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ECU - PHIL 1110 - Study Guide - Midterm

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ECU - PHIL 1110 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image Philosophy Exam 1 Study Guide: Lectures 2-7 When was the Axial Age? ­ From roughly 700 BCE to 200BCE What was born in the Axial Age? ­ The great religions of the world and Philosophy Where did the Axial age happen? ­ Happened from China to India to the Middle East to Greece
Socrates in Greece
Confucius in China and the Buddha in India all concerned themselves with what 
question?
­ "How should a person live"? What happened during the Axial Age? ­ Civilizations began to develop a class of literate people, scribes wrote down  the myths and traditional stories for the first time, some people learned how to read and write and that created more specialized groups in the city What is literacy a tool for? ­ Becoming smarter What happened when people learned how to read and write and specialized groups  began to form? ­ It began a process of critical reflection on myths which where gradually  changed and rationalized them. People started asking questions about virtue, 
the Gods, the soul and human destiny
What were the great religions that developed in the Axial Age and where? ­ Taoism and Confucianism in China; Buddhism and Hinduism in India; and  Judaism, Christianity, and Islam in the West What was the early Greek concept of virtue? ­ That virtue was the quality that made a warrior king successful What did "virtue" mean in Greece? ­ Virtue meant excellence and only the ruling warrior class could be excellent What do the virtues of a person mean? ­ What makes them "exel" What were the four main characteristics of Homeric Virtue? ­ Courage, Wisdom, Justice, and moderation What did courage mean in the Homeric Virtues? ­ It was primarily understood as courage in battle What did wisdom mean in the Homeric Virtues? ­ It was best exemplified in clever battle plans such as the Trojan Horse What did justice mean in the Homeric Virtues? ­ Justice was shown by a military leader in the distribution of the spoils of war What did moderation mean in the Homeric Virtues?
background image ­ It was considered necessary because excessive anger or greed leads to self­ destruction Who was Socrates? ­ 470­399 BCE. A stone mason by trade, he was the father of Western  Philosophy and the teacher of Plato who was the teacher of Aristotle. He lived in relative poverty What was Socrates mission? ­ He was struck by the fact that even every intelligent person could not give  clear definitions of the virtues. He came to believe that he had a mission from  God to make his fellow citizens aware that they were confused about such 
important matters.
Was Socrates highly critical of how Homer described the virtues? ­ Yes What did Socrates try to get people to see? ­ He tried to get people to see virtue as the admirable qualities of everyone­­not just of heroes and kings As an old man, what was Socrates put on trial for? ­ Corrupting the youth and honoring foreign Gods What does he do at his trial? ­ He is openly defiant of those who would suppress his freedom to think and  speak Why does he openly accept the death penalty? ­ For free thought Who is Confucius? 551­479 BCE ­ He served in the governments of Chinese Kings trying to work from the inside out and influence them. He was a scholar who edited and commented on 
classical Chinese texts. He would say, "I love the culture and how it is and 
blah blah blah, BUT I think this should be this." He was a subtle revolutionary 
who did not admit that he was reinventing Chinese evolutionary thought
What was the concept of De? ­ The earliest Chinese concept of virtue was also a characteristic of a  successful military leader What does "De" come to translate to? ­ Virtue, Greek as excellence, but really more as Charisma In modern terms what would we describe "De" as? ­ Charisma, the almost mystical ability of some people to get others to follow  them. How was "De" subtly transformed? ­ A King earned De by upright ethical behavior. A king lost De by acting  unethically. He taught that ordinary people could aquire De What are the Confucian Virtues?
background image ­ Compassion (Jen), Righteousness (yi), Wisdom (zhi), ritual (li). What do both Greek and Chinese recognize as a cardinal virtue? ­ Wisdom Do the Ancient Greeks and Chinese think primarily in terms of virtue? ­ Yes What does virtue mean in Greek? ­ Excellence What does virtue mean in Chinese? ­ Charisma What does virtue slowly come to mean? ­ Good moral character and was goal for everyone What two main ethical concepts does every culture have? ­ Virtue ethics and rule ethics What are virtue ethics? ­ They focus rather on character rather than specific actions. Moral instruction  consists of telling stories about heroes and their virtues and vices. What are rule ethics? ­ Focus on the rules. Moral instruction consists of discussing the qualifications  and exceptions of the rules Were Greek and Chinese ethical teaching virtue based or rule based? What about 
Jewish culture?
­ Greek and Chinese­ Virtue based Jewish­ Rule based Is modern American culture predominantly rule based or virtue based? ­ Rule based Why did Plato construct a new hero, Socrates? ­ To compete with the old Homeric heroes. This character was based on the  real Socrates What does Elenchus mean? ­ It is a Socratic method which asks questions to help the person to clarify their  own thinking What does Aporia mean? ­ Inconclusive ending, no satisfactory ending is ever found Who is Euthyphro? ­ A priest and a self­proclaimed prophet Why did Euthyphro bring charges against his own father? ­ Because two workers on his father's farm got into a fight and it lead to a  death. He said that his father could have taken better care of the aggressor 
after the fight.
What was Piety? ­ A minor Greek virtue, it roughly means respect What was Euthyphro's first definition of Piety?

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School: East Carolina University
Department: Philosophy
Course: Intro to Philosophy
Professor: Henry Jacoby
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: philosophy, Lecture Notes, and chapternotes
Name: Intro to Philosophy 1110 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This Study guide covers all of Lectures 2-7 important notes
Uploaded: 02/02/2017
10 Pages 67 Views 53 Unlocks
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