wvu bio 117 exam 1
If you want to learn more check out geal suffix
We also discuss several other topics like semivocales
If you want to learn more check out hdfs 129 penn state
We also discuss several other topics like roman empire study guide
Don't forget about the age old question of How is state seen as primary unit when there are many actors on the stage?
Tuesday, January 31, 2017 Microbiology study guide Exam 1 - Spontaneous Generation: • Life can arise spontaneously from nonliving matter • vital forces in nonliving matter can lead to a new life • living cells can arise from nonliving matter under favorable conditions - Biogenesis • Life can arise as a result of microorganisms present in nonliving matter • Living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells • Microorganisms present in nonliving matter can lead to a new microorganism - Conclusions that can be drawn from Pasteur’s experiment involving the flasks with S shaped necks • Microoganisms can be present in nonliving matter such as air, liquids and solids • Pasteur’s observations support the theory of biogenesis • Microbes can be blocked from accessing favorable growth environments • Microbial life can be destroyed by heat - Aseptic technique • using a Bunsen burner (flame) to heat a wire inoculating loop prior to use • wearing gloves when handling sterile lab equipment • taking steps to prevent contaminants from entering sterile solutions - Bacteria • Have cell walls that contain peptidoglycan • derive nutrition from organic or inorganic sources that conduct photosynthesis - Archaea • Not typically associated with human disease 1Tuesday, January 31, 2017 • Found in extreme environments - Fungi • eukaryotic • can be unicellular or multicellular - Viruses • can be seen only with an electron microscope • cannot survive outside a host cell - In 1861, Pasteur conducted his now-famous experiments using flasks with long necks bent into an S-shape. Imagine that you are a scientist working in Pasteur’s lab at this time. You decide to tip the flasks so that broth enters the long S-shaped neck. You then return the flask to its upright position. Predict the most likely outcome of tipping one of Pasteur’s S-necked flasks. • The broth would become contaminated with microbes because they were trapped in the neck - S. aureus has been isolated from George’s infected wound. To satisfy Koch’s postulates, what would George’s doctor need to do with the isolated S. aureus? • Inject the S. aureus into an animal, observe whether the animal gets an infection similar to George’s, and isolate the same strain of S. aureus from the infection. - Limitations of antibiotics • antibiotics are not effective in treating viral infections • antibiotics may be toxic • treatment with antibiotics can lead to the emergence of resistant strains - Further characterization of the S. aureus isolated from George’s wound reveals that the strain is MRSA. Why is George’s doctor concerned that MRSA has been identified as the causative agent of George’s infection? • MRSA is transmissible - Steps of the scientific method in order that should be followed to identify the virus causing the disease • observe a natural phenomena or reaction 2Tuesday, January 31, 2017 • devise an explanation of what you have observed • experiment to support of refute your explanation • record the results of your experiment • determine whether your results support or refute your explanation • decide whether you need to rewrite your explanation or it has withstood testing - What is the type of bond holding hydrogen and oxygen atoms together in a single H20 molecule? • Covalent bond - Which of the following is the type of bond between molecules of water in a beaker of water? • Hydrogen bond - What is the type of strong chemical bond between carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a single organic molecule? • Covalent bond - The equation below is what type of reaction? Molecule AB → Molecule A + Molecule B • Decomposition reaction - Gastric juices have a pH of 1 or 2. This would indicate which of the following? • numerous hydrogen ions and a low pH - Organic Acids • have a carboxyl group -COOH - Alcohol • Has an -OH, only one line - Which are the primary molecules making up plasma membranes in cells? • Lipids - Which type of molecule is composed of (CH2O) units? • Carbohydrates 3Tuesday, January 31, 2017 - Protein structures • Primary structure is a polypeptide chain • Secondary structure occurs when the amino acid chain folds and coils in a helix or pleated sheet • Tertiary structure occurs when the helix sheet fold irregular, forming disulfide bridges, hydrogen bonds, and ionic bonds between amino acids in the chain • Quaternary structure consists of two or more polypeptides - What do genes consist of? • nucleic acids - Amino acids • The R-side group will determine the overall chemical properties of an