Taylor Stein Lectures 1. Forest a. A community of trees, shrubs, herbs, and associated plants and organisms that covers a considerable area i. Project learning Tree, Focus on Forests b. An ecosystem characterized by a more of less dense and extensive tree cover, often consisting of stands varying in characteristics such as species composition, stWe also discuss several other topics like What is the external genital organs of the female mammal?
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ructure, age class, and associated process, and commonly including meadows, streams, fish, and wildlife i. The Dictionary of Forestry 2. Ecosystem a. A spatially explicit, relatively homogenous unit of the earth that includes all interacting organisms and components of the abiotic environment within its boundaries. i. The Dictionary of Forestry 3. Forestry a. The profession embracing the science, art, and practice of creating, managing, using, and conserving forests and associated resources for human benefit and in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs, and values. i. The Dictionary of Forestry 4. So why care about people? a. Remember the definition “…meet desired goals, needs and values.” b. If we don’t place values on things, they tend to disappear 5. Prometheus a. Bristlecone Pine – Pinus longaeva b. The oldest organism in the world c. When cut down, it was roughly 5000 years old 6. Forests of the World: Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits a. Objectives i. Importance of Forests 1. Economic benefits 2. Social benefits 3. Environmental benefits ii. Forests of the World 1. Past global trends 2. State of the forests 3. Types of Forests iii. Forests of Florida b. Importance and Benefits from Forests i. Economic Values 1. Timber 2. Non-Timber products a. Medicinal plantsb. Palm Oil c. Fruits d. Tree Sap and Syrup e. Turpentine f. Pine Straw i. Pine Needles 3. Tourism ii. Social Values 1. Enjoyment of the forest 2. Recreational 3. Makes people healthy a. Provides an opportunity for fresh air and exercise 4. Domestic Uses a. Firewood i. The number one use of forests in the world iii. Ecological Values 1. Climate mitigation 2. H2O and Soil amelioration 3. Habitats and Biodiversity c. Food and Agricultural Organizations (FAO): United Nations i. Population and demographics ii. Agricultural production and distribution iii. Hunger and poverty iv. Natural resources v. Put out works 1. Global forests resources assessments 2. State of the world’s Forests d. Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 i. Requires the US forest service to perform and report periodic inventories of the nations forests e. Global Demand for Wood i. Consumption is Growing ii. Up to 1.6% annually 1. Up 60% by 2030 iii. 50/50 for domestic/industrial wood 1. 80% of consumption is for industrial purposes in developed countries 2. 80% of consumption for domestic use in developing countries iv. both uses will continue to be important v. roughly 10,000 products made from wood f. Global Demand and Supply of Wood i. Worlds population is growing ii. Worlds demand for wood is growingiii. Worlds area of forests to meet demand is shrinking iv. Forest to People ratio 1. 1960: 1.2 ha per capita a. 3 acres per person 2. 2010: 0.6 Ha per capita a. 1.5 acres per person g. Other “Wood” Products i. Paper, Cartons ii. Furniture iii. Poles iv. Charcoal v. Bark Mulch vi. Sausage Casing 1. Cellulose vii. Fluff Pulp 1. Diapers viii. Toothpaste, Shampoo, Pills ix. Filters x. LCDs, Cell phones, tool handles, plastics, paint, printing ink h. Non-wood Forest Products i. 150 products traded globally ii. Edibles 1. food, drink, flavors, spices iii. Medicines and herbs iv. Chemicals 1. Dyes, turpentine, latex v. Crafts 1. fodder, decorative, baskets, other i. Non-Market Values: Ecosystem Services i. Forests have always provided Ecosystem services 1. Watershed services: 60-80% of the worlds fresh water 2. Climate services: 40% of the terrestrial carbon stock 3. Biodiversity: 60-80% of all terrestrial species 4. Ecotourism: 10% of the world’s tourism ii. Can “Non-market values” become monetized 1. Paying for clean water 2. Carbon markets (Kyoto) 3. Paying for biodiversity (Copenhagen) 4. Paying to learn about forest ecosystems j. Local People: 350 million live in Forests i. Home, livelihood, medicines, construction, fodder, etc k. State of the World’s Forests i. 4 billion ha of Forests 1. 10 billion acres ii. 30% of global land areal. State of the Worlds Forests i. Forests grow where climates and soils permit ii. Current distribution also reflects historical deforestation associated with colonization 1. Now 50% of original area iii. Boreal = 33% iv. Temperate = 11% v. Subtropical = 9% vi. Tropical = 47% vii. Species Richness 1. Up north a. Low species richness b. Tons of firs and pines 2. South a. High species Richness b. Tons of types and tons of things viii. Global Deforestation and Degradations 1. Deforestation a. 30-50% loss of total forest area in the last 8,000 years b. last 50 years i. 1.2 ha/person in 1960 ii. 0.6 ha/person in 2005 c. current annual net deforestation i. 16 million ha (40 million acres) ii. 1.3 times area of Florida d. Roads lead to access i. Everything around roads slowly disappears for development e. Slash and Burn 2. Clear-cutting a. Cutting down all the trees in an area, then replanting trees b. Actually a way to regrow forests c. Silvicultural technique d. In FL it takes roughly 20 years to grow a tree to cut it down again i. In the pacific north west, it can take double that time 3. Degradation a. High grading of valuable timber b. Unsustainable harvest levels c. Poor practices leading to soil erosion, loss of wildlife habitat, etc 4. We have more trees in the US now than 100 years ago 5. Deforestation in TRF could mean extinction of 100 species a day ix. Native or Natural Forests 1. 