1. What are the three assumptions of science? How does that limit what questions science can answer? What are some examples of questions that are outside of what science can address? The world is real, there are observable and predictable causes for the things that happened in the world around us and there is consistency in the causes that operate the natural world (Space and time).
2. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
A theory is generally accepted and a foundation of scientific knowledge while a hypothesis is more uncertain or tentative.
3. What characteristics do all living organisms share?
Are organized. Acquire material and energy (matter and energy). Maintain a constant internal environment
(homeostasis). Respond (behavior and physiology). Reproduce and develop.
4. What is homeostasis and why is it important to living organisms? How is homeostasis related to denaturation? Homeostasis means to maintain dynamic
equilibrium in the body in response to environmental changes and maintaining the body temperature and H2O at constant for cells to function properly. Changes in temperature, pH, and exposure to chemicals may lead to permanent changes in the shape of the protein, leading to loss of function, known as denaturation. Change of protein function.
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5. How do trees get water from their roots all the way up to their leaves, which may be nearly 100 feet off the ground? Why do trees need water to reach their leaves? Cohesive and We also discuss several other topics like hist 2111
adhesive forces are important for the transport of water from the roots to the leaves in plants. These forces create a “pull” on the water column. This pull results from the tendency of water molecules being evaporated on the surface of the plant to stay connected to water molecules below them, and so they are pulled along. Plants use this natural phenomenon to help transport water from their roots to their leaves. Without these properties of water, plants would be unable to receive the water and the dissolved minerals they require. Imbibition: Water soaks into substance.
6. Why is it often cooler by a large lake or ocean, compared to farther inland? Because of water properties: High specific heat, high heat of vaporization, takes a lot of energy to raise the temperature or vaporize water.
7. If a person is jogging on a hot day and are concerned about
overheating, should they wipe their sweat off or leave it on? Leave it on,
8. What elements are most common in living organisms? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorus and sulfur. Don't forget about the age old question of mesophyls
9. What are the four major types of biological molecules? What are their monomers? What are their main functions? What type of molecule has the most variety of functions? Carbohydrates: Monomer: We also discuss several other topics like transcription study guide
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Monosaccharide. Functions: Immediate source of energy, energy storage (starch in plants, glycogen in animal), structure (Cellulose & Chitin)
Lipids: Varied structure, nonpolar. Functions: Long term energy storage, cell
membrane, steroids (Chemical
Proteins: Monomer, amino acids. 20 different amino acids. Structure = Functions: structure, transport, immunity (defense), regulation, motion, enzymes (speed chemical reactions).
Nucleic acids: Monomer, nucleotides. Functions: DNA (Codes for proteins) and RNA (makes proteins).
10. What are the functions of the following organelles:
Nucleus: Contains and protects the DNA. Pores allow selected material in and out and nucleolus makes ribosomes (which produces proteins).
Cell membrane: Semi permeable, Small molecules can pass through (H20, Oxygen, Co2) and larger moles cannot (biological molecules). We also discuss several other topics like christina horsford
Mitochondrion: The “Powerhouse”, produces energy for cell to function and cell respiration.
Chloroplast: Triple-membrane organelle: thylakoid, granum and stoma.
11. What is diffusion? Molecules (in liquid and gas) will move from high concentration to low concentration. Osmosis? Is diffusion of water. Includes solvent (water) and solute (salts, sugars, etc.). Hypotonic (more water, less solute) to hypertonic (less water, more solute). How is passive transport different than active transport? Passive transport relies on diffusion, works with gradient, no energy expended. Active transport works against gradient, energy is required. What are examples of passive and active transport? Passive transport: Diffusion through semipermeable membrane, facilitated transport (Diffusion through protein channels). Active
transport: Protein pump, exocytosis/endocytosis
12. Many sharks that live in the ocean are inedible because they have high amounts of urea (a nitrogen compound also found in human urine) in their cells. The cells of the shark have less salt than ocean water, but by producing urea, the cells have the same amount of total solutes as ocean water. Why is the production of urea important for sharks? It’s important for homeostasis, denaturation and osmosis. , the shark cell have an advantage to not be vulnerable of osmosis since they are hypotonic to the salty water (hypertonic), if this was not an advantage the cell of the shark will burst and have severe consequences (die or be ill).
