquarters  in
Chicago)
When: 1894
Why: The union wanted  to improve economic  conditions and gain recognition.  Disrupted
interstate  commerce  and mail traffic,  which led to government  intervention.  FORCED FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT  TO INTERVIEN.  Made government  consider unions and make  employers  listen to
the unions’ demands  and accommodate  them more.
General Federation of Women’s Club: pg. 506
Who:
Middle or Upper Class Women
What: Sports/Fraternal  Club. Became  big promoters  of social gospel and offered a way for
women  to get  education.  The middle  class joined a variety of social  and professional
organizations  that were  arising to deal with problems accompanying  Industrialization.
Where:
When:
1892
Why: Founded to improve women’s  educational  and cultural lives.  Dedicated  to improving the
community  through volunteer service.  Allowed women  to be more active  in the community  and
in the later years of the federation,  in politics.
Drake HIST 2112 Exam 1 Study Guide
background image Included  in this Study Guide: Important notes about the test 1. What's covered 2. Chapter/Triangle Highlights 3. Key Terms with definitions 4. Important Amendments Typed 5. Master lecture notes from all the lectures thus far 6.
7. Additional  detail on certain terms
Happy  Studying! Important notes about the test Sorry this is late, I'm not sure I'll continue  doing study soup, but a few  people have
emailed  me  asking for the  study guide and notes, so here's stuff I used for my own
personal studying (no guarantee  on its relevance  to the test  or correctness)
Need  a blue book for the test Documents  seem  to be very important  to know; be able to know them  in their context Major highlights from lecture  are also very important Ex. Know what  populists believe/who  they  are/etc.  but don’t have to know names Drake said he might  have us compare  quotes from different viewpoints Everything  relates  to a big issue
• If you have literally done nothing for this class,  I'd start by reading the master  lecture
notes down below (since  that’s  encompasses  things he emphasized  in class,  and all the
things I have before it on this study guide  are kind of complemental  to the actual  lecture
notes),  and then go through and read some  of the documents  he mentions.  In my
opinion, the importance  of the things in this guide would be:
Master  Lecture  Notes  > Read Documents  (not in guide) > Highlights > Key
Terms/Amendments/Add.Detail
Some advice  from my TA: I really do not know the exact  details  of what  Dr. Drake will do. He changes  things
up from semester  to semester.  So, please  consider the following as suggestions,
not actually  what will or will not be on the test.  Try to think about the following
questions,  and see  if you can answer them  in three  or four sentences:
—What was industrialism?  How was it a change  from what  Americans  lived with
before?
—Who benefitted  most from industrialism?  What arguments  did they give to
support it?
—Who hated industrialism?  Why did they  say it harmed the United  States?
—What was city life like? Who came  to live in the cities,  and how did this affect  the
nation's culture?
—Who were the Populists?  What were  they for, and what were they  against?
—What was Reconstruction?
—What happened to slaves freed after  the Civil War? Why did southern states
bring about Jim Crow?
The first four apply mostly to Triangle, but the others will probably relate  to the
test  in some way.  I would see if you can answer  these  questions,  but not simply
give the most basic  definitions.  What you want to do is expand on your answer
some—why  are these  questions important?  How did they  affect  our nation's
history?
1. So, what's covered? Ch. 14: Emancipation  and Reconstruction  1863-1877
The Union Restored  or Renewed?  Presidential  vs. Radical  Reconstruction
Reconstruction  and the  Fate of the Freedmen
Ch. 15: The West 1865-1896
Westward  Expansion and the Fate  of Native  America
Ch. 16: Industrial America  1877-1900
The Ingredients  of Industrialization
Eight Hours for What We Will: Unionization  and the Labor Movement
Farmer Brown Fights Back:  The Populist Revolt  against  Industrialism
Ch. 17: Workers and Farmers  in the age of Organization  1877-1900
Triangle  pp. 0 - 170
2. Chapter/Triangle Highlights 3. These  were taken  from the book, at the end of each chapter  where  the important  documents
start (so they  pertain mostly to the important  documents  in each  chapter  that Drake has
mentioned  10000 times).  If you don’t know the important  highlights from his lectures,  take  a
look at the master  notes below  (there's obviously some overlap,  but I didn’t have time  to
compile  them  together  like I had hoped to).
Chapter 14 Highlights Black codes  passed by white  southern leaders  aimed  to prevent  freed people from
improving their social and economic  status
Johnson didn't support them,  but didn’t overturn them.  He clashed  with  congress over
reconstruction  - vetoing renewal  of freedmen's  bureau and opposing ratification  of the
14th amendment.
1867 republican congress  passed  military construction  acts  which put the south under
military rule and forced whites  to extend  equal political  and civil rights to AA
1870 - ratification  of 15th amendment  extended  suffrage to black men.  Allied with
republicans,  blacks won election  to a variety  of public offices
Interracial  legislatures  improved conditions  for blacks  and whites,  funding for education,
hospitals,  and other services
Opponents tarred the interracial  legislatures  with claims  of fraud, corruption, wasteful
spending,  and "black rule" (14.8)
By mid 1870s, many white northerners sought reconciliation  rather than continued
conflict  while white  southerners created  vigilante  groups like the KKK to use violence  to
intimated  black and white  republicans  (14.7 and 14.9)
By 1877, attacks  on black political  access  crushed southern republicanism,  leaving AA
struggling to retain the freedoms  they had gained during reconstruction
How did blacks and whites view freedom? How essential  was it for the federal  government to supervise  the movement  from
slavery to freedom?
Why didn't southern whites accept  the extension of civil rights for blacks,  if only
in a limited  way?
How did views about reconstruction change over time? How much  did Reconstruction  Transform the South and the Nation? What were the greatest limitations of federal Reconstruction  policies  and the
greatest challenges  to implementing  them?
