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psy 342 purdue

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Common for people who are self-actualized?




What are his/her characteristics?




Chapter 1: What is personality?



PSY 342 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: What is personality? I. Personality  a. Refers to an individual’s characteristic patterns of though,  emotion, and behavior b. A person’s characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and  relating to others c. Concerned with how people differ/how to distinguish  between people d. Approaches: i. Trait: conceptualization If you want to learn more check out phys 272
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of individual differences ii. Biological: anatomy, physiology, genetics, evolution iii. Psychoanalytic: unconscious mind, internal mental  conflict iv. Phenomenological: conscious awareness, humanistic, cross-cultural v. Learning and cognitive: behaviorism, social e. Paradigms i. Philosophical and theoretical framework within which theories, laws, and generalizations and the  experiments performed in support of them are  formulated ii. Attempt to explain personality in very different ways 1. Sometimes the theories conflict iii. 8 paradigms: 1. Psychoanalytic: focus is largely on unconscious  motives, desires a. Particularly sex 2. Neo-analytic: focuses on unconscious motives a. Focused on self esteem and how one fits  into society 3. Biological: focuses on our biology a. Genes, instincts, evolution 4. Behaviorist: focus on science of learning  impact of rewards and punishment 5. Cognitive: emphasizes human thought a. Draws from modern cognitive psychology 6. Trait: how people differ from one another a. Focus on personality traits 7. Humanistic/existential: focus on human growth  and potential, self-fulfillment, and spirituality 8. Interactionist: focus on tendency to act  differently in situationsa. Trait + situation = behavior iv. All of the theories have something to offer although  each has particular strengths and weaknesses f. History i. Hippocrates’ 4 Humors 1. Personality traits determined by imbalances in  the body’s 4 main fluids/humors a. Blood: overly enthusiastic b. Phlegm: sluggish, indifferent c. Black bile: depressed, temperamental d. Yellow bile: aggressive, choleric ii. Phrenology 1. Assessing personality based on shapes and  bumps of peoples skulls a. “Brain shape determines both personality and skull shape” – Franz Gall iii. Sheldon’s Body Types 1. Personality is related to one’s body shape 2. 3 types: a. Ectomorph i. Body shape = thin, tall, bony ii. Personality = shy, restrained, self aware b. Mesomorph i. Body shape = muscular, solid ii. Personality = assertive, loves  action c. Endomorph i. Body shape = round, big belly ii. Personality = relaxed, social, loves  food iv. These theories were shown to have limitations 1. The concepts didn’t relate to the observed  personality II. What makes a good theory a. Comprehensive: covers all the constructs that are deemed  important by the field; broad and all encompassing b. Parsimonious: simple and efficient c. Testable: able to prove d. Productive: leads to new ideas and research; helpful to the  world III. Themes and issues for theories a. Role of awareness/unconscious b. Concept of self c. Unique vs. general lawsi. Nomothetic: broad ii. Idiographic: individualized d. Person vs. situation e. Philosophical view of people: inheritantly good or bad? f. Past, present, future g. Feelings, thoughts, behavior h. Cultural influences i. Gender influences IV. Approaches to theory building a. Two levels of information that personality theorists are  interested in: i. Individual level 1. What are individuals like 2. What are his/her characteristics? ii. General level 1. General laws that apply to all people b. Deductive approach i. Works from the “top-down” 1. Generate basic laws about people 2. Make deductions/predictions about individuals  based on those laws 3. Ex: Freud developed the theory first c. Inductive approach i. Reasoning based on “bottom-up” 1. Collect data first about people 2. Develop the theory based on the data; make  generalizations 3. Ex: Five Factor trait model d. Borrow and learn from related disciplines i. Use concepts that are known in other fields and  apply to personality psychology ii. Ex: PET scans allow us to learn about the brain, and  personality theory must be consistent with this V. Modern Personality History a. Modern Personality Theory was developed by Freud around  1900 i. Not very old b. Theories rise and fall (psychoanalysis) and may reemerge  again c. Theories are almost always influenced by place and time  (gender differences) VI. Theories are central to personality a. Fluid, emerging, changing  b. Not scientific lawsChapter 10&11: Psychoanalytic and Neo-analytic Perspective I. Psychoanalytic Theory a. Freudian Theory i. 3 components: 1. Conscious