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what is catholic?

what is catholic?

Description

School: Georgia State University
Department: Political Science
Course: Global Issues
Professor: Professor saglam
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: GlobalIssues and Pols2401
Cost: 50
Name: POLS 2401 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: WARNING: IT'S PRETTY LONG Some parts I didn't go over because: they're repeated in other sections, I couldn't find it, or I probably missed it Covers Chapters 1-5
Uploaded: 01/31/2017
12 Pages 10 Views 13 Unlocks
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POLS 2401 Global Issues Exam 1 Study Guide


what is catholic?



- Chapter 1 

o “global villages”- worldwide community with access to telecommunications and  technological advancement

o Advertising budgets

o Approx. 16,000 children die each day from hunger-related causes

▪ 1 child every 5 seconds

o CNN

▪ Reaches hundreds of millions of households in over 200 countries and territories  throughout the world

o NGO

▪ Nongovernmental Organization

▪ Works on global issues that are part of what is called civil society

▪ Work outside the gov’t and comprise individual citizens working together on  one or more problems

▪ Examples include: Red Cross, Greenpeace, Amnesty International, World Vision,  and Doctors Without Borders

o Number of people consuming increased drinking water has increased to 91% from 76% since 1990

o 1 in 9 people are undernourished globally


what are the four example of technology?



o Table 1.2- Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization

▪ Political

∙ Advantages

o Weakens power of authoritarian gov’ts

∙ Disadvantages

o Unwanted external influence difficult to keep out

▪ Economic

∙ Advantages

o Jobs, capital, more choices for consumers

∙ Disadvantages

o Exploitative; only benefits a few; gap between rich and poor

▪ Cultural

∙ Advantages

o Offers exposure to other cultures

∙ Disadvantages

o Cultural imperialism

o Technology We also discuss several other topics like Hazzard, disaster, or catastrophe?

▪ Most visible aspect of globalization and its driving force

▪ Communications technology revolutionized information systems

▪ Aided the increase in int’l trade and int’l capital flows

▪ Also enhanced the spread of Western culture

o Third world countries

▪ Poor and underdeveloped countries


what are the three generation/categories of human rights?



▪ Also referred to as “third world”, “the South”, “developing world”, “less developed countries”

▪ Very few third world countries have access to newer technology

o TNC

▪ Transnational corporations

▪ Part of nongovernmental organizations that are businesses

▪ Examples include Nike, Apple, Toyota, Google, and Youtube

▪ Over the past few years they increasingly gained power to affect global issues - Chapter 2 

o Cyber-attacks

▪ As the Internet expanded, vulnerability to cyber-attacks increased as well ▪ Easier than traditional military operations

▪ Can be launched by state actors, state-supported groups, or rogue actors (can  be terrorist groups or reckless teens)  

▪ Can be designed to damage an adversary’s infrastructure and material security ▪ Also can lead to collateral and indiscriminate damage that could affect  

noncombatants

▪ Example, Distributed Denial of Service(DDoS) attacks, hacking attacks,  

“phishing” attacks

o Genocide

▪ Mass murder of a large group of people, especially those of a specific ethnic  group/nation

▪ Example: Holocaust

∙ Extermination campaign against Jews carried out by Nazi Germany If you want to learn more check out What are the 4 stages of Piaget's cognitive development?

∙ More than 6 million deaths

▪ World leaders came together to pass int’l conventions that prohibited genocide  (UN’s Convention Against Genocide), promoted human rights (UN’s Universal  Declaration of Human Rights) and protected prisoners of war/noncombatants  (Geneva Conventions) We also discuss several other topics like What are the five main elements the make up the evolutionary theory?

o Global Security

▪ Multifaceted term

▪ 21st century: a role for a variety of actors, including states or countries, alliances,  regional organizations, trade blocs, and int’l gov’t organizations.  