90% of the worlds forest a. undisturbed or second growth b. managed or unmanaged 2. 12% of the world’s forests are in reserves a. parks, national forests, wilderness areas, conservation reserves b. national forests allow cutting, but it will ALWAYS be a forest and grow back c. Wilderness areas are the most protected areas in the country i. No motorized vehicles x. Planted Forests or Plantations 1. Reforestation and afforestation a. Regrowing forests b. Plant melaluca trees can soak up chemicals in mine fields 2. 5% of the worlds forest area 3. supply 50% of industrial wood 4. grow faster than native forests 5. Sequester same C as deforestation 6. Have less biodiversity 7. half the plantations are for fuel wood 8. Reforestation a. Planting trees in areas that have been cut down 9. Afforestation a. Planting trees in an area that was absolutely demolished 10. Area of plantations is increasing 1%/year xi. Other types of Forests 1. Urban forests a. Hard to manage 2. Agroforests a. Hard to do 3. Forested Wetlands a. Water quality improved b. Take a while to grow xii. Forested area by different type 1. 50% are modified natural forest 7. Forests in Florida a. By far the most important land use i. Half of FL land area is forested ii. Mostly in north Floridaiii. Pastures are a distant second 1. 17% b. number one Florida industry i. 16 billion $$ industry c. $8 billion year for hunting, fishing and wildlife viewing d. $1.8 bil year in recreation and ecotourism e. pine straw, palmetto, siliopastrues f. increasing demand for all goods and services i. population 16 mil 1. fasted growing state of MS river 2. 28 new people per hour 3. 92% live in urban areas a. mostly in soflo ii. increasing demands for water g. Decreasing forest land area i. Losing 40,000 acres per year 1. Mostly to urbanization 2. 1960: 4 acre per person 3. 2000: 1 acre per person h. Urbanization i. Increasing fragmentation or rural forests ii. Increasing WUI iii. Impacting wildlife and bird populations iv. Increasing role of fire 1. Some plants seeds will not open until burned v. Impacts of rural development vi. Increasing role of urban forests 1. Microclimate amelioration 2. Storm water runoff 3. Recreation 4. Aesthetics i. Production and protection i. Production forestry 1. Meet demands from fewer acres 2. Increase production efficiency of plantations 3. Sustainable manner ii. Conservation programs 1. State buying 2 million acres 2. FL already owns more forest land than any other state j. THE WORLD NEEDS ALL TYPES OF FORESTS 8. US Forest Cover a. Major landowners i. Public (most famous) 1. US Forest Servicea. Originally created for a sustainable yield of timber b. Water quality c. Recreation d. Now mostly recreation 2. National park service a. Goals i. To educate 1. One of the best environmental education agencies in the world ii. Recreation and tourism 1. Mostly recreation iii. Protection ii. Private 1. Industrial timber companies a. Usually only care about making money b. Will protect biodiversity and things when it makes economic sense 2. Families b. What are their i. Values? ii. Needs? iii. Goals? 9. Forest Facts a. About 747 million acres of forest in US i. A little less than one third of the US b. Why are there less trees on the west coast? i. Lots of extremes 1. Lots of high mountains 2. Lots of deserts c. 384 million acres of forest in the eastern US i. 74% broadleaf d. 363 million acres of forest in the western US i. 78% coniferous e. more than 2.5 million jobs 10. Economic Impact in Florida a. Annual output or sales impacts in the forest products industry 11. Environmental Values a. What do people want from the environment? b. What people need i. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs 1. Nature fits into all of them ii. Sometimes economics and importance don’t go together 1. Everyone needs water, but we pay very little for it c. So why care about people?i. Remember the definition, “meet desired needs, values, and goals” d. 9 values i. utilitarian 1. material benefit a. including $$$$ b. medical and agricultural c. ecotourism ii. naturalistic 1. satisfaction people get from being outdoors and in the environment 2. exploring and discovering a. birding b. fishing c. wildlife observing d. hunting 3. stress relief 4. physical fitness 5. separation from technology 6. socialize 7. to spark creativity iii. Ecologistic-scientific 1. DISCOVERY 2. Learning for the sake of learning 3. Innately scientific 4. Reductionistitc 5. Very disciplinary iv. Aesthetic 1. Visually pleasing 2. Brings about strong emotions 3. Puts importance and values on certain landscapes 4. Really only relies on one sense 5. The Grand Canyon, Payne’s prairie, Mt Fuji v. Symbolic 1. Using nature as a metaphor a. Represents things 2. Children’s books do it 3. Cultural