a. Thoughts, perceptions 2. Preconscious a. Memories, stored knowledge 3. Unconscious a. Fears, desires/motives, immoral urges b. Role: i. Portion of the mind that is not  aware ii. Psychoanalytic techniques: 1. Hypnosis 2. Free association – say  whatever comes into your  mind; will eventually reveal  something about you/where  your mind is 3. Dream interpretation – “royal  road to the unconscious” a. Manifest content –  what you remember  from a dream and you  consciously consider b. Latent content –  deeper hidden,  unconscious meaning  of dream c. Difficult to test, no  clear answer ii. 3 structures that develop over time 1. Id (unconscious)a. Most basic and is concerned with  instincts and impulses b. The “devil” on your shoulder in cartoons c. Undifferentiated core of personality d. Operates on pleasure principle i. Relieve tensions/urges 2. Ego (free floating in all 3 components) a. Concerned with solving real world  problems to fulfill id urges b. Personality part that interacts with the  world c. Operates on the reality principle i. Do what it takes to get what you  want 3. Superego (preconscious) a. Highest level of personality concerned  with following social rules b. Similar to a conscience (Jiminy cricket) c. The “angel” on your shoulder in cartoons d. Operates on the morality principle i. Do the right/fair thing iii. Psychosexual development 1. Libido (sexual energy) is the bases of our drive  and motivation 2. Healthy personality development consists of  transitioning successful through 5 stages that  focus the libido to different areas of the body a. BUT people can get “stuck” along the  way b. These stages are used often anymore  and somewhat sexist  c. Oral stage i. Theme: infants are driven to satisfy the drives of hunger and thirst ii. Conflict that moves person to the  next stage: child must give up  breast feeding iii. Fixation if do not get past this  stage: dependency on others or  preoccupation with oral acquisition d. Anal stage i. Theme: child received pleasure  from relieving self of bodily waste ii. Conflict: child is “toilet trained”iii. Fixation if do not get past this  stage: preoccupation with neatness (anal retentive) or excessive  “bathroom humor” e. Phallic stage i. Theme: children gain pleasure  through genitals 1. Oedipus complex – boys  desire mother 2. Electra complex – girls  experience penis envy ii. Conflict: over sexual behavior is  not socially acceptable iii. Fixation: have to internalize f. Latency stage i. Theme: psychosexual energy is  channeled into academic and social pursuits ii. Conflicts and fixation do not occur  during this stage 1. Ends with puberty g. Genital stage i. Theme: individual gains  satisfaction from mature  relationships ii. This stage is achieved if a person  makes it through the other stages  with enough available sexual  energy 1. No fixations iv. Defense Mechanisms 1. Ego must balance the demands of the id, the  superego, and reality 2. Defense mechanisms: the ego processes that  distort reality to protect the individual from  anxiety 3. More currently used than psychosexual ideas 4. Repression a. Pushes threatening thoughts/ideas into  the unconscious i. Can we push these away  consciously?? b. Explanation for: i. PTSD ii. Repressed memories iii. False memories5. Reaction formations a. Hides threatening impulses by over emphasizing their opposite b. Explanation for: i. Televangelist Jimmy Bakker and  Jimmy Swaggert’s inappropriate  sexual escapades 6. Denial a. Refuse to acknowledge anxiety-provoking stimuli b. Explanation for: i. Not acknowledging the sudden  death of a loved one ii. Interpreting a terrible fight with a  spouse as just a “lover’s quarrel” 7. Projection a. Attributes anxiety provoking impulse or  thoughts to others b. Explanation for: i. Always being suspicious of others ii. Extreme political opinions 8. Displacement a. Shifts one’s unconscious aggression or  fears to a safer target (hydraulic model) b. Explanation for: i. “Kicking the dog” ii. The case of little Hans 9. Sublimation a. Dangerous urges are transformed into  positive, socially meaningful motivations i. Used for community good b. Most helpful and generative c. Explanation for: i. Artistic creation ii. Community leaders 10. Regression a. Protects the individual by returning to an  earlier “safer” time of life b. Explanation for: i. Child with a new baby sibling  wanting a bottle again ii. When and adult whimpers iii. Distressed individual treating their  spouse as if he/she were their  parent 11. Rationalizationa. Creating logical and socially acceptable  explanations for behaviors which were  driven by unconscious impulses b. Explanation for: i. Telling a lie and then claiming it  was to protect the feelings of  another person 12. Current applications: a. Subliminal perceptions: perceive  something unconsciously b. Subliminal advertising: weak, direct info  is more powerful c. Implicit association task i. Taps