Abnormal Psychology Midterm Study Guide Chapter 1 Deviance Distress Dysfunction Danger Abnormality in the past: 4 time periods- describe 2 and what they viewed the cause. -Ancient Times- Demon possession and trephination. -Greeks and Romans- Four humors. -Middle Ages- Demonology and exorcism. -The Renaissance- Sickness. Define: SomatogenIf you want to learn more check out how do the Asch experiments demonstrate conformity?
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ic Perspective- The view that abnormal psychological functioning had physical causes. Psychogenic Perspective- The view that chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological. De-institutionalization: Impact Pos. and Neg. Define: Positive Psychology- The study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities. Chapter 2Psychodynamic model (essay) Behavioral model (essay) Humanistic-existential model (essay) Cognitive model (essay) Sociocultural model (essay) Biological treatment: What is most common? Medication/ Drug Therapy. Client centered therapy: Who created? Carl Rogers Ego defense mechanisms: 7 total name and define 1. Repression- Person avoids anxiety by simply not allowing painful or dangerous thoughts to become conscious. Denial- Person simply refuses to acknowledge the existence of an external source of anxiety. Chapter 3 Reliability and validity: Define. (Predictive Validity). Reliability- A measure of the consistency of test or research results. Validity- The accuracy of a test’s or study’s results; that is, the extent to which the test or study actually measures or shows what it claims. Predictive Validity- The ability of a test or other assessment tool to predict future characteristics or behaviors. Projective tests: 1.) 1 ADV. 1 DIS. 2.) Which has higher projective or personality? 1 ADV. Simple test. DIS. Lack of reliability and validity.Personality Inventories-MMPI most widely used. More Reliable. Intelligence tests- Nervous/ cultural fairness Define: Observer drift- The tendency of an observer who is rating subjects in an experiment to change criteria gradually and involuntarily, thus making the data unreliable. Chapter 4 Avoidance theory for GAD: What does it mean? Ellis’s basic irrational assumptions: 4 write 2 word for word. 1.)It is awful and catastrophic when things are not the way one would very much like them to be. 2.)It is a dire necessity for an adult human being to be loved or approved of by virtually every significant other person in his community. Drug therapy for anxiety disorders: 2 disadvantages- Symptoms stronger when off medicine, Higher chance to relapse, “Addiction”. Systematic desensitization: What is the first step?- Relaxation Training. Preparedness and phobias: Know- if the preparedness theory is accurate then some phobias should be aquired more easily. Chapter 5 Apply Def. Trait anxiety- The general level of anxiety that a person brings to the various events in his or her life. Sympathetic nervous system pathway: Describe 1 and how it works. HPA pathway: ^ HPA: When we are faced by stressors, the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to secrete the adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH, sometimes called the body’s major stress hormone. ACTH stimulates the outer layer of the adrenal glands, an area called the adrenal cortex, triggering the release of a group of stress hormones called corticosteroids, including the hormone cortisol. These corticosteroids travel to various body organs, where they further produce arousal and fear reactions. PG 152. Acute Stress Disorder and PTSD: What is the difference? Acute- less than 1 month, basic symptoms, risk factors in childhood. PTSD- More than 1 month. Chapter 6 Mood disorders vs mood fluctuations: What differs?- Severity and duration. Dysthymic disorder: How long symptoms? - Two years. Biological causes of depression: What two neurotransmitters? - Seratonin and norephinephren. Electroconvulsive therapy: Used most often to treat depression. Object relations theorist: Follows psychodynamic. Chapter 7 Intentioned deaths: Know the 4 different types. -Death seekers -Death initiators -Death ignorers -Death darers Triggers of suicide: Know commonly observed triggers. -Stressful events -Social isolation -Serious illness -Abusive environment -Occupational stress -Mood and thought changes -Alcohol and other drug use -Mental disorders -Modeling Def. and Apply: Retrospective analysis- A psychological autopsy in which clinicians and researchers piece together information about a person’s suicide from the person’s past.