Chapter 15 Highlights Views  on relationship  between  whites  and American  Indians varied widely  in late 19th
century west
Some whites  wanted  to exterminate  the Indians Some wants  to assimilate  them (15.5 and 15.6) Whites who encountered  Indians were  the least  sympathetic  (15.7) Civilians in the Interior Department  favored peace People in war Department  used military force to resolve conflicts White reformers did not understand Indian culture  and developed  policies  that led to the
decline  of Indian tribal societies
Indian attitudes  ranged from fierce resistance  to accommodation  and rarely, assimilation
(15.9)
Indians who adapted to white  society  still held pride in their Indian traditions (15.8) How do white Americans  and their leaders  deal with differences  among people
rooted in race and nationality?
How do those considered  minorities  forge strategies to gain political  and
economic  access  while maintaining their own identity and heritage?
How well did the U.S.  government in the late 19th century balance its
commitment  to the competing values  of continental expansion  and equal justice
under the law?
Chapter 16 Highlights Laissez-Faire Individual opportunity was a central  American  value Late  19th century - big business and giant trusts came  to dominate  whole industries Owners and those  in control of big businesses  argues that  individual effort and initiative
were still the central  engine  of the American  economy
This is seen  In Adam Smith's idea of laissez-faire  (the marketplace  should be left to
regulate  itself  and government  should do nothing to constrain  the development  of
industry (16.5)
Poverty expanded and a small number industrialists  and financiers accumulated  great
wealth
Reformers  questioned  whether  individualism undermined  community  and believed  the
government  should regulate  the free market  to promote  the greater  public welfare  (16.6
& 16.8)
Big gap between  poor and rich Industrialists  realized  they should help the poor or they would rise up against  them
(16.7), but they still resisted government  interference
Defenders  of industrialism  argued that individualism  must be preserved as the natural
order of society
Critics believed  that  cooperation rather than individual competition  made  social progress
possible,  and that government  should protect  ordinary people from the harm done by
greedy capitalists
Big Question: What is the meaning of success?  (This differed depending on who you
were)
How does each author define success? How do these authors intend to promote success? What can be done to relieve  the plight of those who do not succeed? Chapter 17 Highlights Industrialism  exercises  massive  power over workers and the conditions  of labor Workers organized into unions to secure  higher wages,  shorter hours, improved safety,
and a fairer measure  of control of the  labor process
Corporate owners who were sympathetic  (George Pullman) to workers still assumed  the
right to manage  their businesses  (17.5)
Pullman constructed  a model  tow with clean housing and parks, but didn’t address
economic  complaints  after the depression  of 1893
The American  Railway  Union ARU launched  a nationwide  strike against  the Pullman
company  to imporve economic  conditions  and gain recognition  for the union; Pullman
didn’t negotiate
The union coordinated  strikes,  workers refused  to operate  trains with Pullman cars Railroads hired strike breakers  and Rickard Olney (attorney  general who had a stake in RR
industry) obtained  a federal  injunction ordering strikers back to work; this was
unsuccessful
President  Cleveland ordered federal troops into Chicago to enforce the injunction.  This
class  resulted in 13 deaths
After the arrest of union leaders,  the strike collapsed  and the supreme court upheld the
imprisonment  of leaders
Why have organizations been essential  to advancing the rights of individuals  in
an industrialized  society?
Why was organized labor not more successful  in gaining a larger share of power
from capital?
How did genders influence  labor conflict  and organizing? What role should the government  play in shaping the outcome of conflicts
between labor and capital?
Triangle  Information/Highlights: Don’t worry about names  or little  details Don’t need to know "union leaders"  names,  just know there is the Union and what they
view
Know the  viewpoint of the  owners of the factories,  and the conflict  of unions vs. factory
owners
Big Theme:  Industrialization  is a new thing and people  are fighting  over what to do People are fighting over what  to do Immigration  is a big theme The Fire is a symbol of the craziness  of industrialization Triangle  details typical  conditions for the  period (see lecture  5 notes) For those who haven't read it, chapters  1-5 basically  set  up what life is like for industrial
workers, and chapter  6 is the chapter  about the fire, which mainly  details how the
owners of the Triangle  factory neglected  to impose  safety standards  in the building
(because  it wasn’t  cost effective  or worth it to them,  and there were no regulations yet.
They also had an insanely high insurance  policy on it because  it was common  to commit
arson - when  there weren't  people working - and would get a lot of money from it) and
thus people died in horrible gruesome  ways like falling off and getting  crushed by ladders
that were  too small  to carry people,  jumping  off the building, not having enough exits,
not having a sprinkler system,  not having an alarm system  so certain  floors didn’t even
know about the  fire until it was too late etc.
• Look at the master  lecture  notes - Drake would connect  Triangle  to the  lecture  topics, so its probably more efficient  if you look at those if you haven't  read it • Also, I haven't found any summaries  of the book anywhere,  but you can easily  google the actual  event  and get a good idea of what  happened  and why its significant Key Terms and Definitions 4. Here are the "Key Terms"  and definitions  from each  chapter  from the book, I don’t actually
know if we need to know all of them  or their definitions  (Seems  like Drake wants  more of a big
picture deeper  understanding  of what's going on rather than memorizing  things),  but for
reference  here they  are:
Chapter 14 Proclamation  of Amnesty and Reconstruction  - December  1863, Lincoln signed this
agreement  that  southern states  had to: 1) accept  the abolition of slavery, 2)
Black  Codes - Racial  laws passed in the immediate  aftermath  of the Civil War by southern
legislatures.  The black codes  were intended  to reduce free African Americans  to a
condition as close to slavery as possible. (p. 457)
Fourteenth Amendment - Amendment  to the Constitution  defining citizenship  and
protecting  individual civil and political  rights from abridgment  by the states.  Adopted
during Reconstruction,  the Fourteenth  Amendment  overturned the  Dred Scott  decision.
(p. 463)
Tenure of Office Act -
Law  passed by Congress in 1867 to prevent President  Andrew Johnson from removing
cabinet  members  sympathetic  to the Republican  Party’s approach to congressional
Reconstruction  without  Senate  approval. Johnson was  impeached,  but not convicted,  for
violating the act.