symbolism 4. Language 5. Olive branch for peace, roses for love, state animals, mascots vi. Dominionistic 1. Taking control of nature, owning it and controlling how it works 2. Hunting, circus, rock climbing, naked and afraid 3. Manifest destiny vii. Humanistic 1. Bonding and emotional attachment as opposed to dominating 2. Caregiving viii. Moralistic 1. Ecoresponibility 2. Every life matters 3. In the grand scheme of things everything is important 4. The right and wrong treatment of the natural world 5. Disney makes protagonists look more human ix. Negativistic 1. Nature can evoke threatening and negative reactions 2. People are afraid 12. Rodman Reservoir and the Ocklawaha River (we are anti) a. The players? i. Fisherman like the dam ii. Manatees don’t iii. Environmentalist want this dam gone b. The Controversy? i. Flooded an existing forest ii. Lots of dead trees c. The Values? d. We got the dam, but Nixon squashed the barge 13. Values in Practice a. Values manifest in two big ways i. What people try to get out of the environment ii. What managers try to do with it iii. These two should work together, but it doesn’t always happen b. Many decision-makers i. Managers must make the decisions for each tree and what it will be used for to reflect the peoples’ decision ii. People can elect representatives to get what they want to happen 1. Rangers work for the president a. Executive branch is in charge of enforcing the laws that are made 2. The forest service is under the department of agriculture a. Back when the US Forest Service was created forests were a crop iii. Most decisions are based off money iv. Examples 1. National environmental policy acta. Forced the federal government to listen to the grassroots people 2. EPA 3. Endangered Species Act a. One that has affected foresters in Florida is the red cockaded woodpecker c. US Public lands i. Bureau of Land Management 1. Basically Nevada 2. Land the federal govt didn’t know what to do with it 3. Came from land from manifest destiny 4. Went from no one wanted them to people loving them a. Beautiful b. Has coal and oil c. Good grazing land 5. 267 million Acres ii. US Forest Service 1. 191 Million acres iii. Fish and Wildlife Service 1. National wildlife refuges 2. First national wildlife refuge a. Pelican Island 3. 90 Million acres a. lots of land because a lot of it is in Alaska iv. National Park Service 1. 83 Million acres 2. most people know 3. a lot up north in Alaska 4. In Florida a. Everglades b. Big Cyprus National Preserve c. Tortuga d. Biscayne 5. Also manage monuments, national seashores, historical sites, and battlefields v. US Army Corps of Engineers 1. 12 million acres 2. they build stuff a. not just for the army 3. build and manage levies and dams and reservoirs a. all the land around Okeechobee vi. Others 1. 7 million acres 2. examples a. Native American Reservationsb. Department of Defense Army Bases d. Florida Public Agencies i. National Park service 1. 1.7 mil acres ii. US forest service 1. 1.2 Million acres iii. Water management districts 1. 1.7 mil acres iv. Florida Fish and Wildlife 1. 1.4 mil v. Florida division of Forestry vi. Department of defense vii. US fish and wildlife viii. Florida division of rec and parks ix. 27.3% of Florida is conserved lands 14. Environmental Agencies and Their Values a. Why do they do what they do? i. Mission Statements 1. A summary description of an entity’s purpose 15. Where do we go from here? a. Human Dimensions i. How and why humans value natural resources ii. How humans want resources managed iii. How humans affect or are affected by natural resources management decisions iv. Strive to understand human traits and how to incorporate that understanding into management planning and actions b. Human dimensions’ components i. Driving forces 1. Examples a. Social b. Spiritual c. Cultural d. Economic e. Political f. Legal 2. Affect decision-making by a. Individuals b. Corporations c. Public agencies d. Governments ii. Human behavior 1. Economic development a. Forestry, agricultural, tourism, residential, commercial2. Urbanization a. Land subdivision, zoning, infrastructure 3. Recreation a. Hiking, hunting, bird watching, fishing 4. Stewardship a. Restoration, resource management, educational, recycling iii. Effect of change 1. Environmental a. Loss/fragmentation of habitats b. Climate c. Restoration d. Improved forest productivity 2. Economic a. Community economic viability b. Increase, decrease, or changing jobs 3. Social a. Community relations b. Access to resources c. security iv. Management Strategies 1. Influencing the driving forces, altering human behavior, altering the effects of change 2. Direct a. Regulation and enforcement 3. Indirect a. Incentive programs i. Give people money to leave land alone rather than farm it b. Education and outreach 4. Both forms require strong collaboration with stakeholders c. Forests of the Future i. Environmental sociology 1. Human behavior that effects how people make decisions ii. Forest Health iii. Forest Economics 1. More about measuring and understanding how we value things in nature 2. Economists have to argue the value of native and endangered species a. Even when it loses the forest industry millions iv. Forest Management 1. With fire 2. Through cutting and timber3. And working with people in forests