▪ Gathers effort by countries of the world to reduce conflict as well as promote  prosperity for individuals If you want to learn more check out What is the process of Neurulation?

o Gorbachev

▪ Ascended to power in the Soviet Union in March 1985

▪ Recognized that the economy could not sustain commitment to a pricey arms  race with the US anymore

▪ Believed that economic reforms and political liberalization were needed for  Soviet Union’s survival

o Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty

▪ Agreement in 1987 by Ronald Reagan and Gorbachev

▪ Eliminated an entire class of nuclear missiles from both US and Soviet Union

▪ Significantly stabilized balance of power in Europe

o Military Alliances

▪ Enhance state security

▪ Formal military relationships between two or more countries

∙ Sometimes include a mutual defense pact if one is under attack

▪ Examples include North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Southeast  Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO)

o North Korea

▪ Invaded South Korea in June 1950

o Reagan

▪ US president post-Cold War

▪ Opposed Soviet communism

▪ Discussed idea in 1986 with Gorbachev to completely remove nuclear weapons o Rwanda We also discuss several other topics like What is dual federalism?

▪ Genocide in 1994 that resulted in 800,000 people killed over three months.  ▪ Was an internal struggle that produced mass civilian casualties and not  traditional conflicts of wars of empires

o South Korea

▪ Went to UN for collective military help against aggression and violation of  sovereignty

▪ Douglas MacArthur led an int’l military coalition to push back the invasion ▪ Conflict lasted for almost 4 years

o Sovereignty

▪ Became the cornerstone of state security after 1648

▪ The right of leaders to determine the rules, laws, and processes of civil society o United Nations

▪ One of the strongest IGOs (International Governmental Organizations) ever  created

▪ Made in 1945

▪ has nearly 200 member states representing every country in the world ▪ founded on the principle of collective security Don't forget about the age old question of What crop expanded in the Everglades due to 1960’s and 1970’s geo-politics?

∙ all-for-one security agreement implying a commitment for all member  states to help another that is being threatened

o United Nations General Assembly

▪ Makes nonbinding recommendations if conflict is not resolved through  nonviolent means

▪ All countries are members and each has one vote

▪ Passes nonbinding resolutions; cannot force countries to change behavior ▪ One of 5 UN principal organs

o United Nations Security Council

▪ Has responsibility to take any action necessary at any time to maintain or  restore international peace and security  

▪ 5 permanent members: China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and the United  States

∙ Have veto power and can block and Security Council action

o Security Council should have full backing of the most powerful  

countries before recommending military action against  

country/ies

▪ 10 nonpermanent, rotating members

▪ Only UN organ out of five principal organs that can authorize military force o World War I

▪ 1914-1918

▪ Catastrophic war that led to collapse of major empires and a shift in the balance  of power

▪ Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Ottoman Empire  

vs.  

▪ Great Britain, France, and Russia

▪ Introduced chemical weapons (mustard gas), machine guns, submarines, and  tanks

▪ Over 9 million soldiers were killed

o World War II

▪ 1930s

∙ Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist (Nazi) Party and their  

authoritarian rule with Japan, Italy, and German “Third Reich” to expand  

territory and influence across Europe, Mediterranean, and North Africa

▪ Officially began in 1939 when Nazis invade Poland

∙ Great Britain and France declared war on Germany as a response

∙ US joined war after Japan’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in December  1941

▪ Outcome

∙ Weakening of traditional European powers

- Chapter 3 

o Arms control agreements

▪ 1972- US and Soviet Union

∙ First Strategic Arms Treaty (SALT I)

o Limits on number of nuclear launch platforms

∙ Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty  

o Limited deployment of defensive, ground-based antimissile  

systems

∙ Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties

o Limits number of strategic warheads

∙ 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty

o Elimination of an entire class of nuclear weapons

∙ 1996- Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

o Banned all nuclear testing

o India and Pakistan refused to sign treaty

o US Senate rejected treaty in October 1999

o CWC

▪ Chemical Weapons Convention was opened in 1993 for signature

▪ Committed all signatories to stop development and stockpiling of chemical  weapons

