Page 1 of 9 INVITATION TO MANAGEMENT (CHAPTER 1) MGT 3200 I. WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? A. A DEFINITION ∙ The process of achieving desired results through the efficient utilization of human and material resources. ∙ People getting things done B. TWO KEY CONCERNS ∙ Effectiveness and efficiency ∙ Effectiveness refers to doing the right things at the right time ∙ Efficiency refers to minimizing waste or reducing resource cots. ∙ Market shares are key roles to effectiveness. ∙ On the test ∙ I keep my current level of productivity while reducing his resource costs – this is more efficiency o Effectiveness and efficiency are related. If you are efficient that does not necessarily make you effective. o Organizations that are efficient tend to be more effective. But this is not a guarantee. o The more I become concerned about efficiency, is it easier to be more effective or more difficult? The more you think about efficiency, the harder it becomes to be more effective. ∙ Which of these scenarios is better? A company that is effective but inefficient A company that is ineffective but efficient. ∙ Typically poor management is having effectiveness but poor efficiency. C. A MANAGER’S MOST IMPORTANT RESOURCE ∙ Human resources is the most important resource. Page 2 of 9 ∙ Look into Northcote Parkinson – “Injellitance” (equal parts of incompetence and jealousy) EXTRA CREDIT ∙ Parkinson/LAWS D. ART OR SCIENCE? ∙ It is both ∙ As managers it is an art, as an academicist it is a science ∙ “Equifinality” – there are many roads to success II. HOW DID MANAGEMENT BECOME IMPORTANT AND WHY IS STILL SIGNIFICANT TODAY? ∙ The industrial revolution forever changed how work is performed ∙ The economic effects of the industrial revolution leads to the need for professional management ∙ Peter F Drucker – google him ∙ What was the basic change in the industrial revolution? o The skills were transferred from man to machine. o Thus calls for expansion of factories, more workers, then the need for more managers. o The switch from “owner/manager” to “professional manager” A. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: FOREVER CHANGING HOW WORK WAS PERFORMED B. THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS LEADING TO THE NEED FOR PROFESSIONAL MANAGEMENT III. THE MANAGEMENT PYRAMID ∙ Underneath the management pyramid is your operative employees (“your labor”) A. FIRSTLINE MANAGERS ∙ The only managers that do not manage other managers, their main purpose is to make sure the tasks asked by top and middle manager are performed out through the labor people ∙ First line managers from people who did good in the field of labor, however this does not necessarily mean that they will be good at managers o Many times they are not given the authority to discipline i.e. fire, hire, promote, demote ∙ They are the most efficiency orientedPage 3 of 9 B. MIDDLE MANAGERS ∙ Regional sales manager, department head, etc. ∙ Interpret and Integrate o Interpret – they are a middle person so they take top management plans and convert them to 1st management plans, same for complaints o Integrate – to bring together, to coordinate ∙ They are more of vertical communication between top and bottom ∙ Four things that happen in corporate downsizing: o Management levels are eliminated (mostly from the middle level) o The managers who remain are asked to do more work o The company implements new computer/information technology o Staff management functions are framed out to consulting firms ∙ Corporate downsizing is all about cutting costs. ∙ “Outsourcing” – its cheaper ∙ Survivor syndrome – it happens after manmade or natural disaster, they feel guilty because they have been spared and their friends have been cut. They feel depressed and anxious, therefore error and accidents rates go up, finally productivity will go down. ∙ Middle is a mixture of effectiveness and efficiency, but still more on the efficiency side because they are not in charge of making decisions. C. TOP MANAGERS ∙ Fewest number of managers in the organizations ∙ They decide what business you’re going to be in and how you are going to do it ∙ They are in charge of strategy ∙ They are also in charge of legitimacy, they project their image onto society to show they are good, fundraisers, donations, etc. ∙ They are more effective oriented ∙ They well look far into the future, long range Nieman Marcus – Needless Markup IV. OTHER TYPES OF MANAGERS A. LINE VS. STAFF MANAGERSPage 4 of 9 ∙ Line Managers ∙ They have authority over the transformation process o How its produced, when its produced ∙ First line managers can be line managers ∙ Line managers are responsible for activities that directly affect the transformation process ∙ Line managers are located at all levels. Staff Managers ∙ Staff managers are support and guidance managers, they are typically experts in certain areas. They help keep the line managers in line. ∙ They are typically found in the middle. B. FUNCTIONAL VS. GENERAL MANAGERS ∙ Functional o Managing one area of expertise o Technical skills are the way to get your foot in the door ∙ General Manager o Managing many areas, CEO, they need to know a little bit about every function and how they work together. o General management is more difficult C. ADMINISTRATORS VS. MANAGERS o Administrator is just another name for a manager who manages in the public or not profit sector. o However in the more recent years, they have been going by managers now. o A manager manages in the private or for profit sector. The CEO of Syngenta Inc. is a? o Top Manager o General Manager o Line Manager o All of the above Karen is a Human Resource Manager at Blue Cross and Blue SHeild. She primarily provides advice to manager dealing with disciplinary and termination issues. Karen is ________. o Functional and staff. V. THE FIVE FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT (FAYOL) o Collectively these five functions are known as the