Fifteenth Amendment -
Amendment  to the Constitution  prohibiting the abridgment  of a citizen’s  right to vote  on
the basis of “race,  color, or previous condition  of servitude.”  From the 1870s on, southern
states  devised  numerous strategies  for circumventing  the Fifteenth  Amendment.  (p. 463)
American Equal  Rights Association  -
Group of black and white women  and men formed in 1866 to promote gender and racial
equality.  The organization  split in 1869 over support for the Fifteenth  Amendment.  (p.
463)
Scalawags  - Derisive term for white  Southerners who supported Reconstruction. Carpetbaggers -
Derogatory term  for white  Northerners  who moved  to the South in the years following
the Civil War. Many white  Southerners  believed  that such migrants  were intent  on
exploiting their suffering.
Sharecropping  -
A system  that emerged  as the dominant  mode of agricultural production in the South in
the years after the Civil War. Under the sharecropping  system,  sharecroppers  received
tools and supplies from landowners in exchange  for a share of the eventual  harvest.
Exodusters -
Blacks  who migrated  from the South to Kansas in 1879 seeking  land and a better way of
life.
Redeemers -
White, conservative  Democrats  who challenged  and overthrew Republican  rule in the
South during Reconstruction.
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan  -
Organization formed in 1865 by General Nathan  Bedford Forrest to enforce  prewar racial
norms. Members  of the KKK used threats  and violence  to intimidate  blacks and white
Republicans.
Force Acts -
Three acts  passed  by the U.S. Congress in 1870 and 1871 in response to vigilante  attacks
on southern blacks.  The acts  were designed  to protect black  political rights and end
violence  by the Ku Klux Klan and similar organizations.
Compromise of 1877 -
Compromise  between  Republicans  and southern  Democrats  that resulted  in the election
of Rutherford B. Hayes.  Southern Democrats  agreed  to support Hayes in the  disputed
presidential  election  in
exchange  for his promise  to end Reconstruction. Freedman's Bureau - Federal  agency  created  in 1865 to provide ex-slaves  with economic
and legal  resources.  The freedmen's  bureau played and active  role in shaping black  life in
the postwar south.
Signed into law by Lincoln Aided former slaves  in obtaining land Made hundred of thousands of acres  available  to recently  emancipated  slaves Reunited  families  and marriages Established  schools Johnson didn’t like it Republicans  supported it: helped  southern blacks transition  to freedom White southerners and northern democrats:  "an expensive  social  welfare  program
that rewarded  idleness  in blacks"
Document  14.2 & 14.3 Established  in 1865, extended  after Johnson's veto in 1866, Blacks attended
schools in 1870
Chapter 15 Great Plains  -
Semiarid  territory in central  North America.
Transcontinental  railroad -
A railroad linking the  East and West Coasts of North America.  Completed  in 1869, the
transcontinental  railroad facilitated  the flow of migrants  and the development  of
economic  connections  between  the West  and the East.
Treaty of Fort Laramie -
1851 treaty  that sought to confine  tribes on the northern plains to designated  areas in an
attempt  to keep white  settlers  from encroaching  on their land. In 1868, the second  Treaty
of Fort Laramie  gave northern tribes control  over the “Great  Reservation”  in parts of
present-day  Montana,  Wyoming, North Dakota,  and South Dakota.
Treaty of Medicine Lodge -
1867 treaty  that provided reservation  lands for the Comanche,  Kiowa-Apache  and
Southern Arapaho to settle.  Despite  this agreement,  white  hunters soon invaded this
territory and decimated
the buffalo herd. Battle of the Little BigHorn  -
1876 battle  in the Montana  Territory in which Lieutenant  Colonel George  Armstrong
Custer and his troops were  massacred  by Lakota Sioux.
Buffalo  Soldiers -
African American cavalrymen  who fought in the West  against the  Indians in the 1870s
and 1880s and served with distinction.
Dawes Act -
1887 act  that ended federal  recognition of tribal sovereignty  and divided Indian land into
160-acre parcels to be distributed  to Indian heads  of household. The act  dramatically
reduced  the amount of Indian-controlled  land and undermined Indian social  and cultural
institutions.
Ghost Dance -
Religious  ritual performed by the Paiute Indians in the late  nineteenth  century.  Following
a vision he received  in 1888, the prophet Wovoka believed  that performing the Ghost
Dance  would cause  whites  to disappear and allow Indians to regain control of their lands.
Comstock Lode -
Massive  silver deposit discovered  in the Sierra Nevada  in the late 1850s.
Long Drive -
Cattle  drive from the grazing lands of Texas to rail depots in Kansas.  Once in Kansas,  the
cattle  were shipped eastward  to slaughterhouses  in Chicago.
Homestead Act -
1862 act  that established  procedures  for distributing 160-acre lots to western  settlers,  on
condition that  they develop and farm their land, as an incentive  for western  migration.
Mormons -
Religious  sect  that migrated  to Utah  to escape  religious persecution;  also known as the
Church of Jesus  Christ of Latter-Day  Saints.
Californions  -
Spanish and Mexican  residents  of California. Before  the nineteenth  century, Californios
made  up California’s economic  and political  elite.  Their position, however,  deteriorated
after the conclusion  of the Mexican-American  War in 1848.
Chinese Exclusion  Act -
1882 act  that banned Chinese immigration  into the United States  and prohibited those
Chinese  already in the country from becoming  naturalized  American citizens.
Chapter 16 New South -
Term popularized by newspaper  editor Henry Grady in the 1880s, a proponent of the
modernization  of the southern economy.  Grady believed  that industrial development
would lead to the emergence  of a “New  South.”
Convict lease-
The system  used by southern governments  to furnish mainly  African American  prison
labor to plantation owners  and industrialists  and to raise revenue for the states.  In
practice,  convict  labor replaced  slavery as the  means  of providing a forced labor supply.
Vertical integration -
The control of all elements  in a supply chain by a single  firm. For example,  Andrew
Carnegie,  a vertically  integrated  steel  producer, sought to own suppliers of all the raw
materials  used in steel  production.