▪ Included a set of verification procedures

∙ Supported the rights of a new CWC inspectorate to conduct rigorous  investigations and inspections of suspected chemical weapons programs  in signatory states

o Figure 3.2

▪ Map of The Status of Nuclear Weapons in the World

o George W. Bush

o Global nonproliferation regime

▪ World efforts to control and limit arms, especially nuclear, chemical, and  biological weapons

o Horizontal Proliferation of Conventional Weapons

▪ Spread of majority of all military arsenals and weapons technology across  country borders (horizontal = across)

▪ Main source of spread is arms sales and legitimate transfers of weapons from  sellers to buyers in int’l arms market

▪ Corporate greed may be driving the world more rapidly towards major conflict o Horizontal Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

▪ Spread of weapons of mass destruction and weapons technology across country  borders

▪ Most serious of all proliferation threats

∙ Nuclear Arsenals

∙ Spread of chemical and biological weapons

∙ WMD terrorism

o Iran

▪ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) concluded that Iran was in violation  of the NPT in 2006

▪ Defied int’l will to stop program or allow int’l inspections

o Life expectancy

▪ US is 27th in life expectancy (behind Japan, Hong Kong, and Switzerland) o Military spending

▪ Military spending over health and education expenditures

▪ Before global war on terror, world military expenditures per soldier were  $31,480

▪ US ranked first the world in military spending

o North Korea

▪ One of the world’s few remaining communist dictatorship under the leadership  of Kim Jong-un

▪ 1994- conflict was avoided, even when Bill Clinton administration considered  using military force, using a negotiation instead.

∙ NK suspended nuclear program in exchange for a package of benefits

o Included light-water nuclear reactors, oil shipments, and food  

aid

▪ By 2002 NK was not abiding by the terms of agreement.

∙ They also acquired designs and tech for a nuclear weapons program  through the A. Q. Khan network

▪ 2003- withdrew from NPT

▪ February 2005- NK gov’t acknowledged that it possessed nuclear weapons and  would no longer negotiate regarding its program’s future

▪ October 2006- tested first nuclear bomb

▪ Continues to defy wishes of int’l community

o NPT

▪ Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty

▪ Agreement to stop the spread of nuclear weapons beyond the 5 declared  nuclear powers

∙ I: Cannot directly/indirectly transfer nuclear weapons

∙ II: State without nuclear weapons capabilities can receive, manufacture,  or obtain help for manufacturing, or try to obtain nuclear weaponry

∙ VI: Required all nuclear states to pursue general disarmament under  strict and effective int’l control

o Sanctions

o Tehran’s nuclear ability

▪ In 2015, EU joined with UN Security Council significantly limited Tehran’s  nuclear ability for more than a decade in return for lifting sanctions on Iranian  oil industry and financial sector

o The global nuclear nonproliferation movement

▪ Began before first use of atomic weapons in 1945

▪ Harry Truman proposed that all nuclear materials and technology in the world  be placed under UN control

∙ Demonstrated a first step towards global consideration of proliferation  problems and later progress on the issue

▪ Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1960s

∙ Outlawed nuclear tests in atmosphere, outer space, and underwater ▪ Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America in 1967 ∙ Created a nuclear-free zone

o United States

o Vertical Proliferation of Conventional Weapons

▪ Development and stockpiling of military arsenal in one country (like stacking  weapons on top of one another = vertical)

▪ Challenge global stability in several ways

∙ more weapons = more conflicts

o provides more weapons for gov’ts/groups to become involved  

in more conflicts

∙ social cost of arms buildup

o includes trade-offs between defense and other programs; cuts  

in social welfare spending by gov’ts for citizens who cannot  

afford it

o Vertical Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

▪ Development and stockpiling of weapons of mass destruction in one country ▪ Threat to int’l security

∙ Dimensions

o Types of WMD systems

▪ Nuclear weapons

▪ Chemical and biological weapons

o incentives for states to build nuclear weapons

o patterns of vertical WMD proliferation

- Chapter 4 

o An imagined community

▪ Shared identity of nationalism

▪ Most citizens of a country will never actually meet one another

▪ Feelings of unity remain

o Catholics

▪ Catholic Church was growing in power and Protestant Reformation/other  authorities challenged Pope’s authority

