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de anza biology

de anza biology

Description

School: De Anza College
Department: OTHER
Course: Intro to Biology
Professor: Dana nakase
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Study guide for Biology W2017
Description: It's the answer study guide and side of notes you can bring to first midterm. Good luck
Uploaded: 02/01/2017
3 Pages 5 Views 5 Unlocks
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1. What are the three assumptions of science? How does that limit what questions science can answer? What are some examples of questions that are outside of what science can address? The world is real, there are observable and predictable causes for the things that happened in the world around us and there is consistency in the causes that operate the natural world (Space and time).  


What are the three assumptions of science?



2. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?

A theory is generally accepted and a foundation of scientific knowledge while a hypothesis is more uncertain or tentative.

3. What characteristics do all living  organisms share?  

Are organized. Acquire material and  energy (matter and energy). Maintain a  constant internal environment  

(homeostasis). Respond (behavior and  physiology). Reproduce and develop.  

4. What is homeostasis and why is it  important to living organisms? How is homeostasis related to denaturation? Homeostasis means to maintain dynamic  

equilibrium in the body in response to  environmental changes and maintaining  the body temperature and H2O at  constant for cells to function properly.  Changes in temperature, pH, and  exposure to chemicals may lead to  permanent changes in the shape of the  protein, leading to loss of function, known  as denaturation. Change of protein  function.


What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?



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5. How do trees get water from their roots all the way up to their leaves, which may be nearly 100 feet off the ground? Why do trees need water to reach their leaves? Cohesive and We also discuss several other topics like hist 2111

adhesive forces are important for the transport of water from the roots to the leaves in plants. These forces create a “pull” on the water column. This pull results from the tendency of water molecules being evaporated on the surface of the plant to stay connected to water molecules below them, and so they are pulled along. Plants use this natural phenomenon to help transport water from their roots to their leaves. Without these properties of water, plants would be unable to receive the water and the dissolved minerals they require. Imbibition: Water soaks into substance.

6. Why is it often cooler by a large lake or ocean, compared to farther inland? Because of water properties: High specific heat, high heat of vaporization, takes a lot of energy to raise the temperature or vaporize water.


What characteristics do all living organisms share?



7. If a person is jogging on a hot day  and are concerned about  

overheating, should they wipe their  sweat off or leave it on? Leave it on,  

8. What elements are most common  in living organisms? Carbon, Hydrogen,  Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorus and  sulfur. Don't forget about the age old question of mesophyls

9. What are the four major types of  biological molecules? What are their  monomers? What are their main  functions? What type of molecule  has the most variety of functions?  Carbohydrates: Monomer:  We also discuss several other topics like transcription study guide
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Monosaccharide. Functions: Immediate  source of energy, energy storage (starch  in plants, glycogen in animal), structure  (Cellulose & Chitin)

Lipids: Varied structure, nonpolar.  Functions: Long term energy storage, cell  

membrane, steroids (Chemical  

communication)

Proteins: Monomer, amino acids. 20  different amino acids. Structure =  Functions: structure, transport, immunity  (defense), regulation, motion, enzymes  (speed chemical reactions).

Nucleic acids: Monomer, nucleotides.  Functions: DNA (Codes for proteins) and  RNA (makes proteins).

10. What are the functions of the  following organelles:

Nucleus: Contains and protects the DNA.  Pores allow selected material in and out  and nucleolus makes ribosomes (which  produces proteins).  

Cell membrane: Semi permeable, Small  molecules can pass through (H20,  Oxygen, Co2) and larger moles cannot  (biological molecules). We also discuss several other topics like christina horsford

Mitochondrion: The “Powerhouse”,  produces energy for cell to function and  cell respiration.

Chloroplast: Triple-membrane organelle:  thylakoid, granum and stoma.  

Photosynthesis

11. What is diffusion? Molecules (in liquid and gas) will move from high concentration to low concentration. Osmosis? Is diffusion of water. Includes solvent (water) and solute (salts, sugars, etc.). Hypotonic (more water, less solute) to hypertonic (less water, more solute). How is passive transport different than active transport? Passive transport relies on diffusion, works with gradient, no energy expended. Active transport works against gradient, energy is required. What are examples of passive and active transport? Passive transport: Diffusion through semipermeable membrane, facilitated transport (Diffusion through protein channels). Active

transport: Protein pump, exocytosis/endocytosis

12. Many sharks that live in the  ocean are inedible because they have high amounts of urea (a nitrogen  compound also found in human urine) in their cells. The cells of the shark  have less salt than ocean water, but  by producing urea, the cells have the  same amount of total solutes as  ocean water. Why is the production  of urea important for sharks? It’s  important for homeostasis, denaturation  and osmosis. , the shark cell have an  advantage to not be vulnerable of osmosis since they are hypotonic to the salty water (hypertonic), if this was not an advantage  the cell of the shark will burst and have  severe consequences (die or be ill).