Horizontal  integration -
The ownership of as many firms as possible  in a given industry by a single owner.  John D.
Rockefeller  pursued a strategy  of horizontal integration  when he bought up rival oil
refineries.
Corporation -
A form of business  ownership in which the liability of shareholders in a company is
limited  to their individual investments.  The formation of corporations  in the late
nineteenth  century greatly  stimulated  investment  in industry.
Trust -
Business  monopolies formed in the late  nineteenth  and early twentieth  centuries  through
mergers  and consolidation  that inhibited  competition
and controlled  the market. Sherman antitrust act -
1890 act  that outlawed  monopolies  that prevented  free competition  in interstate
commerce.
Laissez-faire  -
French for “let  things alone.”  Advocates  of laissez-faire  believed  that the marketplace
should be left to regulate  itself,  allowing individuals to pursue their own self-interest
without  any government  restraint  or interference.
"The Gospel of Wealth" -
1889 essay by Andrew Carnegie  in which he argued that the rich should act  as stewards
of the wealth  they earned,  using their surplus income  for the benefit  of the community.
Gilded Age -
Term coined  by Mark Twain  and Charles Dudley Warner to describe  the late  nineteenth
century.  The term referred to the opulent and often ostentatious  lifestyles  of the era’s
superrich.
Jim Crow -
Late-nineteenth-century  statutes  that  established  legally defined racial  segregation  in the
South. Jim Crow legislation  helped  ensure the social  and economic  inferiority of southern
blacks.
Plessy v. Ferguson -
1896 Supreme  Court ruling that upheld the legality  of Jim Crow legislation.  The Court
ruled that  as long as states  provided “equal  but separate”  facilities  for whites  and blacks,
Jim Crow laws did not violate  the equal protection  clause  of the Fourteenth  Amendment.
Billion  Dollar Congress -
The Republican-controlled  Congress of 1890 that  spent huge sums of money to promote
business and other interests.
Chapter 17
*sorry, ran out of time
Unskilled  Workers
Skilled Workers
Unions
Collective  bargaining
Noble Order of the Knights of Labor
Haymarket  Square
America  Federation  of Labor (AFL)
Homestead  Strike
Pullman Strike
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
Grangers
Interstate  Commerce  Commission  (ICC)
Farmers' Alliances
Subtreasury System
Populists
Depression  of 1893
Coxey's Army
Important Amendments typed 5. 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments: 13 - (Ratified  1865) Section  1: Neither  slavery not involuntary servitude,  except  as punishment  for
crime  whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,  shall exist within the
United  States,  or any place  subject  to their jurisdiction.
Section  2: Congress shall have power to enforce  this article  by appropriate
legislation.
14 - (Ratified  1868) Section  1: All persons born or naturalized  in the US, and subject  to the jurisdiction
thereof,  are citizens  of the US and of the State  wherein they reside.  No state  shall
make  or enforce  any law which  shall abridge  the privileges or immunities  of
citizens  of the  United States;  nor shall any state  deprive any person of life,  liberty,
or property, without  due process of law;  nor deny to any person within its
jurisdiction the equal  protection of the laws.
Section  2: Representatives  shall be appointed  among the several  states  according
to their respective  numbers,  counting the whole  number of persons in each state,
excluding Indians not taxed.  But when the  right to vote at any election  for the
choice  of electors  for president  and vice-president  of the united states,
representatives  in congress,  the executive  and judicial  officers of a state,  or the
members  of the legislatures  thereof,  is denied  to any of the male  inhabitants  of
such state,  being twenty-one  years of age  and citizens  of the united states,  or in
any way abridges,  except  for participation  in rebellion,  or other crime,  the basis of
representation  therein shall be reduced in the  proportion which  the number of
such male  citizens  shall bear to the whole number of male  citizens  twenty-one
years of age in such state.
Section  3: NO person shall be a senator or representative  in congress,  or elector  of
president  and vice-president,  or hold any office,  civil, or military, under the united
states,  or under any state  who, having previously taken an oath, as a member  of
congress,  or as an officer of the united states,  or as a member  of any state
legislature,  or as an executive  or judicial officer  of any state,  to support the
constitution  of the united states,  shall have engaged  in insurrection or rebellion
against  the same,  or given aid or comfort  to the enemies  thereof.  Congress may,
by a vote  of two-thirds of each  house, remove  such disability.
Section  4: The validity of the public debt  of the US, authorized  by law, including
debts incurred for payment  of pensions and bounties for services  in suppressing
insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned.  But neither the US nor any state
shall assume  or pay any debt or obligation  incurred in aid of insurrection or
rebellion against  the united states,  or any claim  for the loss or emancipation  of any
slave;  but all such debts, obligations,  and claims  shall be held illegal and void.
Section  5: The congress  shall have power to enforce,  by appropriate  legislation,  the
provisions of this article.
15 - (Ratified  1870) Section  1: The right of citizen  of the united  states  to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the united states  or by any state  on account  of race, color, or previous
condition of servitude.
Section  2: The congress  shall have power to enforce  this article  by appropriate
legislation.
Master Lecture Notes from the first day of class  to Thursday  1/26 6. Day 1: The Union  Restored or Renewed? Presidential vs. Radical  Reconstruction Reconstruction: Reuniting  a Nation Torn After the civil war, the U.S.  was a torn nation. The civil war may be the most
important  event in American History. 750,000 people  died in the civil war out of
only 30,000,000 people total.  No one really knew how to put the country back
together  after the North won.
How much "reconstruction?" Who will be in charge? How far will reconstruction
go? What about former slaves?
What does it mean  to reconstruct  - what changes,  political  adjustments,
fast/slow,  who's in charge,  and what  to do with former slaves?
§ James  Garfield 1865 " Have  we done it? Have we given freedom  to the black man? What is freedom?  Is it mere  negation?  Is it the bare privilege of not
being chained,  of not being bought and sold, branded and scourged? If this
is all, then freedom  is a bitter mockery,  a cruel delusion,  and it may well be
questioned  whether  slavery were not better."