individual amino acid • The group composing an amino acid are located around a central alpha-carbon • All amino acids must contain a nitrogen-based molecule and a carboxylic acid - The formation of a peptide bond to link two amino acids together is a special type of __________ • dehydration synthesis reaction that removes a hydroxyl group from the carboxyl end of the amino acid and reforms the bond with the nitrogen from the amino group that has lost a hydrogen atom - Structure of a protein • Amino acid sequence a-b-c-d-e • Alpha-helix or beta-sheet • Helix-sheet-turn-helix • Polypeptide A joined to Polypeptide B, which joins to Polypeptide C - Which type of bond is found between Na+ and Cl- ions in NaCl? • Ionic bond - Which bond is best described as an intermolecular attraction due to partial charges formed in polar covalent bonds? 4Tuesday, January 31, 2017 • hydrogen bond - Components found in all DNA nucleotides • deoxyribose sugar, phosphate - Components found only in specific DNA nucleotides • adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine - DNA • the pentose sugar is deoxyribose • functions by determining the heredity of trait • the nitrogen-containing bases are adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine • it is double started in cells and most DNA viruses - RNA • the nitrogen-containing bases are adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine • it is single stranded in cells and most RNA viruses • it functions in protein synthesis • the pentose sugar is ribose - Examples of cations • calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and iron - examples of anions • carbon dioxide (measures as bicarbonate), phosphate, chloride - Where does ATP store energy? • in phosphate bonds - Inorganic molecules • small and structurally simple compounds, which typically lack carbon and in which ionic bonds may play an important role - Objective lens • lens that is closest to the side and provides initial magnification of a specimen 5Tuesday, January 31, 2017 - Condenser lens • used to focus the light from the illuminator onto the slide - Coarse focus knob • used for initial focusing; should never be used when the high power objective lens or oil immersion lens is in place - Diaphragm • controls how much light from the illuminator reaches the specimen - Fine focus knob • used after initial focusing to sharpen the image - Ocular lens • lens that you look through - Stage • platform on which the slide is placed for viewing - Resolution • the ability of a microscope to distinguish fine details and differentiate between two very close objects - Lens • focus either light or electrons to create a magnified image of a specimen. - Gram stain staining reactions • All cells stained purple • Dye molecules are rendered insoluble in presence of mordant; dye is rinsed away • Cell wall of gram-negative cells is broken down; gram-positive cells remain intact • Clear cells are stained red or pink whereas the color of other cells remains unchanged - Correct path of light in a compound light microscope, from the illumination source to the eye of the observer? 6Tuesday, January 31, 2017 • illuminator → condenser lenses → specimen → objective lenses → body tube → ocular lens → eye - Why do electron microscopes have higher resolving power than light microscopes? • Electrons have a smaller wavelength than visible light, leading to higher resolution. - Which type of microscope would allow the viewer to see ribosomes inside a cell? • a transmission electron microscope - Which of the following types of microscopy provides advantages for viewing live images? • dark field microscopy - Prokaryotic cells • circular chromosome, not enclosed within a nuclear envelope • flagella that rotate, composed of flagellin • 70s ribosomes • peptidoglycan-containing cell wall - Eukaryotic cells • golgi apparatus, mitochondira, lysosomes • linear chromosomes enclosed within a nuclear envelope • flagella that wave, composed of microtubules • endoplasmic reticulum • 80s ribosomes • cellulose or chitin-containing cell wall - Path of a solute from the external environment to the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell • capsules, cell wall, plasma membrane - Structures found in all bacterial cells • cytoplasm, plasma membrane, nucleoid, ribosomes - Bacterial structures that are likely to be antigens, to which host antibodies bind, marking the invader for phagocytosis 7Tuesday, January 31, 2017 • cell wall, flagella, capsule, fimbriae - What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm? • mRNA - One of the ways smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from rough endoplasmic reticulum is that rough ER is covered by • ribosomes - Endomembrane system includes: • the ER, golgi apparatus (processes and packages proteins), lysosome and vesicles - Where are lipids made in the cell? • Smooth ER 8