PSY 342 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: What is personality? I. Personality a. Refers to an individual’s characteristic patterns of though, emotion, and behavior b. A person’s characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and relating to others c. Concerned with how people differ/how to distinguish between people d. Approaches: i. Trait: conceptualization If you want to learn more check out phys 272
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of individual differences ii. Biological: anatomy, physiology, genetics, evolution iii. Psychoanalytic: unconscious mind, internal mental conflict iv. Phenomenological: conscious awareness, humanistic, cross-cultural v. Learning and cognitive: behaviorism, social e. Paradigms i. Philosophical and theoretical framework within which theories, laws, and generalizations and the experiments performed in support of them are formulated ii. Attempt to explain personality in very different ways 1. Sometimes the theories conflict iii. 8 paradigms: 1. Psychoanalytic: focus is largely on unconscious motives, desires a. Particularly sex 2. Neo-analytic: focuses on unconscious motives a. Focused on self esteem and how one fits into society 3. Biological: focuses on our biology a. Genes, instincts, evolution 4. Behaviorist: focus on science of learning impact of rewards and punishment 5. Cognitive: emphasizes human thought a. Draws from modern cognitive psychology 6. Trait: how people differ from one another a. Focus on personality traits 7. Humanistic/existential: focus on human growth and potential, self-fulfillment, and spirituality 8. Interactionist: focus on tendency to act differently in situationsa. Trait + situation = behavior iv. All of the theories have something to offer although each has particular strengths and weaknesses f. History i. Hippocrates’ 4 Humors 1. Personality traits determined by imbalances in the body’s 4 main fluids/humors a. Blood: overly enthusiastic b. Phlegm: sluggish, indifferent c. Black bile: depressed, temperamental d. Yellow bile: aggressive, choleric ii. Phrenology 1. Assessing personality based on shapes and bumps of peoples skulls a. “Brain shape determines both personality and skull shape” – Franz Gall iii. Sheldon’s Body Types 1. Personality is related to one’s body shape 2. 3 types: a. Ectomorph i. Body shape = thin, tall, bony ii. Personality = shy, restrained, self aware b. Mesomorph i. Body shape = muscular, solid ii. Personality = assertive, loves action c. Endomorph i. Body shape = round, big belly ii. Personality = relaxed, social, loves food iv. These theories were shown to have limitations 1. The concepts didn’t relate to the observed personality II. What makes a good theory a. Comprehensive: covers all the constructs that are deemed important by the field; broad and all encompassing b. Parsimonious: simple and efficient c. Testable: able to prove d. Productive: leads to new ideas and research; helpful to the world III. Themes and issues for theories a. Role of awareness/unconscious b. Concept of self c. Unique vs. general lawsi. Nomothetic: broad ii. Idiographic: individualized d. Person vs. situation e. Philosophical view of people: inheritantly good or bad? f. Past, present, future g. Feelings, thoughts, behavior h. Cultural influences i. Gender influences IV. Approaches to theory building a. Two levels of information that personality theorists are interested in: i. Individual level 1. What are individuals like 2. What are his/her characteristics? ii. General level 1. General laws that apply to all people b. Deductive approach i. Works from the “top-down” 1. Generate basic laws about people 2. Make deductions/predictions about individuals based on those laws 3. Ex: Freud developed the theory first c. Inductive approach i. Reasoning based on “bottom-up” 1. Collect data first about people 2. Develop the theory based on the data; make generalizations 3. Ex: Five Factor trait model d. Borrow and learn from related disciplines i. Use concepts that are known in other fields and apply to personality psychology ii. Ex: PET scans allow us to learn about the brain, and personality theory must be consistent with this V. Modern Personality History a. Modern Personality Theory was developed by Freud around 1900 i. Not very old b. Theories rise and fall (psychoanalysis) and may reemerge again c. Theories are almost always influenced by place and time (gender differences) VI. Theories are central to personality a. Fluid, emerging, changing b. Not scientific lawsChapter 10&11: Psychoanalytic and Neo-analytic Perspective I. Psychoanalytic Theory a. Freudian Theory i. 3 components: 1. Conscious a. Thoughts, perceptions 2. Preconscious a. Memories, stored knowledge 3. Unconscious a. Fears, desires/motives, immoral urges b. Role: i. Portion of the mind that is not aware ii. Psychoanalytic techniques: 1. Hypnosis 2. Free association – say whatever comes into your mind; will eventually reveal something about you/where your mind is 3. Dream interpretation – “royal road to the unconscious” a. Manifest content – what you remember from a dream and you consciously consider b. Latent content – deeper hidden, unconscious meaning of dream c. Difficult to test, no clear answer ii. 3 structures that develop over time 1. Id (unconscious)a. Most basic and is concerned with instincts and impulses b. The “devil” on your shoulder in cartoons c. Undifferentiated core of personality d. Operates on pleasure principle i. Relieve tensions/urges 2. Ego (free floating in all 3 components) a. Concerned with solving real world problems to fulfill id urges b. Personality part that interacts with the world c. Operates on the reality principle i. Do what it takes to get what you want 3. Superego (preconscious) a. Highest level of personality concerned with following social rules b. Similar to a conscience (Jiminy cricket) c. The “angel” on your shoulder in cartoons d. Operates on the morality principle i. Do the right/fair thing iii. Psychosexual development 1. Libido (sexual energy) is the bases of our drive and motivation 2. Healthy personality development consists of transitioning successful through 5 stages that focus the libido to different areas of the body a. BUT people can get “stuck” along the way b. These stages are used often anymore and somewhat sexist c. Oral stage i. Theme: infants are driven to satisfy the drives of hunger and thirst ii. Conflict that moves person to the next stage: child must give up breast feeding iii. Fixation if do not get past this stage: dependency on others or preoccupation with oral acquisition d. Anal stage i. Theme: child received pleasure from relieving self of bodily waste ii. Conflict: child is “toilet trained”iii. Fixation if do not get past this stage: preoccupation with neatness (anal retentive) or excessive “bathroom humor” e. Phallic stage i. Theme: children gain pleasure through genitals 1. Oedipus complex – boys desire mother 2. Electra complex – girls experience penis envy ii. Conflict: over sexual behavior is not socially acceptable iii. Fixation: have to internalize f. Latency stage i. Theme: psychosexual energy is channeled into academic and social pursuits ii. Conflicts and fixation do not occur during this stage 1. Ends with puberty g. Genital stage i. Theme: individual gains satisfaction from mature relationships ii. This stage is achieved if a person makes it through the other stages with enough available sexual energy 1. No fixations iv. Defense Mechanisms 1. Ego must balance the demands of the id, the superego, and reality 2. Defense mechanisms: the ego processes that distort reality to protect the individual from anxiety 3. More currently used than psychosexual ideas 4. Repression a. Pushes threatening thoughts/ideas into the unconscious i. Can we push these away consciously?? b. Explanation for: i. PTSD ii. Repressed memories iii. False memories5. Reaction formations a. Hides threatening impulses by over emphasizing their opposite b. Explanation for: i. Televangelist Jimmy Bakker and Jimmy Swaggert’s inappropriate sexual escapades 6. Denial a. Refuse to acknowledge anxiety-provoking stimuli b. Explanation for: i. Not acknowledging the sudden death of a loved one ii. Interpreting a terrible fight with a spouse as just a “lover’s quarrel” 7. Projection a. Attributes anxiety provoking impulse or thoughts to others b. Explanation for: i. Always being suspicious of others ii. Extreme political opinions 8. Displacement a. Shifts one’s unconscious aggression or fears to a safer target (hydraulic model) b. Explanation for: i. “Kicking the dog” ii. The case of little Hans 9. Sublimation a. Dangerous urges are transformed into positive, socially meaningful motivations i. Used for community good b. Most helpful and generative c. Explanation for: i. Artistic creation ii. Community leaders 10. Regression a. Protects the individual by returning to an earlier “safer” time of life b. Explanation for: i. Child with a new baby sibling wanting a bottle again ii. When and adult whimpers iii. Distressed individual treating their spouse as if he/she were their parent 11. Rationalizationa. Creating logical and socially acceptable explanations for behaviors which were driven by unconscious impulses b. Explanation for: i. Telling a lie and then claiming it was to protect the feelings of another person 12. Current applications: a. Subliminal perceptions: perceive something unconsciously b. Subliminal advertising: weak, direct info is more powerful c. Implicit association task i. Taps into unconscious feelings and beliefs ii. Reaction tie delay related to