§ What about civil rights for former slaves? § The civil war didn’t bring the freedom  that  was intended,  and failed  in a lot
ways
§ 1. I. A Snapshot  of America, 1865 30 million people  living in rural, small  towns, and small farms. Agriculture everywhere. People live & die in the same  area and don't travel Eventually  there  is rapid industrializing,  especially  in the Northeast War is over, people are still angry. The fate  of the south is unknown, will there be punishment? South just wants  a quick and simple reconstruction II. Presidential Reconstruction  - the "gentle approach" Abraham Lincoln was the leader  of the Northern effort against  confederacy Not super tough on confederacy,  wanted  a gentle  reconstruction  with not a lot of
changes.
Second Inaugural  address March 4 1865 "With malice  toward none, with charity
for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the  right, let  us strive on to
finish the  work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall
have borne the battle  and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which  may
achieve  and cherish a just and lasting peace  among ourselves and with all nations."
However,  Lincoln wasn’t  able to implement  his plans for reconstruction  because  he
was assassinated  in 1865 and Andrew Johnson took over.
White northerners were a lot of white  supremacists. Proclamation  of Amnesty and Reconstruction  (1863) How to get  confederates  back in the U.S? § Confederate  states  must agree  to three  terms: Accept  the 13th amendment  - abolishes slavery Rewrite  constitution  to say there is no slavery Renounce  succession 10% of voting population must sign a loyalty  oath to the U.S. Those 10% ended  up being white southern  men, not blacks - it was
those who were eligible  to vote in 1860
§ These  terms  were not too bad, but gave  no word about the fate  of freed
slaves
§ 1. Lincoln  the racial  moderate Racial  moderate,  not a civil rights advocate.  Didn’t believe  in full equality. § Pro civil rights is different  than anti-slavery. § The terms  of the proclamation  of amnesty  and reconstruction are a
reflection  of Lincoln's  moderate  views  on slavery - no discussion  about freed
slaves.
§ Then he was shot at the  theater. § 2. Andrew Johnson - Continuing  Lincoln's  "gentle approach" Possibly one of the worst presidents  ever. § Southern Democrat  - Lincoln chose  him to appeal to border-state  voters § Not friendly, southern, born in NC, raised in TN § Substituted  his own aims  for those  of the north, refused to engage  in
meaningful  compromise,  and misled  the south into believing that  he could
achieve  restoration  quickly.
§ Johnson  versus the radicals Not all southerners were  equally confederate.  People  who had more
slaves  had stronger loyalty to the confederacy.  These  were rich
plantation  owners in places  like Charleston,  Louisiana,  New  Orleans,
Savannah.
People in the mountains  where  there weren't  as many plantations
were suspicious  of the confederacy.
So, the  confederacy  faced  hesitation  and resistance  from southerners
in the mountains.
There was  a lots of mistrust  towards rich plantation  owners Johnson hated rich cotton  plantation  owners and thought  the
confederate  was only helping them.
Johnson wasn’t opposed to slavery, he just didn’t like that only the
rich could have slaves.  He thought all white  people should have
slaves
Saw emancipation  as a means  to "break down an odious and
dangerous aristocracy,"  not to empower  blacks.
He was one of the only southerners  to leave  the confederacy  and stay
loyal to the union
He was made  VP in 1864 by Lincoln Called the south treasonous Hated  black people more than southern rich people;  unconcerned
with the fate  of blacks in the postwar  south
Continued gentle  reconstruction Hated  abolitionists Drank a lot and alienated  a lot of people Wanted to bring the south back to the Union quickly, and thought the
end of slavery would doom the southern aristocracy  he hated  so
much
Moderate  republicans  believed:  blacks  were inferior to whites,  but
the federal  government  needed  to protect  newly  emancipated  slaves.
Without national legislation,  ex slaves  would be "tyrannized  over,
abused,  and virtually enslaved"  (Which is basically  what happened).
Expected  southern states  to extend  basic civil rights to the freedmen.
Radical  Republicans  believed:  Freedmen  deserved  voting rights for
African American men,  and advocated  for the redistribution of
southern plantation  lands to freed slaves.  Called out for the
government  to provide freed people  "a homestead  of forty acres of
land".
Republicans  overall failed to pass a comprehensible  land distribution
program
All republicans believed:  congress  should have a strong voice  in
determining  the  fate of the former confederate  states.  They were
ready to pounce on Johnson's plans. They  also expected  Johnson to
be harsh with his former political  foes, but Johnson relished having
control over them,  and granted almost  all of their requests  for
pardons.
A. 3. III. Radical  Reconstruction  - the "get tough" approach The north wasn't  happy with the gentle  approach  from Lincoln,  thought he was
being too slack  on the south.
Radical  republicans were  especially  not happy about Andrew Johnson and Lincoln's
weak  stance.
Radical  Republicans  started  out as northern anti-slavery  party and thought  winning
the civil war was only the beginning . Believed:
Black people  deserved  freedom and justice,  not necessarily  equality.  They
deserved  certain  rights. **
1. South has to be significantly  reconstructed  to avoid the confederacy  from
coming  back and reorganizing.
2. Black  Codes and Ex-Confederates- Black Codes Document  in chapter  14 § Laws  in the south aimed at black people  intended  to reduce  African
Americans  back to something  close to slavery.
§ Regulations  for blacks:  example  - its illegal  for blacks  to be unemployed,
travel without  a permit,  banned from testifying  in court, can't bear arms
§ Basically  slavery again, and black people  were forced back into cotton fields. § Black codes  were designed  to recreate  slavery § Radical  republicans were  not happy. § States  that  came  back to the  U.S. began electing  congress  people,  and rich
plantation  owners were elected  to represent  southern states.
§ North didn't like this, because  it recreates  some  of the same  problems and
allowed  the confederates  to rise again.  They saw postwar south the same  as
old south.