13. A friend tells you that she has invented a motor that you just add a tiny bit of gasoline to once and then the motor works forever as the kinetic energy and potential energy just keep transforming back and forth indefinitely. Why might you be skeptical? Which law of thermodynamics does this seem to violate? That energy will last forever. The 2nd law because a fraction of energy transformation is lost when it goes back and forth from kinetic and potential energy.

14. What is a chemical reaction? What are the reactants and what are the products? What factors can affect the rate/speed of a chemical reaction? A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemicals substances to another. The reactants are the molecules at the beginning of the process and the products are what components the

reactants where broken down into. Factors that can speed the chemical reaction are temperature, density or concentration and enzymes.

15 What is an enzyme? Why are  enzymes important to living systems? How does heat or acidity affect  enzymes? Enzymes are proteins that  speed up reactions. Each enzyme is the  specific helper to a specific reaction. E.g.,  sucrase to sucrose, lipases to lipids. The  shape of an enzyme matters, shape of  protein allows enzyme & substrate to fit, if an enzyme denatures (because of heat), it can no longer function!

16. Where do plant get the matter  (atoms and molecules) that makes up their biomass (all the biological  molecules that build their cells)?  Where do plants get the energy they  need for their cells to function?  Where do animals get the matter that makes up their biomass? Where to  animals get the energy that they  need for their cells to function? Plants  get there energy from carbon dioxide  fused during photosynthesis Plants  convert The sun energy into chemical  energy which is captured within the bonds od carbon molecules build from  

atmospheric CO2 and H2O, that produces  O2 and glucose. Also, cellular respiration  to maintain alive and reproduce. Animals  

get their energy through food, and use  cellular respiration (aerobic respiration).  How molecules produce energy is they  work by potential energy and reaction  pathway: goes to reactant, activated  complex goes to products. Need of ATP.

17. What is cellular respiration? What organisms have cellular respiration? How is breathing related to cellular respiration? What step in

cellular respiration requires oxygen? Takes place in the mitochondria, is the way cell harvest energy, the chemical energy in the glucose converted into ATP, a form of chemical energy useful to cells. This first three need glucose to produce CO2: glycolysis preparatory reaction, citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain (O2 to H2O). All the organisms that do the aerobic respiration, like bacteria, Achaea, plants, protest, animals and fungi. Throughout breathing the oxygen is collected and the CO2 is exhale.

18. What is photosynthesis? What  are the two main steps of  

photosynthesis? What molecules are  needed for each step and what are  the products? Is the production of  biological molecules from inorganic  molecules (CO2) powered by light energy  from the sun. The steps are: 1. Light  dependent reactions that convert light  energy into chemical energy (ATP). 2.  Calvin cycle reactions uses ATP to power  carbon fixation (process that inorganic  carbon is fixed into organic molecules G3P  Glucose).

19. Where does the vast majority of  the energy in living organisms  ultimately come from and where does the energy ultimately go? Carbon  dioxide comes from the atmosphere. Co2  diffuses into cells. Trade off between water loss and need for CO2.

20. If you were able to track one  atom of carbon, what are the  different places you might find it in  the world? What form (what  molecule) would it be in if it was in  the atmosphere and what form would it be in if it was in a living organism?  How does it move from place to place or change forms? Carbon is in the

atmosphere: soil, cellulose, in us. The form for the atmosphere is CO2 and in an  organism is carbohydrate. From  photosynthesis to respiration (back and  forth).

21. Why do plants look green to our  eyes? Why do leaves change from  green to yellow, orange and red in  

the fall, what are you seeing? Because chlorophyll a and b, which are  

irresponsible for the green color of leaves  and the absorbance of energy from a wide range of wavelengths on the spectrum.  The chlorophyll breaks down, the green  color disappears, and the yellow to orange colors become visible and give the leaves part of their fall splendor. At the same  

time other chemical changes may occur,  which form additional colors through the  development of red anthocyanin  pigments.

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