into unconscious feelings and  beliefs ii. Reaction tie delay related to  difficulty associating two types of  categories d. Priming v. Psychoanalytic therapy 1. Insight based 2. Client must “replay” a sexual stage or past  difficulty until they get it right 3. Disadvantage: extremely long term (10-20  years) of weekly meetings II. Neo-analytics a. Carl Jung i. 3 parts of the mind 1. Conscious ego a. The conscious part of personality b. Embodies the sense of self c. Similar to Freud’s ego concept 2. Personal unconscious a. Contains thoughts that are not currently  part of conscious awareness b. Contains past and future material 3. Collective unconscious a. Deeper level of unconscious shared with  the rest of humanity b. Contains archetypes (universal emotional symbols) i. Animus/anima1. Male/female element in a  woman/man ii. Persona and shadow 1. Socially acceptable front vs.  dark and unacceptable side  of personality ii. Personality theory 1. 4 functions of the mind a. Sensing b. Thinking c. Feeling d. Intuiting 2. 2 major attitudes of the mind a. Extroversion i. Direct psychic energy toward  things in the external world b. Introversion i. Directs psychic energy inwardly b. Myers-Briggs Types i. 4 dimensions of personality (16 combinations) 1. Introversion vs. Extraversion 2. Sensing vs. Intuition 3. Thinking vs. Feeling 4. Judging vs. Perceiving c. Alfred Adler i. Individual Psychology 1. Emphasizes the importance of social conditions on personality 2. 3 fundamental social issues a. Occupational tasks – finding a career b. Societal tasks – finding friends c. Love tasks – finding a life partner ii. Inferiority/Superiority Complex 1. Central core of personality is striving for  superiority 2. Inferiority Complex = exaggerated feelings of  normal incompetence and helplessness 3. Superiority = fabricated sense of power and  competence in response to inferiority iii. Birth Order1. Oldest born – achievement striving to parents’  full attention 2. Second born – strives to beat out older sibling  and may not succeed which leads to low self  esteem 3. Last born – feels pressured to succeed in all  areas, but may give up and become lazy 4. Recent evidence suggests that birth order has  little or no relation to personality traits and  intelligence d. Karen Horney i. Feminist perspective 1. Rejection of Freudian penis envy BUT she  believes women are envious of male masculine freedoms and privileges ii. Anxiety as core part of personality 1. Fear of being alone, helpless, insecure iii. Aspects of self iv. Neurotic coping strategies 1. Passive (complying) 2. Aggressive (fighting) 3. Withdrawn (disengaging) e. Erik Erikson i. Psychosocial stages of development 1. Freud extension but emphasis on SOCIAL not  sexual development 2. 8 stages: a. Infancy i. Ego crisis: trust vs. mistrust ii. Skill gained: hope b. Early childhood i. Ego crisis: autonomy vs. shame ii. Skill gained: will c. Early to mid childhood i. Ego crisis: initiative vs. guilt ii. Skill gained: purpose d. Mid to late childhood i. Ego crisis: industry vs. inferiority ii. Skill gained: competence e. Teenage i. Ego crisis: identity vs. role  confusion ii. Skill gained: loyalty f. Early adulthood i. Ego crisis: intimacy vs. isolation ii. Skill gained: loveg. Middle adulthood i. Ego crisis: generativity vs.  stagnation ii. Skill gained: caring h. Late adulthood i. Ego crisis: ego integrity vs. despair ii. Skill gained: wisdom f. Anna Freud i. Emphasized social influences on the ego ii. Gave ego more power iii. Studied children and teens g. Melanie Klein i. First significant child psychoanalyst ii. Play therapy h. Heinz Kohut i. Narcissistic Personality Disorder III. Modern Analytic Methods a. Much less focus on childhood development and more focus  on where you are now b. Current research into self-monitoring i. We all vary in the degree to which we monitor our  own behavior Chapter 14: Behaviorism I. Classical Conditioning of Personality a. Ivan Pavlov: Dog training i. Conditioned stimulus -> conditioned response b. Generalization i. Conditioned responses can occur in response to  stimuli SIMILAR to the stimulus c. Discrimination i. Learning to tell the difference between different  stimuli1. Responding only to the conditioned stimulus  and NOT to similar stimuli  d. Extinction i. When pairing of the conditioned and unconditioned  stimulus stops ii. Gradual decrease in the response e. Can be used to explain emotional aspects of personality i. Neurotic behavior, phobias, superstitious behavior II. Origins of Behaviorist Approach a. John B. Watson i. Founded behaviorism ii. Applied conditioning principles to humans iii. Rejection of introspection iv. Tabula rasa 1. John Locke 2. People are behaviorally conditioned by the  environment b. B.F. Skinner i. Radical behaviorism 1. Personality IS a group of responses to the  environment ii. Radical determinist iii. Operant conditioning 1. Behavior is changed by its