§ Republicans:  "I demand  to know of what  practical  value is the amendment
abolishing slavery?"
§ Stopping the south from rising again Radical  republicans thought  the reconstruction  needed  to make
significant  deep changes  in southern politics to prevent the south
from rising.
i. 1. Constitutional changes:  13th, 14th, and 15th amendments Radicals  brought the 13, and especially  the  14 & 15 amendments. § Read amendments 13 - abolished slavery 14 - gives citizenship  to former slaves.  Important  for the republican
party (so blacks would vote for republican ideas,  against  the southern
politicians).  Gave  the states  the option to exclude blacks  from voting
with the consequence  that they had less  congressional
representation  if they did so.
15 - black men gained the right to vote,  but states  control the voter
registration  process,  which lead to lots of voter suppression.
Johnson encouraged  the south to reject  the  14th amendment. Congress intended  to force former confederate  states  to protect  civil
rights of African Americans  and grant them  the right to vote.
§ The short-lived Era of Black  political  influence in the south Freed black slaves  voted for the republican party which prevented
the confederacy  from gaining power.
Radicals  made  it tougher for former confederate  states;  trying to
percent  the return of the confederacy.
Led to a short-lived period of black political  participation Pro-slavery confederates  were not happy with  black voter
participation
Meanwhile  radicals took over congress  and alienated  Andrew
Johnson, who was  a candidate  that  believed  in white  supremacy.
John Geary - running for governor of Pennsylvania.  White
supremacists  in the north didn't want Geary  - see anti-Geary  poster in
slides.  
i. 2. Freedmen's Bureau Radical  republicans set  up the Freedmen's  Bureau,  president Johnson would
veto, and congress  (run by radicals)  overrode the  veto.
§ Republicans  thought it helped black males  embrace  freedom. § White southerners and northern democrats  thought it was an expensive
social welfare  program that rewarded  idleness  in blacks
§ Look at Document  14.2 § Constant  battle  of president vs. congress § Radicals  wanted  to get  rid of Johnson § The Freedmen's  Bureau might have been morally defensible*,  but was
politically  indefensible  as it was unconstitutional  .
§ 3. Occupation 4. IV. Impeaching  Andrew Johnson Johnson thought southern states  followed  his plan and could resume their
representation  in congress
Republicans  did not agree Johnson vetoed the civil rights act passed  by congress Condemned  the freedmen's  bureau His vetoes  showed his racism  and beliefs  that slavery was  only evil because  it was
harmful to poor whites,  not slaves themselves.
Thought the bills he vetoed  discriminated  against  whites V. Tenure of Office Act (1867) The Tenure  of Office Act was specifically  against  Johnson. § Made it so firing someone  must  be approved or given permission  from
congress.
§ Prevented  Johnson from firing cabinet  officers  sympathetic  to congressional
reconstruction
§ Johnson wanted  to fire Edwin  Stanton, who was radical sympathizer  that
Lincoln appointed
§ Johnson fired Stanton,  so congress  impeached  Johnson, and Johnson went
to trial and was defeated  politically.
§ Johnson was the first president  to ever be impeached § Republicans  won back presidency  in 1868 with Ulysses  S. Grant. § Grant was previously a Democratic  governor of NY, also an ally of Radical
republicans.  Won with 53% of popular vote  and 73% of electoral  vote.
§ 1. "Redemption" - the white South regains power Ulysses  S. Grant was elected  after  Johnson Reconstruction  was a good idea in the eyes  of radicals and blacks, but was a failure
overall because  the North dropped the  ball.
Redemption  - white south regained  control Preventing the vote 15th amendment  allowed  the states  to regulated  voter registration,  and the
south wanted  to eliminate  black men  from voting, so used violence  and
intimidation  and the KKK was  born.
§ 15th amendment  prohibited voting discrimination  based on race,  but states
could still impose qualifications  on voters like literacy,  paying taxes, moral
character,  etc.  Loopholes for white  leaders  to disfranchise  African
Americans.
§ American  Equal rights association  formed immediately  after the war, but
members  divided over the 15th amendment.
§ KKK - founded to prevent black  men from voting.  Used violence  and murder. § There were  federal attempts  to stop the clan, like the Forced Act. § 1. "Reconstruction  Fatigue" in the North North lost interest  in preventing the  south confederacy. § Slavery became  segregation § Weakened  drive for reconstruction § Panic  of 1873 The economy  was bad, so people  who were  going bankrupt didn’t
care as much about slavery. Personal problems  trumped the fate  of
other people. Most  white people  took white  supremacy  as a given
everywhere,  and there was  less concern for black people.
i. Racism  and death of Radicals The leaders  of the radicals who believed  in equality  died, so there
was a lack of leadership and momentum
ii. Legal  setbacks Courts stacked  against iii. Growing labor strife and industrialism Explosion of industrialism  - people were distracted  by labor issues North abandoned freed slaves,  which led to segregation  and the
reinstating  of slavery
iv. 2. I. The Final  Act: the Compromise of 1877 Read about Last  Union troops removed from the south No federal presence  to enforce  laws, so slaves  were  on their own. II. Day 2: Fate of the Freedmen: Reconstruction and Enduring  Legacies  of Slavery The worldwide history of slavery Sharecropper vs. slaves - important economic  arrangement What is the fate  of freed slaves? U.S. was  the second to last country to abolish slavery. 3 countries of slavery in new world? Unique characteristics  of Euro-American  Slavery Euro-American  slavery was different  than other country's versions Culturally specific/different  motivations Money, race, and descent Money Slaves were  viewed  as money  makers/an  economic  tool for money.
Other countries weren't  like that.
Native  Americans  used to steal  people  from other tribes when
someone  died, so slavery was  not economic,  but rather filling a
spiritual void
American  slavery had four motivations  unique to the U.S. Capitalist  sub orientation 1. Slaves were  property - literally  could be bought and sold under
law
2. Inherited  and permanent  - born and died a slave,  usually
through mothers  line
3. Racial 4. Laws  made it illegal to free slaves because  it was dangerous to the
system.