difficulty associating two types of categories d. Priming v. Psychoanalytic therapy 1. Insight based 2. Client must “replay” a sexual stage or past difficulty until they get it right 3. Disadvantage: extremely long term (10-20 years) of weekly meetings II. Neo-analytics a. Carl Jung i. 3 parts of the mind 1. Conscious ego a. The conscious part of personality b. Embodies the sense of self c. Similar to Freud’s ego concept 2. Personal unconscious a. Contains thoughts that are not currently part of conscious awareness b. Contains past and future material 3. Collective unconscious a. Deeper level of unconscious shared with the rest of humanity b. Contains archetypes (universal emotional symbols) i. Animus/anima1. Male/female element in a woman/man ii. Persona and shadow 1. Socially acceptable front vs. dark and unacceptable side of personality ii. Personality theory 1. 4 functions of the mind a. Sensing b. Thinking c. Feeling d. Intuiting 2. 2 major attitudes of the mind a. Extroversion i. Direct psychic energy toward things in the external world b. Introversion i. Directs psychic energy inwardly b. Myers-Briggs Types i. 4 dimensions of personality (16 combinations) 1. Introversion vs. Extraversion 2. Sensing vs. Intuition 3. Thinking vs. Feeling 4. Judging vs. Perceiving c. Alfred Adler i. Individual Psychology 1. Emphasizes the importance of social conditions on personality 2. 3 fundamental social issues a. Occupational tasks – finding a career b. Societal tasks – finding friends c. Love tasks – finding a life partner ii. Inferiority/Superiority Complex 1. Central core of personality is striving for superiority 2. Inferiority Complex = exaggerated feelings of normal incompetence and helplessness 3. Superiority = fabricated sense of power and competence in response to inferiority iii. Birth Order1. Oldest born – achievement striving to parents’ full attention 2. Second born – strives to beat out older sibling and may not succeed which leads to low self esteem 3. Last born – feels pressured to succeed in all areas, but may give up and become lazy 4. Recent evidence suggests that birth order has little or no relation to personality traits and intelligence d. Karen Horney i. Feminist perspective 1. Rejection of Freudian penis envy BUT she believes women are envious of male masculine freedoms and privileges ii. Anxiety as core part of personality 1. Fear of being alone, helpless, insecure iii. Aspects of self iv. Neurotic coping strategies 1. Passive (complying) 2. Aggressive (fighting) 3. Withdrawn (disengaging) e. Erik Erikson i. Psychosocial stages of development 1. Freud extension but emphasis on SOCIAL not sexual development 2. 8 stages: a. Infancy i. Ego crisis: trust vs. mistrust ii. Skill gained: hope b. Early childhood i. Ego crisis: autonomy vs. shame ii. Skill gained: will c. Early to mid childhood i. Ego crisis: initiative vs. guilt ii. Skill gained: purpose d. Mid to late childhood i. Ego crisis: industry vs. inferiority ii. Skill gained: competence e. Teenage i. Ego crisis: identity vs. role confusion ii. Skill gained: loyalty f. Early adulthood i. Ego crisis: intimacy vs. isolation ii. Skill gained: loveg. Middle adulthood i. Ego crisis: generativity vs. stagnation ii. Skill gained: caring h. Late adulthood i. Ego crisis: ego integrity vs. despair ii. Skill gained: wisdom f. Anna Freud i. Emphasized social influences on the ego ii. Gave ego more power iii. Studied children and teens g. Melanie Klein i. First significant child psychoanalyst ii. Play therapy h. Heinz Kohut i. Narcissistic Personality Disorder III. Modern Analytic Methods a. Much less focus on childhood development and more focus on where you are now b. Current research into self-monitoring i. We all vary in the degree to which we monitor our own behavior Chapter 14: Behaviorism I. Classical Conditioning of Personality a. Ivan Pavlov: Dog training i. Conditioned stimulus -> conditioned response b. Generalization i. Conditioned responses can occur in response to stimuli SIMILAR to the stimulus c. Discrimination i. Learning to tell the difference between different stimuli1. Responding only to the conditioned stimulus and NOT to similar stimuli d. Extinction i. When pairing of the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus stops ii. Gradual decrease in the response e. Can be used to explain emotional aspects of personality i. Neurotic behavior, phobias, superstitious behavior II. Origins of Behaviorist Approach a. John B. Watson i. Founded behaviorism ii. Applied conditioning principles to humans iii. Rejection of introspection iv. Tabula rasa 1. John Locke 2. People are behaviorally conditioned by the environment b. B.F. Skinner i. Radical behaviorism 1. Personality IS a group of responses to the environment ii. Radical determinist iii. Operant conditioning 