13. A friend tells you that she has invented a motor that you just add a tiny bit of gasoline to once and then the motor works forever as the kinetic energy and potential energy just keep transforming back and forth indefinitely. Why might you be skeptical? Which law of thermodynamics does this seem to violate? That energy will last forever. The 2nd law because a fraction of energy transformation is lost when it goes back and forth from kinetic and potential energy.
14. What is a chemical reaction? What are the reactants and what are the products? What factors can affect the rate/speed of a chemical reaction? A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemicals substances to another. The reactants are the molecules at the beginning of the process and the products are what components the
reactants where broken down into. Factors that can speed the chemical reaction are temperature, density or concentration and enzymes.
15 What is an enzyme? Why are enzymes important to living systems? How does heat or acidity affect enzymes? Enzymes are proteins that speed up reactions. Each enzyme is the specific helper to a specific reaction. E.g., sucrase to sucrose, lipases to lipids. The shape of an enzyme matters, shape of protein allows enzyme & substrate to fit, if an enzyme denatures (because of heat), it can no longer function!
16. Where do plant get the matter (atoms and molecules) that makes up their biomass (all the biological molecules that build their cells)? Where do plants get the energy they need for their cells to function? Where do animals get the matter that makes up their biomass? Where to animals get the energy that they need for their cells to function? Plants get there energy from carbon dioxide fused during photosynthesis Plants convert The sun energy into chemical energy which is captured within the bonds od carbon molecules build from
atmospheric CO2 and H2O, that produces O2 and glucose. Also, cellular respiration to maintain alive and reproduce. Animals
get their energy through food, and use cellular respiration (aerobic respiration). How molecules produce energy is they work by potential energy and reaction pathway: goes to reactant, activated complex goes to products. Need of ATP.
17. What is cellular respiration? What organisms have cellular respiration? How is breathing related to cellular respiration? What step in
cellular respiration requires oxygen? Takes place in the mitochondria, is the way cell harvest energy, the chemical energy in the glucose converted into ATP, a form of chemical energy useful to cells. This first three need glucose to produce CO2: glycolysis preparatory reaction, citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain (O2 to H2O). All the organisms that do the aerobic respiration, like bacteria, Achaea, plants, protest, animals and fungi. Throughout breathing the oxygen is collected and the CO2 is exhale.
18. What is photosynthesis? What are the two main steps of
photosynthesis? What molecules are needed for each step and what are the products? Is the production of biological molecules from inorganic molecules (CO2) powered by light energy from the sun. The steps are: 1. Light dependent reactions that convert light energy into chemical energy (ATP). 2. Calvin cycle reactions uses ATP to power carbon fixation (process that inorganic carbon is fixed into organic molecules G3P Glucose).
19. Where does the vast majority of the energy in living organisms ultimately come from and where does the energy ultimately go? Carbon dioxide comes from the atmosphere. Co2 diffuses into cells. Trade off between water loss and need for CO2.
20. If you were able to track one atom of carbon, what are the different places you might find it in the world? What form (what molecule) would it be in if it was in the atmosphere and what form would it be in if it was in a living organism? How does it move from place to place or change forms? Carbon is in the
atmosphere: soil, cellulose, in us. The form for the atmosphere is CO2 and in an organism is carbohydrate. From photosynthesis to respiration (back and forth).
21. Why do plants look green to our eyes? Why do leaves change from green to yellow, orange and red in
the fall, what are you seeing? Because chlorophyll a and b, which are
irresponsible for the green color of leaves and the absorbance of energy from a wide range of wavelengths on the spectrum. The chlorophyll breaks down, the green color disappears, and the yellow to orange colors become visible and give the leaves part of their fall splendor. At the same
time other chemical changes may occur, which form additional colors through the development of red anthocyanin pigments.