Which came  first - racism  or slavery? Eventually,  to be black meant  you were a slave in the U.S. In other places,  to be a slave meant  you were  captured,  not
necessarily  race  based or about who you were  as a person, but about
the circumstance  you were  in.
Slavery was European invented,  but American  adopted Orlando equanando - book of a slave Slaves were  captured  and traded to Europeans through trade
networks.  Europeans didn’t directly  gather slaves,  they used goods to
trade for them.
Slave ships segregated  men/women/boys  and separated  them  by
language  so they didn’t organize.
75% of slaves  went to the Caribbean or brazil - Brazilian  culture still
heavily influenced  by slavery.
25% of slaves  went the U.S. 1600/1700s - slaves  grew sugar for the European  market  on the
coasts  of brazil and the Caribbean - Barbados was huge with  10's of
thousands of slaves.
Europeans first tried to enslave  natives,  but the natives  fought back
and lots died fro European diseases,  which  led to African slavery.
Canary islands - Portuguese grow sugar and slottered  natives Major Caribbean islands were sugar slave islands "sugar made  from blood" - average  life of sugar slaves  = 3 years You cant grow sugar with frost; 15 month growing period; after
harvesting,  cut and carry very quickly to grinder
Lots of money  gets made  through sugar farming i. A. 1. I. Slavery and the south Early on the south had a labor problem because  they had a lot of land with no workers.
Slavery came  because  the U.S. tapped  into a system  that already  existed.
First grew indigo and tobacco,  cotton  came  later Slavery as a source of economic/political  power The "planter elite" South was wealthiest  part of America for a long time § 1860 - most valuable  things were slaves  and cotton § Generally,  most  people had less than 20 slaves but wanted  to be part of the
top 4% owners with many slaves.
§ Top 4% were powerful and set the tone for culture  and politics;  they ran the
region and country.
§ Gone with the wind - problematic  but shows the self-indulgent  nature of
southerners
§ You can believe  in white supremacy  and not be pro slavery § Northern criticism  of slavery: Economic.  Thought there  were better  ways to
make  money than slavery. Slavery made  white  people lazy and made  a
dishonest  labor system.  Didn’t think it was  race drive.
§ A. 1. Slavery and poor whites - the "social  floor" Most white  people didn't own slaves,  why would they  support the system
and they  couldn’t afford slaves.
§ Many didn't fight for the confederacy. § West Virginia succeeded  from confederacy  and joined union § Slavery still gave benefits,  you wanted  to have slaves  and be part of the
elite,  so people  took jobs related  to the slave  system  like lawyers.
§ Social floor argument: slavery was racially based,  so being white  guaranteed
that you were  not the bottom  of society.  Even the poorest white  person was
still above an educated  black person. So if you're a white  person at the
bottom,   your white skin is the only similarity  you have to the rich white
people,  which gave you a sense of pride.
§ 2. After the war: recreating the slave system without slavery After the war, white people  want their status  back and don’t want to be the
bottom,  so they wanted  to recreate  the system.
§ 3. II. The end of slavery and the beginning  of freedom - now what? After the way, freedom  was powerful and scary for freedmen No violence  at first Searching  for family First thing freedmen  did was look for family 1. Schools  and education Young and old wanted  to be educated Freedmen's  Bureau: main goal was to give  education  to freedmen  so they could
vote and get included in politics
2. Establishing  churches Center of African American  culture in this era Studied the bible without  owners' interpretation  for the first time New  interpretation  of Christianity Tow major churches:  African Methodist  episcopal  (AME) and African Baptist Run by and for African American  center  for culture and organization Politics 3. Entering politics Before the north lost interest  in the  civil rights movement  and the KKK was
formed, blacks  entered  politics
Document:  force act  - tried to stop clan Blacks  voted and ran for congress An effort to try and take advantage  of their citizenship 4. III. The problem of making a living  - the rise of sharecropping How can freedmen  make  a living? 1865 - everyone  wanted  farms because  land = wealth  = power = independent The Freedmen's dream: independent "yeoman" farming "Nothing  but freedom"  - no longer slaves,  but no land Independent  farmers who owned - Yeomen  farmer § Document   - petition to give freed slaves  land § Plantation  owners still owned the land § Rumor that plantations  would be given to slave families,  but didn’t happen § Freedmen  felt  the land was theirs because  they worked on it § A. Resistance  to Black  codes and the old Plantation Black codes:  laws  about freedmen.  Ex. Had to have a job and couldn’t  move
around
§ B. How to make a living? C. 1. White plantation owners - need cheap labor,  how to get it? Blacks  refused to work for landowners Landowners  had incentive  to negotiate  with  slaves so they  could make  money,  but
the whites  still got better deal
2. Solution - the sharecropping  system Landowners  and slaves  negotiate  to split profits of harvests To slaves, this was better  than getting  nothing like before Look at sharecropper contract  in book Benefits both parties (but whites get a better end of the deal) A. Freedmen supply labor,  white owners supply equipment, tools - all profits split
50/50 (in theory)
B. The problem of "Debt Peonage" and the sharecropping  trap Unraveling  - landowners wanted  to collect  payment  of whatever  they gave
slaves  originally, and they charged  a lot for the  stuff they  gave.
§ They could buy things from the "company  store" but owners hiked the
prices,  and this money will go back to the owner
§ If there  was no crop, the slaves were  in debt to the landowner § Slaves would get in debt  so far that they  could never get  out - Debt  peonage § Laws  were written  so blacks  couldn’t get  out § Not exactly  slavery, but not freedom § This was the dominant  economic  system  after war which  was very
productive for the south
§ White people get  pulled into this debt too § Book "Let  us now praise famous men" § Before,  whites had their skin, now they don’t § Tractors  in the 1930s put sharecroppers  out of business § C. 3. IV. Day 3: Westward Expansion  and the fate of Native America. Ch. 15 Triangle: Don’t worry about names  or little  details Don’t need to know "union leaders"  names,  just know there is the Union and what they
view
Know the  viewpoint of the  owners of the factories View  of union vs. Factory owners Fire is a symbol of the craziness  of industrialization Pros & Cons Industrialization  is a new thing People are fighting over what  to do Immigration  is a big theme Documents in Textbook: Know them  in context Sharecropping contract  - example  of the attempt  to recreate  slavery; hybrid-like slavery Documents  on test  look at big issues in context Noted  that Dr. Drake likes maps and graphs Heading  West - why? Context:
What motivated  people  to live in the middle  of America?