1. Behavior is changed by its consequences a. “Skinner box” i. Reinforce: anything that STRENGTHENS behavioral tendency 1. Positive reinforcement = add something to increase response 2. Negative reinforcement = remove something to increase response ii. Punishment is anything that WEAKENS a behavioral tendency 1. Positive punishment: add something to decrease response 2. Negative punishment: remove something to decrease the response 2. Shaping a. Successive approximation causes behavior to change continuouslyi. Issue of persistence: schedules of reinforcement ii. Acquire behaviors quickly if consistent iii. If reinforcement is continuous, behavior goes away quickly when reinforcement is stopped iv. If reinforcement is partial, behavior is more resistant to extinction 3. Societal views a. Governments role is to positively reinforce pro-social behavior b. Government is the trainer making all the “animals” behave in the appropriate way c. Walden Two i. Applied the principles of operant conditioning to design a society ii. Sets up a controlling environment by using positive reinforcement iii. Several communities were founded on behaviorist principles d. Analogy i. Humans as intelligent rats learning life mazes e. Free Will?? i. Behavior is determined by environmental contingencies III. Behaviorism and Personality a. Personality is a set of behavioral sets performed in response to environmental stimuli b. No creativity, we simply apply learned behaviors to new problems c. Free will is an illusion d. Individual differences are differences in learning history e. Benefits: i. Forced scientific rigor onto personality psychology ii. Useful concepts: 1. Learning theory 2. Behavioral therapy IV. Clinical Uses a. Phobia: intense fear that is not justified i. Cure: systematic desensitization 1. Extinction: role of avoidance 2. Counterconditioning a. Relax body, develop anxiety hierarchy, relax completely and visualize the lowest item on hierarchy to allow anxiety to dissipate, move to the next level and repeat b. Behavioral assessment i. Identify target behavior ii. Identify environmental factors that elicit/reinforce the target behavior iii. Identify environmental factors that reduce the target behavior iv. Identify environmental factors that can be manipulated to alter the behavior v. ABC method: antecedents, behavior, consequences Chapter 12: Humanism I. Existentialism a. Philosophy concerned with the meaning of human existence b. “Emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of will c. Phenomenological: study of consciousness i. NOT positivist ii. Subjective realities are important d. Philosophers: i. Nietzsche ii. Sartre e. Existential Dilemma i. Bad side: (provokes anxiety and dread) 1. You will all die 2. No one truly cares about you 3. You are all alone in the universe ii. Good side: 1. You have absolute free will iii. You can choose how to respond to this dilemma 1. Choose nothingness, despair/follow the crowd 2. Choose being, embracing life; you have control and responsibility II. Humanism a. Philosophy that emphasizes the personal worth of the individual and the importance of human values i. Emphasizes the creative, spontaneous, and active nature of humans b. Existence comes from our relations with others i. I-Thou dialogue: find meaning in direct, mutual relationships c. Human potential movementi. People are encouraged to realize their inner potentials ii. Use groups meetings, self-disclosure, and introspection d. Carl Rogers i. People must take responsibilities for themselves: It’s on YOU ii. Very different from analytics and behaviorism iii. Rogerian Therapy 1. Therapist is supportive and nondirective 2. Client orented 3. Unconditional positive regard 4. Therapist is empathetic in understanding client’s frame of reference e. Victor Frankl i. Jewish Austrian doctor in the early 1940s 1. Reduced suicide rates for a university before WWII 2. Importance of personal choice 3. Logotherapy: choosing to find meaning of life ii. Anxiety and dread f. Maslow i. Hierarchy of needs 1. Basic a. Physiological b. Safety 2. Psychological a. Belongingness and love b. Esteem 3. Self-fulfillment (goal) a. Self-actualization i. Person realizes his/her own potential ii. People who reach this are spiritually fulfilled, comfortable with themselves, productive members of society b. Measuring self-actualization i. Maslow used interviews, observations, projective tests, biographical studies ii. Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) 1. Self-report questionnaire2. Seems to capture some aspects of a healthy personality ii. Peak experiences 1. Powerful experiences in which people seem to transcend the self, be at one with the world, and feel completely self-fulfilled 2. “Flow” – Happy Gilmore 3. Common for people who are self-actualized