▪ Outcome was the Thirty Years’ War

o Civic nationalism

▪ Associated with the Western experience  

▪ Based on citizenship rather than ethnic linkages

▪ Nation-state core of civic nationalism

∙ Promote the principle that a society is united by territoriality,  

citizenship, and civic rights and legal codes transmitted to all members  

of group

▪ All members are ideally equal citizens and equal before law

o Countries

▪ Also states.

o Ethnic nationalists

▪ Eastern and Southern influence in response to the West

▪ Based on ethnicity  

▪ People and native history

▪ Elements that are purely unique to a group

∙ Examples: collective memory, common language and values, shared  

religion, myth, and symbolism

∙ Dependent on blood ties, bonds to the land, and native traditions

o Figure 4.1

▪ Palestinian Demographics, 2014

∙ West Bank and East Jerusalem

o Number of Palestinian Arabs

▪ 2,7900,331

o Number of Israeli Jews

▪ 300,000 settlers in East Jerusalem

▪ 350,000 settlers in West Bank

∙ Gaza

o Number of Palestinian Arabs

▪ 1,760,037

∙ Israel

o Number of Palestinian Arabs

▪ 1,460,000 Palestinian Arabs w/Israeli

o Number of Israeli Jews

▪ 5,336,985

∙ Total

o Number of Palestinian Arabs: 6,010,368

o Number of Israeli Jews: 6,036,985

o French Revolution

▪ Defining moment for nationalism

▪ John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that the people should govern  themselves than being governed by monarchs

▪ Popular sovereignty

∙ divine right of kings gradually being replaced with the notion of the will  of the people

▪ Napoleon and leaders destroyed French monarchy and tried to create a new  state

∙ Used popular sovereignty and new sense of citizenship to create  psychological bond with people throughout France

▪ Nationalism began to spread throughout Europe

o Nationalism

▪ Shared sense of identity based on important social distinctions

∙ Has the purpose of gaining/keeping control of the group’s own destiny ▪ Different sources:

∙ Ethnicity

∙ Language

∙ Religion

∙ Culture

∙ History

∙ Geographical proximity

▪ Because of nationalism, humans organize themselves into groups and/or  communities

o Nation-state

▪ Loosely used to mean “country”

▪ Single nation with the boundaries of a single state

▪ Combines concept of state, territory, and nation

▪ Very few countries are nation-states

▪ Example, Koreas (N. and S. Korea)

o Number of countries

o Political force

▪ Nationalism is an important political force

o Political unit

o Protestants

▪ Challenged Pope’s authority and ended up with Thirty Years’ War

o Shared identity

▪ Of nationalism: imagined community

o Sovereignty

▪ State is self-governing

o State

▪ Also called a country

▪ Political unit that has sovereignty over a geographical area

o Thirty Years’ War

▪ Protestants vs. Catholics

▪ Destroyed much of Europe

o Treaty of Westphalia in 1648

▪ Ended the Thirty Years’ War

▪ Recognized many independent, secular political units that are now modern  states

▪ Beginning of the development of the modern state system

o War of 1947-1948

▪ UN announced petition plans and fighting started

▪ Jewish underground groups/terrorist groups achieved several victories ▪ May 15,1948- state of Israel declared.

▪ Jordan annexed remaining West Bank of Palestine and Egypt took Gaza Strip ▪ Resulted in 800,000+ out of 1 million Palestinians becoming refugees o War of 1956

▪ Egyptian president Abdel Nasser nationalized Suez Canal

▪ Israel/Britain/France alliance invaded Egypt

▪ US requested cease-fire; UN maintained buffer zone between Israel and Egypt o War of 1967

▪ Six Day War

▪ United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria united) asked for withdrawal of UN forces  from cease-fire lines.