By the 1860s & 1870s most native  Americans  have been eliminated,  but not in the west What to do with natives? Idea of "who's  a real American?",  "How to make  whoever is not an American,  an
American?",  "What to do with natives?"
Railroads were a very important  event  in American  history In 1880s - civilization  was moving west Lots of debate  over land rights/treaty  rights Technically,  people  have been spreading West  since Europeans  first landed in the new
world, but what was  considered to be "West"  changed  over time.  At some  point, Georgia
was "the  west",  then in 1817 Michigan  was considered  "the  West",  etc.
Why did people move  west?  "For freedom"  is not necessarily  correct  because  its a vague
idea. People  move for specific  pragmatic  reasons, they wanted  cheap  land in hopes of
becoming  wealthy
The "American  dream"  in 1870s was owning a farm and being a yeoman  farmer, which
made  you as independent  as possible
Government  wanted  to give away free land In 1800s government  gave away  land via the center  of American  citizenship Government  viewed  farmers  as ideal citizens Northerners  liked small  farms, but not big plantations.  They thought slavery was  bad for
small farmers  - Free soil ideology.
Government  wanted  to give free land, but this was blocked  by southern politics After the succession,  government  gave away  more land I. Cheap Land - Homestead Act of 1862 Act where the government  gave away land in the west  for an extremely  small fee Caused the "squareness"  of everything  out west Everything  out west  is square shaped,  counties,  parts of counties,  townships,  etc.
are all squares within squares
Townships  - subdivision of a county. Found in the north and west  commonly,  but
not in south.
Government  did this on land where natives  had been removed,  and there  was no
ownership in place,  so the  government  took ownership and gave  it away
Fundamental  unit of homestead  act  was corner sections Government  land office:  GLO - sold sections  of land for extremely  cheap,  just a
small filing fee.  They gave out millions of acres in the mid-west  like this
Possibly the  most important  legislation  in Midwest  land legislation 1. Business  Opportunities People also went  out west  to sell supplies  to settlers,  not necessarily  to get  land There was  a large real estate  market,  which was technically  supposed to be illegal,
where people  would buy land and resell  it for a profit using many different  names
This was called  Land speculation People flipped land, in ways that were  kosher and not so kosher The rise of the "corporate West" The west  soon became  a center  for business  corporations § Railroads were the  first entity  to be similar to modern corporations § Cattle  was also a business  market,  and cattle  corporations became  the first
powerful corporations in the U.S.
§ Cowboys were employed  under cattle  corporations  (picture of the
stockyards  in the PowerPoint) and were  sent out to gather  cattle  and bring
them  back to brand them  for the company  they worked for
§ Chicago became  the  meatpacking  center  of the planet  at one point in time.
"porkopolis"
§ The rise of businesses  created  conflicts  between  owners and workers,
known as the labor strife
§ There was  unprecedented  wealth  in the U.S.  so how does the  role of
democracy  fit into this?
§ There were  many different opinions between  owners and workers § A. 2. *Side tangent  that Drake said probably wouldn’t be tested  over: Johnson county range war - people  in Wyoming under "stockman's  associations"
employed  cowboys
In 1892 there  was an economic  downturn and many cowboys  were laid off They decided  to go into business  for themselves,  searching for unbranded cattle Heard owners felt like this was theft  and didn’t like having new competitors So, the  owners of cattle  corporations got a list of their former employees  and hired
assassins  to kill them (picture  of hitmen  in PowerPoint)
The cowboys  started fighting  back and there  were gun battles Basically,  this is an example  of the important  conflict  between  workers and
corporation/business  owners
Manifest  Destiny The belief  that America  was "fated"  to dominate  the continent,  which is where  the
phrase "sea to shining sea" came  from (manifest   identity)
Idea that  America was  under a larger divine plan Technology  will help manifest  destiny Painting in the PowerPoint of a woman  leading America  westward 1. Conquering Nature Dr. Drake specifically  skipped this idea during class § A. Opportunities for Freedom Slaves took advantage  of the westward  expansion and also went out west  to get
land, to become  more independent  and therefore,  actually  embrace  freedom
1. The Fate of the Natives - Death, Disappearance,  or reform Americans  took the native's land The mentality  of most Americans  was not "if" we got their land, it was "when  and how"
we get  the natives land
There were  two main ideas of when  and how to get  the land" Eradication  of
philosophy/school  and the idea of Assimilation
The "eradication"  school The idea that  Americans had about the natives  to "kill them  all, take their land, and
let God deal with the rest"
"The only good Indian is a dead Indian"  - General  Phillip Sheridan Sand Creek Massacre  (1864), Fetterman Massacre  (1866), A. "Kill and scalp them  all, big & little" There were  some augments  over whether  this actually  was a "massacre"  or not -
maybe  because  many Americans  didn’t consider natives  as Americans/people?
Little Big Horn (1876) B. Union army was sent  out west  to fight the natives Phillip Sheridan Eradacists People were  terrified - not all American's  agreed  with the eradication  philosophy 1. The "Assimilationist"  school Important  document  Drake mentioned:  Helen  hunt Jackson document  in chapter
15
Drake also mentioned  all the assimilation  documents  are important to know Assimilation  is the idea that  natives are noble people and shouldn’t be massacred People thought that  the culture of natives  would disappear anyways,  so Americans
to take them  and teach  them  how to be Americans
"assimilate"  them  to be Americans This is a cultural  genocide,  but at the time  people thought the idea  of assimilation
was a very progressive idea