management process.Page 5 of 9 A. THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS o Planning o Getting you prepared for your future Goal setting and action planning ∙ Goal setting – you assess where you are at right now and then assess where you want to be in the future. ∙ The gap between now and the future could be an opportunity problem ∙ Top management usually is in charge of planning o Organizing o Staffing o Hire and train, if they perform well then we reward them, compensation, keeping them o Leading o By example o Controlling o Monitor organizational performance o Compare actual performance with “hoped for” performance “Hoped for” performance comes from Planning They call Planning and controlling the twins of management o If actual performance is less than “hoped for” performance, diagnose problem & take corrective action o If actual performance is greater than or equal to “hoped for” performance, PARTY! Injellitance most adversely affects which function of mgt? 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Staffing (this one) 4. Leading 5. Controlling A manager is conducting an annual performance appraisal with one of her employees. This is an example of the ____. 1. Planning function 2. Organizing function 3. Controlling function Bill is an assisstnat manager at Raising Cane’s. he spends his time, motivating, directing, communicating. What is he doing? 1. Leading Most important roles of top, middle, and first line managers? o Top – planning Page 6 of 9 o Middle – controlling o First – leading and staffing o What’s the relative emphasis on these five functions as one ascends the management pyramid? B. THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE FIVE FUNCTIONS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT VI. MANAGERIAL ROLES (MINTZBERG) A. INTERPERSONAL ∙ B. INFORMATIONAL ∙ C. DECISIONAL ∙ VII. MANAGERIAL SKILLS (KATZ) A. TECHNICAL ∙ Expertise related to a method, process, or procedure ∙ Easiest to be taught, what you will primary learn in college B. HUMAN ∙ The ability to work well with others in order to get things done ∙ Must be aware of your own behavior and how it is effecting people ∙ Selfawareness ad empathy o Being able to see things from other perspectives C. CONCEPTUAL ∙ The ability to problem solve, being able to see problems before they pop up, being able to see opportunities before they pop up ∙ As you go up the management levels, conceptual gets more important ∙ Conceptual skills are the hardest to acquire, it requires equal parts of intelligence and experience D. DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS REQUIRED AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT Page 7 of 9 VIII. MANAGERIAL SUCCESS A. ARE EFFECTIVE MANAGERS SUCCESSFUL MANAGERS? 1. A STUDY BY FRED LUTHANS (1988) ∙ Luthans’ (1988) Real Managers Study ∙ Luthans studied over 450 real managers and asked the question: “are effective managers successful?” o The answer Luthans found was that only 10% of them were successful ∙ Luthans then studied the behavioral differences between effective and successful managers ∙ He measured how much time both types of managers spent on the following: o Traditional management o Communication o Human resource management o Networking ∙ Percentage of time spent per day on 4 management activities by effective and successful managers (Luthans, 1988)
o What’s the relative emphasis on these five functions as one ascends the management pyramid?
∙ What was the basic change in the industrial revolution?
HOW DID MANAGEMENT BECOME IMPORTANT AND WHY IS STILL SIGNIFICANT TODAY?
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∙ Conscientiousness o Even when you treat conscientiousness bad, they will still work hard until you reach that breaking point ∙ Implications o Successful Managers and the Peter Principle Buttering people up is slippery stuff You get promoted to your level of competence ∙ Eponymous o Effective managers and the problem of being so good you’re irreplaceable Engage in succession planning and train one’s replacement o Effective managers are humble and believe in a just world “I don’t have to sell myself. My excellent work speaks for itself”Page 8 of 9 o Successful managers more likely to promote their team’s accomplishments to management “It ain’t bragging if it’s the truth.” o Successful managers more likely to ask for feedback from their managers about how they and their teams can improve ∙ Successful managers spend most of their day networking ∙ Effective managers spend most of their day communicating Survey TOPS MGT – Gets 1 Point of Extra Credit Did you know? ∙ Emotional Intelligence researchers have found that: when it comes to expressing emotions at work, anger is the #1 expressed emotion. ∙ The emotion expressed least at work is joy. ∙ Why do you think this is the case? o Anger can be productively used to reach your goals o Joy is expressed little because it shows you are crazy and apparently don’t have much work to be doing ∙ Dr. Francis Flynn at Stanford suggests that individuals who are more guiltprone are more effective leaders ∙ His research in this area found that individuals who are more prone to guilt received higher performance ratings from their bosses, were more committed to their organizations ∙ Which function of management deals with the selection, retention, and termination of employees? o Staffing ∙ Which of the following is not true concerning functional and general management? o Functional managers increase in prevalence as one ascends the management pyramid. ∙ Which of the following pairs of management functions represents the conjoined twins of management? o Planning and controlling (another name for controlling is “feedback”) ∙ Which function of management … o Organizing ∙ Which has “primacy”? o Planning ∙ Which is performed by top managers? o All of the above. Page 9 of 9 Planning is the most important ∙ Which is the most important to middle managers? o Organizing