consequences a. “Skinner box” i. Reinforce: anything that  STRENGTHENS behavioral  tendency 1. Positive reinforcement = add  something to increase  response 2. Negative reinforcement =  remove something to  increase response ii. Punishment is anything that  WEAKENS a behavioral tendency 1. Positive punishment: add  something to decrease  response 2. Negative punishment:  remove something to  decrease the response 2. Shaping a. Successive approximation causes  behavior to change continuouslyi. Issue of persistence: schedules of  reinforcement ii. Acquire behaviors quickly if  consistent iii. If reinforcement is continuous,  behavior goes away quickly when  reinforcement is stopped iv. If reinforcement is partial, behavior is more resistant to extinction 3. Societal views a. Governments role is to positively  reinforce pro-social behavior b. Government is the trainer making all the  “animals” behave in the appropriate way c. Walden Two i. Applied the principles of operant conditioning to  design a society ii. Sets up a controlling environment by using positive  reinforcement iii. Several communities were founded on behaviorist  principles d. Analogy i. Humans as intelligent rats learning life mazes e. Free Will?? i. Behavior is determined by environmental  contingencies III. Behaviorism and Personality a. Personality is a set of behavioral sets performed in  response to environmental stimuli b. No creativity, we simply apply learned behaviors to new  problems c. Free will is an illusion d. Individual differences are differences in learning history e. Benefits: i. Forced scientific rigor onto personality psychology ii. Useful concepts: 1. Learning theory 2. Behavioral therapy IV. Clinical Uses a. Phobia: intense fear that is not justified i. Cure: systematic desensitization 1. Extinction: role of avoidance 2. Counterconditioning a. Relax body, develop anxiety hierarchy,  relax completely and visualize the lowest item on hierarchy to allow anxiety to dissipate, move to the next level and  repeat b. Behavioral assessment i. Identify target behavior ii. Identify environmental factors that elicit/reinforce the target behavior iii. Identify environmental factors that reduce the target  behavior iv. Identify environmental factors that can be  manipulated to alter the behavior v. ABC method: antecedents, behavior, consequences Chapter 12: Humanism I. Existentialism a. Philosophy concerned with the meaning of human  existence b. “Emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a  free and responsible agent determining their own  development through acts of will c. Phenomenological: study of consciousness i. NOT positivist ii. Subjective realities are important d. Philosophers: i. Nietzsche ii. Sartre e. Existential Dilemma i. Bad side: (provokes anxiety and dread) 1. You will all die 2. No one truly cares about you 3. You are all alone in the universe ii. Good side: 1. You have absolute free will iii. You can choose how to respond to this dilemma 1. Choose nothingness, despair/follow the crowd 2. Choose being, embracing life; you have control  and responsibility II. Humanism a. Philosophy that emphasizes the personal worth of the  individual and the importance of human values i. Emphasizes the creative, spontaneous, and active  nature of humans b. Existence comes from our relations with others i. I-Thou dialogue: find meaning in direct, mutual  relationships c. Human potential movementi. People are encouraged to realize their inner  potentials ii. Use groups meetings, self-disclosure, and  introspection d. Carl Rogers i. People must take responsibilities for themselves: It’s  on YOU ii. Very different from analytics and behaviorism iii. Rogerian Therapy 1. Therapist is supportive and nondirective 2. Client orented 3. Unconditional positive regard 4. Therapist is empathetic in understanding  client’s frame of reference e. Victor Frankl i. Jewish Austrian doctor in the early 1940s 1. Reduced suicide rates for a university before  WWII 2. Importance of personal choice 3. Logotherapy: choosing to find meaning of life ii. Anxiety and dread f. Maslow i. Hierarchy of needs 1. Basic  a. Physiological b. Safety 2. Psychological  a. Belongingness and love b. Esteem 3. Self-fulfillment (goal) a. Self-actualization i. Person realizes his/her own  potential ii. People who reach this are  spiritually fulfilled, comfortable  with themselves, productive  members of society b. Measuring self-actualization  i. Maslow used interviews,  observations, projective tests,  biographical studies ii. Personal Orientation Inventory  (POI) 1. Self-report questionnaire2. Seems to capture some  aspects of a healthy  personality ii. Peak experiences 1. Powerful experiences in which people seem to  transcend the self, be at one with the world,  and feel completely self-fulfilled 2. “Flow” – Happy Gilmore 3. Common for people who are self-actualized

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