▪ Israel attacked Jordan

∙ Captured West Bank, East Jerusalem, Golan Heights, Sinai Peninsula,  and the Gaza Strip

▪ UN Security Council passed Resolution 242

∙ Required Israel to withdraw from the West Bank, Gaza, and all other  areas

o War of 1973

▪ Yom Kippur War

▪ Egypt and Syria attacked Israel to reclaim Syrian and Egyptian territories that  Israel captured

▪ US and Soviet Union intervened and resulted in cease-fire

▪ Last major effort by Arab states to liberate agreement between Egyptian  president Anwar Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin

∙ Returned Sinai Peninsula to Egypt

▪ Egypt recognized the state of Israel and established full diplomatic relations - Chapter 5 

o UDHR

▪ Universal Declaration of Human Rights

▪ Formed in 1948 by UN

▪ First time in human history that recognized all members of the human family  are equal and possess the same rights

▪ Main trigger was the Holocaust in WWII

o Barack Obama

▪ Made greater efforts to engage with the Court

▪ Administration sent a nonparty delegation to the ICC annual meeting and  pledged to work with the Court on several side issues

▪ No moves were made to ratify Rome Statute

o Bill Clinton

▪ Signed Rome Statute on December 31, 2000

∙ US Senate did not ratify it

o Civil and political rights

▪ Article 2 through 21 of declaration

▪ Focused on rights of the individual and emphasize the responsibility of gov’ts to  refrain from unjustly interfering in the lives of their own citizens

▪ Also known as proscriptive rights or negative rights

∙ Proscribe/prohibit certain gov’t actions  

∙ Negative b/c based on absence of gov’t interference in people’s lives

▪ US also refers to these as civil rights/civil liberties

▪ 1966- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)

o George W. Bush

▪ Nullified Rome Statute treaty declaring that the US would not be bound by  treaty

o Human rights

▪ 3 generations/categories

∙ Civil and political rights

∙ Social and economic rights

∙ Solidarity rights

o ICC

▪ International Criminal Court

▪ Established in 1998 via Rome Statute

▪ First ever permanent, treaty based, int’l criminal court established to promote  the rule of law and ensure that the gravest criminal crimes don’t go unpunished

▪ Complimentary to national criminal jurisdictions

o Internet

▪ Expanded exponentially since 1990s

∙ Virtual library

∙ Instant communication

∙ Increased speed of information communication

∙ Access to uncensored information and history feared by the  

undemocratic gov’ts

∙ Social networking

▪ ONE Campaign joined with Facebook and Wikipedia leaders to make Internet  access universal by 2020

▪ Also increased interest in venture philanthropy

∙ Also called hacker philanthropy

∙ Bill and Melina Gates Foundation implemented venture philanthropy for  more than 2 decades

o Money

▪ Emergence of globalization = the rich get richer and the poor get poorer ▪ Most poor countries have not improved their standard of living

∙ Have not realized second/third generation human rights

o Relativism or cultural relativism

▪ Traditions that are followed by some countries and cultures that are considered  inconsistent with the USDR

▪ Claim exception for their traditions

o Social and economic rights

▪ Also known as prescriptive or positive rights

∙ Prescribe/advocate for specific gov’t actions and programs

∙ Require positive provision of gov’t services

▪ Articles 22 through 26 of declaration

▪ Originates from Western socialist tradition

▪ Focus on social equality and the responsibility of one’s gov’t to provide for its  citizens

o Solidarity Rights

▪ Realization requires cooperation of all countries

▪ Articles 27 and 28 of UDHR

▪ Specifically for the global South or third world

▪ Does not have the status of other rights

▪ Right to political, economic, social, and cultural self-determination ▪ Right to economic and social development

▪ Right to participate and benefit from “the common heritage of mankind” ▪ Right to peace

▪ Right to a healthy and balanced environment

▪ Right to humanitarian disaster relief

o Technology

▪ Internet

▪ Cell phones

▪ Water filters

▪ Experimental Novartis drug against malaria

o Universalism

▪ The idea that everyone possesses rights as found in the UDHR

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